תמונות בעמוד

Early in the late war, a powder-mill was erected in Morristown by Col. Ford, who was enabled, by the ample supply of salt petre furnished by the patriotic inhabitants, to make a considerable quantity of that vaa luable and necessary article, at a time when it was most needed ; and when the enemy were at the door, it afforded a timely supply.

Although the bulk of the inhabitants in this state are farmers, yet agriculture has not been improved (a few instances excepted) 10 that degree which, from long experience, we might rationally expect, and which the fertility of the soil, in many places, seems to encourage. A great part of the inhabitants are Dutch, who, although they are in general neat and industrious farmers, have very little enterprize, and seldom adopt any new improvements in husbandry, because, through habits, and want of education to expand and liberalize their minds, they think their old modes of tilling the best. Indeed this is the case with the great body of the common people, and proves almost an insurmountable obstacle to agricultural improvements.

Mines and Minerals.] This state embosoms vast quantities of iron and copper ore. The iron ore is of two kinds; one is capable of being manufactured into malleable iron, and is found in mountains and in low harrens; the other, called bog.ore, grows * in rich bottoms; and yields iron of a hard, brittle quality, and is commonly manufactured into hollow ware, and used sometimes instead of stone in building.

A number of copper mines have been discovered in different parts of the state. One is in Bergen county, which when worked by the Schuylers, (to whom it belonged) was considerably productive; but they have for many years been neglected.

The following account of a copper mine at New-Brunswick, is given by a gentleman of distinction, well informed upon the subject.

“ About the years 1748, 1749, 1750, several lumps of virgin copper from five to thirty pounds weight, (in the whole upwards of 200 pounds) were ploughed up in a field, belonging to Philip French, Esq; within a quarter of a mile of New-Brunswick. This induced Mr. Elias Boudinot, of the city of Philadelphia, to take a lease of Mr. French of this land, for ninety-nine years, in order to search for copper ore, a body of which he concluded must be contained in this hill. He took in several partners, and about the year 1751 opened a pit in the low grounds, about two or 300 yards from the river. He was led to this spot by a friend of his, who, a little before, passing by at three o'clock in the morning, observed a body of flame arise out of the ground, as large as a common fized man, and soon after die away. He drove a stake on the spot. About fifteen feet deep, Mr. Boudinot came on a vein of bluish Itone, about two feet thick, between two perpendicular loose bodies of red rock, covered with a sheet of pure virgin copper, a little thicker than gold leaf. This bluish itone was filled with sparks of virgin copper, very much like copper filings, and now and then a large lump of virgin copper from five to thirty

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pounds weight. He followed this vein almost thirty feet, when, the water coming in very fast, the expence became too great for the company's capital. A stamping-mill was erected, when by reducing the bluish stone to a powder, and washing it in large cubs, the stone was carried off, and the fine copper preserved, by which means many tons of the purest copper was sent to England without ever passing through the fire; but labour was too high to render it possible for the company to proceed. Sheets of copper about the thickness of two pennies, and three feet square, on an average, have been taken from between the rocks, within four feet of the surface, in several parts of the hill. At about fifty or fixty feet deep, they came to a body of fine folid ore, in the midst of this bluish vein, but between rocks of a white flinty spar, which, however, was worked out in a few days. These works lie now wholly neglected, al. though the vein when left was richer than ever it bad been. There was also a very rich vein of copper ore discovered at Rocky Hill, in Somerset county, which has also been neglected from the heavy expence attending the working of it. There have been various attempts made to search the hills beyond Boundbrook, known by the name of Van Horne's Mountain, but for the same reason it is now neglected. This mountain discovers the greatest appearance of copper ore, of any place in the itate. It may be picked up on the surface of many parts of it. A smelting furnace was erected, before the revolution, in the neighbourhood by two Germans, who were making very considerable profit on their work, until the British deftrored it in the beginning of the war. The inhabitants made it worth their while, by collecting the ore from the surface, and by partially dig. ging into the hill, to supply the furnace. Besides, a company opened a very large shafi on the side of the hill, from which also a great deal of valuable ore and some virgin copper here taken. Two lumps of virgin copper were found here in the year 1754, which weighed 1900 pounds."

Curious Springs.] In the upper part of the county of Morris, is a cold miner:) spring, which is frequented br valetudinarians, and its waters have been used with very confiderable success. In the township of Hanover, in this county, on a ridge of bills, are a number of wells, which regularly ebb and flow about six feet twice in every twenty-four hours. These wells are nearly forty miles from the fea, in a firaight line. ln the county of Cape May, is a spring of fresh water, which boils up from the bottom of a falt water creek, which runs nearly dry at low tide; but at food tide, is covered with water directly from the ocean to the depth of three or four feet; yet in this fituation, by letting down a bottle well corked, through the salt water into the spring, and immediately drawing the cork with a ftring prepared for the purpole, it may be drawn up full of fine, untainted frith water. There are Iprings of this kind in other parts of the flate. In the county of Hunterdon, near the top of Muskonetkony mountain, is a noted medicinal spring, to which invalids refort froin every quarter. It ifTues from the side of the mountain in a very romantic manner, and is conveyed into an artificial relerroir for the accommodation of those who wish to bathe in, as well as to drink, the waters. It is a {trong chalybeate, and very cold. These waters have been used with very confiderable success; but perhaps the exercise neceflary to get to


them, and the purity of the air in this lofty situation, aided hy a lively imagination, have as great efficacy in curing the patient as the waters..

Caves, Mountains, &c.] In the township of Shrewsbury, in Monmouth county, on the side of a branch of Navesink river, is a remarkable care, in which there are three rooms. The cave is about thirty feet long, and fifteen feet broad. Each of the rooms is arched. The center of the arch is about five feet from the bottom of the cave; the sides not more than two and an half. The mouth of the cave is small; the bottom is a loose sand; and the arch is formed in a soft rock, through the pores of which the moisture is slowly exudated, and falls in drops on the land below.

On Sandy Hook, about a mile from the light-house, is a monument, which was erected to commemorate a very melancholy event that took place juft at the close of the late war. The following infcription, which is upon a marble plate on one side of the monument, will afford sufficient information of the matter.

“ Here lies the remains of the Honourable Hamilton Douglass Halli-' burton, son of Sholto Charles Earl of Morton, and heir of the ancient family of Halliburton of Pitcurr in Scotland; who perished on this coast with twelve more young gentlemen, and one common failor, in the spirited discharge of duty, the zoth or just of December, 1783: Born Ottober the roth, 1763; a youth who, in contempt of hardship and danger, though poflefied of an ample fortune, served seven years in the British nary with a manly courage. He seemed to be deserving of a better fate. To his dear memory, and that of his unfortunate companions, this monumental ftone is erected by his unhappy mother, Katharine, Counters Dowager of Morton.

JAMES CHAMPION, Lieutenant of Marines.



Cait away in pursuit of deferters; all found dead ; and buried in this

Of his Britannic Majesty's ship AMiftance,
Mr. HALLIBURTON, Firit-Lieutenant."

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