« הקודםהמשך »
portant subjects which occupy the minds rates the faculty of generation and nuof men.
trition ; of sensation, memory and recolPERIOSTEUM. (See Bone.)
lection; the faculty of thinking, or the unPERIPATETIC Puilosophy. The phi- derstanding; and the faculty of desiring, losophy of Aristotle (q. v.) received this which is divided into appetite and volition. name either from his custom of teaching The ethical principles of Aristotle have while walking (nepiratev), or from the place been often misunderstood, partly on acwhere it was taught-a walk planted with count of the degeneracy of his school; trees. We can give but a brief sketch and he has been considered a supporter of of the system of this powerful mind. the philosophy whose principle is pleasPhilosophy was to Aristotle the science of ure; but to Aristotle, the best and highest knowledge. Direct knowledge, by which (i. e. that which is desirable for itself) is we know immediately the general and the happiness which originates from virnecessary, rests on experience. According tuous actions. Virtue, according to hiin, to hiin, logic, as a preparatory science, as consists in acting according to nature: by the organ of all science, has the prece- the expression “according to nature," he dence of all. Logic either treats of ap- means, keeping the mean between the two pearances, and is then called dialectics ; or extremes of the too much and the too of truth, and is then called analytics. In little. Thus valor, in his view the first of bis Physies, he opposes the two systems virtues, is a mean between cowardice and then prevailing (that of emanation, which rashness ; temperance is an observance ! taught that all things emanated from God; of the mean in respect to sensual enjoy- } and the atomic, which explained the origin ments. Human actions, to be called morof things by the concourse of atoms, eter- al, must be independent of external monal, like God), and assumes the eternity tives; otherwise they are but phenomena, of the world. According to him, the the laws of which belong to physics, and heavens are of a more perfect and divine are therefore indifferent to the practical! nature than other bodies. In the centre philosopher. Self-action, and of the heavens is the earth, round and sta- quently the power to act or not to act, to tionary. The stars, like the sky, beings of a act in one way or another, is the condition higher nature, but of grosser matter, inove, of all morality. Perfect happiness can be though not of themselves, but by the im- attained only in political society or the pulse of the primum mobile. Every state; but the best form of state polity change presupposes a substratum (sub- must be determined by circumstances stance), that by which a thing becomes The school of Aristotle (the peripatetic possible; a form, by which a thing be- school) continued at Athens uninterrupt- } comes real; and privation, inasmuch as edly till the time of Augustus. Among the existence of a certain form is founded those who proceeded from it are Theoon the exclusion of others. All change or phrastus, author of several works on motion takes place iu regard to substance, natural history; Strato of Lampsacus, quantity, quality and place.
There are whose views are but imperfectly known three kinds of substances-those alternate- to us from some fragments preserved by ly in motion and at rest, as the aniinals; Cicero and Plutarch ; and Demetrius Phathose perpetually in motion, as the sky; lereus. (9. v.) No one of the philosophical and those eternally stationary. The lastschools of antiquity maintained its influin themselves immovable and imperish- ence so long as the peripatetic. Even able, are the source aud origin of all mo- down to modern times, its principles tion. Among them there must be one first served as the rule in philosophical inquibeing, unchangeable, which acts without ries, and some countries still honor Aristhe intervention of any other being. All totle as an infallible master of wisdom. that is proceeds from it; it is the most The Arabians did not first make him known perfect intelligence-God. The immedi- to the philosophers of modern Europe, ate action of this first mover-happy in but they extended bis authority. The the contemplation of himself-extends on- acuteness and profoundness which appear ly to the heavens ; the other interior in his works, liis dogmatic tone, his subtile 1 spheres are moved by other incorporeal distinctions, and the technical language, and eternal substances, which the popular first introduced by him into philosophy, beliet'adores as gods, and to which it attrib- pleased them more than Plato's philoutes bodies, contrary to their nature. The sophical doubts and allegorical language. soul is the principle of life in the organic But we find him in the Christian church body, and is inseparable from the body. as early as the time of the Arian controAs faculties of the soul, Aristotle enume- versy; and while the influence of Plato
was diminished by the heresies of Plato suit or criminal prosecution; for the law nizing teachers, that of Aristotle, which esteems all other oaths unnecessary, at the commentaries of Boëthius on his trans- least, and hence will not punish the breach lation of Aristotle's works contributed to of them. Thus, if a person swears falsely extend, was continually increasing. (See in a voluntary affidavit in any extrajudicial Scholastics.) When the works of Aristotle matter, he is not liable to any punishment. again began to be read in the original lan- By numerous statutes in England and guage, a peripatetic sect, differing from the America, the penalties of perjury have scholastic, arose, in the fifteenth and six- been extended to false oaths by electors, teenth centuries, which was divided into bankrupts, insolvent debtors, &c. By the Averroists and Alexandrians (so called, the English law, the evidence of one witfrom celebrated commentators on Aris- ness alone is not sufficient to convict on totle). To the former belonged Alex. an indictment for perjury ; in such case, Achillinus, Zimara and Cæsalpinus; to the there would be only one oath against anlatter, the famous Pomponatius and others. other; but it is sufficient if corroborated
PERIPETIA ; an unexpected change, by other independent evidence. Subornawhich takes place in the condition of the tion of perjury is the offence of procuring chief person of an epic or dramatic poem, a man to commit perjury. By the law a novel, &c. Aristotle gives, as an in- of Moses (Deuteronomy xix, 19), if a man stance, the scene in (Edipus, in which the testify falsely against his brother, it shall news intended to relieve the king's fears, be done unto bim as he had thought to do and to cheer him, produces the contrary against his brother. And this is the prineffect, by discovering to him his origin. ciple adopted in the laws of many of the Necessary as the peripetia is for giving in- states of modern Europe. By the law of terest to great compositions, a ludicrous the Twelve Tables, “perjurii pæna divina, effect is often produced by young poets exitium; humana, dedecus.” Gellius, xx. 1, heaping misfortunes upon their heroes, to mentions, that some persons who had persurprise the reader with an unexpected jured themselves, by giving false testimodeliverance. The Germans call such com- ny, were thrown from the Tarpeian rock. positions Rettungsstücke (saving-pieces). The civil law punished perjury committed PERIPHERY. (See Circle.)
in swearing by the name of Go in civil PERIPNEUMONY. (See Pneumony.) cases, by infamy (Digest, lib. ii, tit. 4; Code,
PERIPTERAL TEMPLE. (See Architec- lib. xii. tit. 1); but the punishment of perture, p. 341.)
jury committed in swearing by the safety PeristYLE. (See Architecture, p. 341.) of the emperor, was death (Code, iv. 1 : 2);
PERIZONIUS, James, a learned Dutch by the genius of the prince, beating and philologian of the seventeenth century, scourging (Dig. lib. xii, tit. 2, 13). The born at Damme in 1651, studied at De- punishment of perjury, by the common venter and Leyden, and became professor law in England was, anciently, death ; afof history, rhetoric and Greek, at the latter terwards banishment, or cutting out the place, where he died in 1715. His his. tongue; then forfeiture of goods. At the torical and philological works are nume- present time, it is fine, imprisonment, and rous. The principal are Animadversiones pillory, at the discretion of the court, to Historice (1685), a treasure of learning; which the statute Geo. II, c. 25 adds a Origines Babylonicæ et Ægyptiaca (1711); power in the court to order the offender editions of lian's Various Histories, of to be sent to the house of correction for a the Minerva of Sanctius, &c.
term not exceeding seven years, or to be PERJURY, by the common law of Eng. transported for the same period. The ofland, is a crime committed by one who, fender is incapacitated from giving evibeing lawfully required to depose the dence in a court of justice ; but a pardon truth in any judicial proceeding, wilfully will restore his competency. By the law swears falsely in a point material to the of the U. States, the punishment on conquestion in dispute. It has, however, viction for perjury committed in any been held, that a man may be indicted for cause depending in any of the courts of perjury for swearing that he believed a fact the U. States, or in any deposition taken to be true, which he knew to be false. in pursuance of the laws of the U. States, The common law takes no notice of any is imprisonment not above three years, false swearing, but such as is committed and fine not exceeding $800, pillory one in some court of justice, having power to hour, and disqualification for being a witadminister the oath, or before some officer ness until the judgment is reversed. By or magistrate invested with similar author- the capitularies of Charlemagne and ity, in some proceeding relative to a civil Louis le Débonnaire, perjury was punished
by cutting off the hand. By the Na- other of brass, and were about three poleon code, perjury in criminal cases inches in length, and pointed at one end. is punishable by confinement at hard The manner in which they were applied labor for a limited time. If the party ac- was, by drawing the points over the affectcused is sentenced to a severer punish- ed parts, in a downward direction, for about ment, the perjurer is to suffer the like. twenty minutes each time. The comIn cases of correctional or police jurisdic- plaints in which this operation was found tion, it is punishable by confinement. most useful, were local inflammations Perjury in civil suits, is punishable by in general, pains in the head, face, teeth, civic degradation. By the Prussian code, breast, side, stomach, back, rheumatism, promulgated by Frederic William in &c. Doctor Perkins procured a patent 1794, whoever, whether he appears as a for his discovery, and the success which it party or as a witness, perjures himself
, is obtained was great, not only in this counto be excluded for ever from his employ- try, but on the other side of the Atlantic. ments, rights and civil profession, to un- The professors of three universities in dergo an ignominious exposition as a per- America gave attestations in favor of its jured person, or to be publicly declared efficacy. In Copenhagen, twelve physisuch, and, in addition thereto, to be con- cians and surgeons, chiefly professors and demned to confinement from one to three lecturers in the Royal Frederic's Hos years. If the perjury be with a view to pital, commenced a course of experiments, profit the perjurer, he is to forfeit a sum accounts of which were published in an quadruple of that which he endeavored to octavo volume. They introduced the term obtain. If the perjury is committed in a Perkinism, in honor of the discoverer, and capital case, and an innocent person is, in asserted that it was of great importance to consequence, condemned, the punishment the physician. In London, a Perkinian inof the perjurer is death ; and in cases not stitution, as it was called, was established, capital, the punishment of the perjurer is principally with the view of benefiting the to be proportioned to the crime of which poor by the use of the tractors; and, in a the innocent person was accused and con- pamphlet giving an account of the instivicted. By the law of Spain (in 1804), per- tution, it was stated that the communijury, in civil causes, is punishable with ten cations of cases were from disinterested years' condemnation to the galleys; and and intelligent characters from almost erin criminal cases, in which the punish- ery quarter of Great Britain, including ment for the offence charged does not ex- professors, regular physicians, surgeons and tend to death, public infamy and perpet- clergymen. A computation of the cures ual condemnation to the galleys. (Jobn- said to have been effected, presents the ston's Civil Law of Spain, L. vii, tit. 17, number of one million five hundred thoulib. 8, Rec.)
sand. It may be well deemed a matter PERKIN WARBECK. (See Warbeck.) of surprise, after what we have stated, that
PERKINS, doctor Elisha, the inventor of the tractors have sunk into oblivion ; but the metallic tractors, was born at Nor- such is the fact. During the prevalence wich, Connecticut, in January, 1740, and of yellow fever in New York, in 1799, was educated by his father, doctor Joseph doctor Perkins went thither for the purPerkins, for the profession of medicine. pose of testing the merits of a highly anIle was indebted to nature for uncommon tiseptic remedy which he had introduced endowments, both bodily and mental. In into practice ; but after about four weeks person he was six feet high, and of re- of unremitted assiduity in attending the markable symmetry. He possessed ex- sick, he took the disease himself, and died traordinary ability to endure fatigue. His at the age of 59 years. He was a man of reputation and success as a physician were great liberality of character and of strict ! considerable, but he is principally known honor and integrity. In address and colby bis metallic tractors. These were forn- loquial powers, few of his profession ex ed by him from a composition which he celled him. discovered after numerous experiments PERMUTATIONS. (See Combinations.) with various kinds of metals, during seve- PERNAMBUCO; the name generally given ral years, he having conceived the idea to the two cities of Olinda and Recife, in that metallic substances might have an in- Brazil. The former contains 4000 inhab fluence on the nerves and muscles of an- itants, and is the see of a bishop. It lies imals, and be capable of being converted about three miles north-east of the latter, in to useful purposes as external agents in lat. 8° s. It was formerly more popumedicine.' They consisted of two instru- lous and flourishing, but since its capture ments, one of the appearance of steel, the by the Dutch in 1640, its commerce and
nanufactures have deserted it for the lat- The problem of a perpetual motion conter. (See Recife.)
sists in the inventing of a machine which Péron, François, a distinguished French has the principle of its motion within naturalist, born at Cerilly, in 1775, studied itself; and numberless schemes have been in the college at that place, and, in 1792, proposed for its solution. The difficulty joined the army on the Rbine. Having is, that the resistance of the air, the friebeen captured at Kaiserslautern, in about tion of the parts of the machine, &c., a year he was exchanged, and, having lost necessarily retard, and finally stop, the the sight of one eye, was discharged from motions of machines, and therefore seem the service, and returned to Cerilly, in to render perpetual motion an impossiAugust, 1795. He then obtained admis- bility. Attempts have recently been made sion into the school of medicine at Paris, to produce a perpetuum mobile, by means where he applied himself closely to his of galvanism ; a metallic bar, being placed studies, and also attended the lectures of between two dry galvanic columns, is the museum of natural history. When alternately attracted by each column. the expedition to the South seas, under PERPETUITY, in the doctrine of anpuicaptain Baudin, had been projected, Péron, ties, is the number of years in which the with some difficulty, obtained the situation simple interest of any principal sum will of zoologist. The vessels appointed for amount to the same as the principal itself; this service, the Geographer and the Natu- or it is the number of years' purchase to ralist, sailed from Havre, October 19, be given for an annuity which is to con1800, and returned to France in April, tinue for ever; and it is found by dividing 1804. They had visited New Holland, £100 by the rate of interest agreed upon : and many of the Australian and Poly- thus, allowing 5 per cent., the perpetuity is nesian islands; and during the whole of
= 20. the voyage, Péron seized every opportunity for augmenting the stores of science, by PERPIGNAN; a city of France, capital inaking collections and observations. After of East Pyrenees, about a league from the his return, he was employed, in con- Mediterranean sea; lon. 2° 54' E.; lat. 42° junction with captain Freycinet, to draw 42 N.; population, 15,350. It is a place of up an account of the voyage, and, with M. strength, and accounted one of the keys Le Sueur, to describe the new objects of of the kingdom, on the side of Spain. It natural history which had been procured. is mostly ill built and gloomy. The trade Péron died December 14, 1810. His consists in corn, wool, iron and wine. works are, Observations sur l'Anthropologie; The manufactures are woollen and silk. and Voyage de Découvertes aux Terres Au- PERRAULT. Of four brothers of this strales (1807—1816, 3 vols., 4to.); an un- name, who lived during the reign of Louis finished History of the Medusæ, frag- XIV, the most known are Claude (born ments of which have been published, and 1613, died 1688), a physician, naturalist several valuable memoirs on subjects of and architect, from whose designs the celnatural history.
ebrated façade of the Louvre (9. v.) and PÉROUSE, LA. (See Lapérouse.) the observatory at Paris were built; and
PERPENDICULAR, in geometry; a line Charles (born 1633, died 1703), a man of falling directly on another line, so as to erudition, but of little taste, whose verses make equal angles on each side; called have not outlived his day. Colbert also a normal line. These lines may be availed himself of their assistance in foundstraight lines or curves. A plane is per. ing the French academy of art, of which pendicular to another plane, if a line Charles was the librarian. His poem Le drawn on one of them, perpendicular to Siècle de Louis le Grand, which he read the line of intersection, forms right an- before the academy in 1687, gave rise to gles with a perpendicular line on the oth- the famous controversy on the comparaer plane drawn to the same point. (See tive merits of the ancients and moderns. Plumb Line.) A vertical line is one per- In his Parallèle des Anciens et Modernes pendicular to a horizontal line (a line par- (1688–96), in the form of a dialogue, he allel to the surface of calm water), so maintains that the moderns have carried called because it passes from our vertex art and science, which were in a state of or zenith (q. v.) down to the nadir (q. v.), infancy among the ancients, to the highest so that the vertical line is a particular kind perfection, and have excelled them in of perpendicular line.
their works. This opinion was warmly PERPETUAL Motion; a motion which attacked by Boileau, and zealously deis supplied and renewed from itself, with- fended by Fontenelle and Hudart de la out the intervention of external causes. Motto. Perrault was also author of Les
Hommes illustres de France (1696—1700). after fruitless inquiries for the supposer The Contes de ma Mère l'Oye (Tales of relations of Jesus and pretenders to the Mother Goose), of which he is the reputed crown, caused many of his followers, par author, has procured for him, but perhaps ticularly in Asia Minor, to be banished, a unjustly, the title of “inventor of the put to death. What is called the thirs French Fairy Tales.” (See Fairies.) persecution of the Christians, took place i
PERRON, Anquetil du. (See Anquetil the time of Trajan, who issued an edic du Perron, and Zendavesta.)
against secret societies, which was followPERRY, Oliver. (See Appendix to this vol.) ed, in 105, by a prohibition of their mee PERRY. (See Pear.)
ings, and the punishment of some refrac PERSECUTION OF CARISTIANS. The tory individuals, because the Roman prapersecutions which the early Christians consuls (for example, Pliny the younger
. underwent were a natural consequence in Bithynia) considered the refusal of th of the anxiety which the free spirit of the Christians to pay the usual homage to the Christian doctrine and worship, so oppo- image of the emperor as deserving of pusite to the religious institutions previous- ishment; and their suspicions were awatly existing, excited among Jews and ened by the independent character of the heathens. As long as the Jewish state followers of the new faith, and their deviscontinued, the Christian communities tion from the national customs. Charger established within its limits had little of outrage and sedition, principally excite! reason to expect toleration, as even the and spread abroad by the Jews, increased founder of their religion had been regard- the unfavorable disposition of the heatheus ed as a stirrer up of sedition, on account towards the Christians. It was said tha, of his opposition to the ordinances of the they were accustomed, in their assemblies Jewish church, which were zealously de- to eat human flesh (a misconception of fended by the Pharisees, who formed the the eucharist), and to practise shamefu ruling party; and the saphedrim could vices, and not only to aim at the destrucnot forgive his followers for regarding him tion of the old religion, but at the Over: as the true Messiah. But, as this body had throw of the Roman imperial throne, and not power to carry its wishes into effect, the foundation of a new monarchy and the Christians abstained from open These reports easily grew out of their ! violation of the public peace, there was peculiar habits. The obscurity in which no general persecution of them in Pales- they enveloped themselves, on account tine under the sanction of the Roman au- their well-founded apprehensions ; the thorities; and only some of the heads of spirit of their associations, which kept the congregations at Jerusalem, such as them separate from the rest of the world Stephen and the apostles James the elder their secret meetings for religious exet and James the younger, suffered martyr- cises, often held by night,—were sufficie dom,—the former forty-three, the latter to furnish materials for suspicion: and the sixty-three years after Christ. But the extravagant expectations which mar! Jews in the towns of the Roman empire, among them entertained of the near rë where they had made settlements, and turn of Christ, their zeal against heathen where Christian congregations soon sprung manners and customs, and their open op up, excited against them the suspicio of position to the worship of idols, from the magistrates, who, at first, may have con- which they annually converted thousands, sidered the Christians as an unimportant excited the heathen priests and magistrates Jewish sect, or have tolerated the new against all that bore the name of Christian. worship with less reluctance, since the in. Yet the followers of the new religion, be troduction of a new divinity had little in ing almost entirely confined to the lower it to startle the mind of a heathen. Nero, class, and being split into a variety of indeed, ascribed to the Christians the con- sects, chiefly Gnostics, which were con flagration of the city of Rome kindled by tinually increasing, were objects rather of himself, and, in the year 64, subjected them contempt than of fear; and, next to the to a dreadful persecution, in which the protection of an overruling Providenci, apostles Peter and Paul suffered ; but this it is principally owing to this circumwas more an exercise of imperial tyranny stance that, notwithstanding several occa than of policy, or an intolerant spirit. sions for new persecutions, and notwithThis first persecution does not appear to standing the zeal with which their do have extended far beyond Rome. There trines were assailed by heathen philos arose, however, a second, in the year 95, phers (as, for example, Celsus, who wroe because Domitian, deceived by the royal against Christianity about 140), they extitle which the Christians gave to Jesus, joyed above fifty years of undisturbed