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"'Where the strength is the same, measure the virtue of the parties; where the virtue is the same, measure their righteousness.' Show has hundreds of thousands and myriads of ministers, but they have hundreds of thousands and mvriads of minds; I have three thousand

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ministers, but they have one mind. The iniquity of Shang is full. Heaven gives command to destroy it. If I did not comply with Heaven, my iniquity would be as great.

"I, who am a little child, early and late am filled with apprehensions. I have received charge from my deceased father Wan ; I have offered special sacrifice to God; I have performed the due services to the great Earth;—and I lead the multitude of you to

>i M S Aj> 'how dare 1 use'

my own mind too much?' Such is the interpretation of Tsac;—^[J jfjft is 'to go

beyond what is riyht with—in accordance witli —my own wishes.' The diet, follows Gan-kw5

in defining ^fjj here by 'to put away.'—

'My purpose is to destroy the tyrant for the good of the people. Whether he he guilty or not guilty, I will smite him. I will not let go that, my proper purpose.' This is evidently incorrect.

P. 8. He auspices success from the righteousness of his cause, and the harmony of mind among his followers, thottph they were comparatively few.

The two first clauses are supposed to be a current saying used against each other by contending parties;—Lin Che-k'e has adduced

from the ~jtjj^ two examples of similar couplets. The second clause is not so intelligible as the first. We can understand how when parties were matched in strength, the struggle should be expected to terminate in favour of the more virtuous; but it is difficult to perceive how 'virtue' and 'righteousness' can be set

against each other. ^ [5. /fj|> t4i'

—Ts'ae says here that |igf denotes 'a hundred myriads,' or a million. This was probably a slip of his pencil ,©,«=ten myriads, or

100,000. The subject of Show's more numerous host comes up again in the next Part, p. 6. We may admit it as a fact, and it explains the risings and troubles which disturbed the dynasty of Chow after the death of king Woo. It is difficult, at the same time, to reconcile it with, the representations of the general disaffection to the emperor, and of two thirds of the empire having been for years devoted to the House of Chow. See the

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11 execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. Heaven compassionates the people. What the people desire, Heaven will be found to give effect to. Do you aid me, the one man, to cleanse for ever all within the four seas. Now is the time!—it may not be lost."

-Comp. ^ ^ in the 'Speech

at Kan,' p. 3. 11. The enterprise was a

proof of the compassion of Heaven for the people, and he summons all the princes and officers to strenuous cooperation with him. Under the 32nd year of duke Seang, and in another place of the

k we find the passage—^ M'

ilk ^ ix tit <luoted from the 'Great
Declaration.' It is also found in the

iff $t W) "f*—' A'- thc 'Spcccb

of Tang,' p. 4.

i the ' Canon of Shun,' p. 8. In the Le Ke, Bk. ^£ Pt. ii, 17, we find—^

jjf^, 'When the emperor is about to go forth,

he offers special sacrifice to God, performs the due services at the altar of the Earth, and goes to the shrine of his father.' Woo had attended to all these observances; and it must have been at the shrine of his father, that he somehow understood himself' to receive,' as he says here, 'charge' to attack Chow. Jfg ^ £ -5)j,




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1 On day mow-woo, the king halted on the north of the River. When all the chiefs with their hosts were assembled, the king re

2 viewed the hosts, and made the following declaration, saying, "Ah! ye multitudes of the West, listen all to my words.

decided by this fixing of the relation between the two dutes. Ts'ae will still have the month to be the first of the Hea year,—really the first month of spring; Gan-kwo and others will have it to be the first month of the Chow year,

the second month of winter. M'

-Hi'-A *TM -it' 'to st"p'' 'to 8tatiom;d-'

In the interval, therefore, between the two addresses, the army had crossed the Ho. ^jjj

fffj (3d tone^^' 't0 go about.' Hwang Too explains it from the F^,rase ^J|f. 'to cheer and animate.' 'To review ' expresses the meaning accurately enough. Perhaps we are to understand that the king first crossed the river and encamped; and then, when all the princes with their troops, had pitched their tents around him, he went through

the host and addressed the soldiers. 2. jjjj

l Wo° an'' hi" father llnd b<>th

been 'Chiefs of the West,'—viceroys over that

part of the empire.

Contests Op The Second Part. Since the delivery of the first address, the army has crossed the Ho, when Woo reviews it, and makes this speech, which is more especially addressed to the troops. He makes Show and Kefi, T-angand himself, all pass before his men, showing that Show was more wicked than Kce, and that his punishment of him would be more glorious than T'ang's had been of Kefi. Heaven will surely crown their enterprise with success; and he therefore in conclusion urges them all to go into battle, not despising the tyrant, but with united hand and heart, to accomplish a work that should last for ages. The whole is divided into 9 paragraphs.

Pp. 1, 2. The time, place, and occasion of the address; and the parties addressed. The time was the day mow-woo, which we are able to determine, from the 1st par. of the 'Completion of the War,' to have been the 28th day of the 1st month. We are there told that Woo began his march to attack Chow on the day jin-shin, which was the 2d of the 1st month. Calculating on to the day mow-woo, we ascertain that it was the 28th of the same moon. The controversy, described on the 1st par. of the last Part, on the term 'spring,' however, is not

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"I have heard that the good man, doing good, finds the day insufficient, and that the evil man, doing evil, likewise finds the day insufficient. Now Show, the king of Shang, with strength pursues his lawless way. He has cast away the time-worn sires, and cultivates intimacies with wicked men. Dissolute, intemperate, reckless, oppressive, his ministers have become assimilated to him; and they form parties, and contract animosities, and depend on the emperor's power to exterminate one another. The innocent cry to Heaven. The odour of such a state is plainly felt on high.

"Heaven loves the people, and the sovereign should reverence this mind of Heaven. Kee, the sovereign of Hea, could not follow the example of Heaven, but sent forth his poisonous injuries through the States of the empire:—Heaven favoured and charged T'ang, the

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Successful, to make arTend of the decree of Hea. But the crimes of Show exceed those of Kee. He has stript and degraded the greatly good man; he has behaved with cruel tyranny to his reprover and helper. He says that his is the decree of Heaven; he says that a reverent care of his conduct is not worth observing; he says that sacrifice is of no use; he says that tyranny is no matter. The case for his inspection was not remote;—in that king of Hea. It would seem that Heaven is going by means of me to rule the people. My dreams coincide with my divinations; the auspicious omen is double. My attack on Shang must succeed.

'Ke«, the ruler who held Hea.' }^ ij|E

T P- - >5ft # T T S',flowed out

his poison upon the lower States.' Kef is conceived of on the throne of the empire, ns being raised on high, above his own and all the feudal

domains. * ggdMES.'to bring down and put away.' Comp. the expression in the 55th note of the Preface,—

Xft SHU* 6

—^L, comp. on the 'Pwan-kang,' Pt. ii., 3. Here it is evidently = JJ^f or 'to

to degrade'; is -^jf, 'to lose one's office,' used, here in a hiphil sense. It is supposed that this clause has reference to the Viscount of Wei, whose withdrawal from court, it would thus appear, was preceded by violence and oppression on the part of Show.

The next clause,-fl# jg 3$ hit, is referred to Pe-kan.

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•^p,—see the 'Conquest of Le,' p. 5.

Tfifajfi/j^Jti—' reverence is not worth being practised.' We had better understand the 'reverence' with reference to his own conduct, and

to the business of the State. ^ Alt

this was the cry of the wicked Jews in the

time of Malachi,—'It U vain to serve God.'

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