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tion. That base business of electioneering, which is so directly calculated to introduce wicked and designing men into office, is yet but little known in Conneclicut. A man who wishes to be chosen into office, acts wisely, for that end, when he keeps his desires to himself.

A thirst for learning prevails among all ranks of people in the state. More of the young men in Connecticut, in proportion to their numbers, receive a public education, than in any of the states. Dr. Franklin and other literary characters have honoured this state by saying, that it is the Athens of America.

Some have believed, and with reason, that the fondness for academic and collegiate education is too great--that it induces 100 many to leave the plough. . If men of liberal education would return to the farm, and use their knowledge in improving agriculture, and encouraging manufactures; there could not be too many men of learning in the state ; but this is too feldom the case. Connecticut had but few citizens who did not join in

opposing the

oppressive measures of Great-Britain, and was adive and influential, both in the field and in the cabinet, in bringing about the revolution. Her fol, diers were applauded by the cominander in chief for their bravery and fidelity

What has been said in favour of Connecticut, though true when genetally applied, needs to be qualified with some exceptions. Dr. Douglass {poke the truth when he said, that some of the meaner fort are villains. Too many are idle and dissipated, and much time is unprofitably and wickedly spent in law-suits and petty arbitrations. The public schools, in some parts of the ftáte, have been too much neglected, and in procuring instructors, too little attention is paid to their moral and literary qualifications.

The revolution, which so effentially affected the governments of mort of the colonies, produced no very perceptible alteration in the government of Connecticut. While under the jurisdiction of Great-Britain, they elected their own governors, and all subordinate civil officers, and made their own laws, in the same manner, and with as little controul as they now do.

Connecticut has ever been a republic, and perhaps as perfect and as happy a republic as has ever existed. While other states, more monarchical in their government and manners, have been under a necessity of undertaking the difficult tak of altering their old, or forming new, constitutions, and of changing their monarchical for republican manners, Connecticut has uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track, both as to government and manners; and, by these means, has avoided those convulsions which have rent other states into voilent parties.

At the anniversary election of the governor and other public officers, which is beld yearly at Hartford on the second Wednefday. in May, a fermon is preached, which is published at the expence of the state *. On these occafions a vast concourse of respectable citizens, particularly of the clergy,

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Would it not answer many valuable purposes, if the gentlemen, who are annually appointed tr preach the election fermons, would furnish a sketch of the hiftory of the state for the current year, to be publisbed at the close of their sertnons



are collected from every part of the state ; and while they add dignity and folemnity to the important and joyful transactions of the day, ferve to exterminate party fpirit, and to harınonize the civil and religious interests: of the state.

Connecticut has been highly distinguished in having a succession of governors, eminent both for their religious and political accomplishments, With the following list of their venerable names, I shall conclude my account of Conne&ticat. Colony of Connecticut.

Colony of New Haven. Accesus. Names. Exitus. Arcelus.

Names. Exitus. 1639 John Haynes, 1640 1639 Theop. Eaton) 1658 died* 1640 Edward Hopkins, 1641 1659 Fra. Newman, 61661 died 1641 John Haynes, 1642 1662 William Leet, 1665 1642 George Wyllis, 1643

This year (1665) the colonies of 1643 John Haynes, -1644. New-Haven and Connecticut unit1644 Edward Hopkins, 1645 ed, and Governor Winthrop was 1645 John Haynes, 1646 governor of both, and Governor 5646 Edward Hopkins, 1647 Leet deputy-governor. 1647 John Haynes,

1648 1648 Edward Hopkins,

1649 1649 John Haynes,

1650 1650 Edward Hopkins,

1651 John Haynes,

1652 Edward Hopkins, 1653 died.
1653 John Haynes,

7654 Edward Hopkins, 1655
1655 Thomas Wells, 1656
1656 John Webster,

1657 Such a sketch, qöbich might easily be made, would render ele&lion fermons much more valuable. They would then be a very authentic depositum for future historians of the flate--hey would be more generally and more eagerly pur. chased and read - they woould

serve to dissemina:e important knowledge, that of the internal afairs of the state, which every citizen ought to know, and might, if judiciously executed, operate as a check upon party spirit, and upon ambitious and dehgning men.

* Governor Eaton was buried in Netv-Haven. The following inscription is upon bis tomb-ftone.

• EATON so meek, fo fam'd, so wise, fo juft.
The Phenix of our world, here hides his duft.

This name forget, New-England never mul.
fio T'attend you, Sir, under these framed flones,

Are come your honour'd Son I, and daugbter Jones,

« On each band to repose their weary bones.' # These lines seem to have been added afterwards. The governor's fon-in-lawr

1657 John


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miles. Length ]

40° ' . Breadth 300 S

50 W. and 1° 30' East Longitude. UNDED south-eastwardly, by the

eaft, by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont; north, by the 45th degree of latitude, whịch divides it from Canada ; north-westwardly, by the river Iroquois, or St. Lawrence, and the Lakes Ontario and Erie , south-west and south, by Pennsylvania and New-ferfey: The whole state contains about 44,000 square miles, equal to 28,160,000


Rivers.] Hudson's river is one of the largest and fineft rivers in the United States. It rises in the mountainous country between the Lakes Ontario and Champlain. Its, length is about 250 miles In its course southward, it approaches within a few miles of the Mohawks river, at Saucondauga. Thence it runs nofth and north-east towards Lake George, and is but fix or eight miles from it. The course of the river thence to New-York, where it empties into York bay, is very uniformly fouth, i 2 or 15 west. From Albany to Lake George is sixty-five miles. This distance, the river is navigable only for batteaux, and has two portages, occasioned by falls, of half a mile each. It was one of these falls that General Putnam fo miraculously descended, in the year 1758, to the aftonishment of the Indians who beheld him *.

* See Col. Humphrey's life of Gen. Putnam, p. 60.



The banks of Hudson's river, especially on the western fice, are chiefly rocky cliffs. The passage through the Highlands, which is sixteen miles, affords a wild, romantic scene. In this narrow pass, on each side of which the mountains tower to a great height, the wind, if there be any, is collected and compressed, and blows continually as through bellows. Vessels, in passing through it, are often obliged to lower their fails. The bed of this river, which is deep and smooth to an astonishing distance, through a hilly, rocky country, and even through ridges of some of the highest mountains in the United States, muft undoubtedly have been produced by some mighty convulsion in nature. The tide flows a few miles above Albany, which is 160 miles from New-York. It is navigable for sloops of 8o tons to Albany, and for ships to Hudson. About bo miles above New-York the water becomes freih. The river is stored with a variety of fish, which renders a fummer passage to Albany delightful and amusing to those who are fond of angling.

The advantages of this river for carrying on the fur-trade with Canada, by means of the lakes, have already been mentioned. Its convenience for internal comnierce are singularly great. The produce of the remotest farms is easily and speedily conveyed to a certain and profitable market, and at the loweft expence. In this respect, New-York has greatly the advantage of Philadelphia. A great proportion of the produce of Pennsylvania is carried to market in waggons, over a great extent of country, fome of which is rough: hence it is that Philadelphia is crouded with waggons, carts, horses and their drivers, to do the fame business that is done in New-York, where all the produce of the country is brought to market by water, with much less flew and parade. But Pennsylvania has other advantages, which will be mentioned in their proper place, to compensate for this natural defect. The increasing population of the fertile lan upon the northern brarches of the Hudson, niuft annually increase the ainazing wealth that is conveyed by its waters to New-York.

The river St. Lawrence divides this state from Canada. It rises in Lake Ontario, runs north-eaf ward-enbofoms Montreal, which stands upon an island-passes by Quebec, and empties, by a broad mouth, into the bay of St. Lawrence. Among a variety of fish in this river are falmon. 'They are found as far up as the falls of Niagara, which theý cannot pass.

Onondago river rises in the lake of the same name, runs westwardly into Lake Ontario at Oswego. It is boatable from its mouth to the head of the lake ; (except a fall which occasions a portage of twenty yards) zhence batteaux go up Wood creek, almost to Fort Stanwix; whence there is a portage of a mile to Mohawks river.

Toward the head waters of this river falmon are caught in great quantities.

Mohawks river rises to the northward of Fort Stanwix, and runs southwardly to the fort, then eastward 110 miles, into the Hudson. The produce that is conveyed down this river is landed at Skenectady, and is thence carried by land fixteen miles, over a barren, shrub plain, to Albany. Except a portage of about a mile, occafioned by the little falls, fixty miles above Skenectady, the river is paffable for boats, from See nectady, nearly or quite to its fource. The Cohoez, in this river, are a great curiofity. They are about two miles from its entrance, into the


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Hudson. The river is about 100 yards wide-the rock over which it peurs as over a mill-dam, extends almost in a line from one side of the river to the other, and is about thirty feet perpendicular height. Including the descent above, the fall is as much as sixty or seventy feet. The rocks below, in some places, are worn many feet deep by the constant friction of the water. The view of this tremendous cataract is diminished by the height of the banks on each side of the river. About a mile below the falls, the river branches, and forms a large inand; but the two mouths


be seen at the same time from the oppofite bank of the Hudfon. The branches are fordable at low water, but are dangerous.

Delaware river rises in Lake Utstayantho, and takes its course fouthwest, until it crosses into Pennsylvania in latitude 42o. Thence southwardly, dividing New-York from Pennsylvania, until it strikes the northwest corner of New-Jersey, in latitude 41° 24' ; and then passes off to sea, through Delaware bay, having New-Jersey on the eaft side, and Pennsylvania and-Delaware on the west.

Susquehannah river has its fource in lake Otsego, from which it takes a south-west course. It crosses the line, which divides New-York and Pennsylvania, three times, the last time near Tyoga point, where it receives Tyoga river. Batteaux pass to its fource-thence to Mohawks river is but twenty miles.

Tyoga river rises in the Allegany mountains, in about latitude 420, rups eastwardly, and empties in the Susquehannah at Tyoga point, in latitude 41° 57'. It is boatable about fifty miles:

Seneca river rises in the Seneca country, and runs eastwardly, and in its passage receives the waters of the Seneca and Cayago lakes, which lie north and south, ten or twelve miles apart ; each is between thirty and forty miles in length, and about a mile in breadth) and empties into the Onondago river, a little above the falls. It is boatable from the lakes downwards,

Cheneffe river rises near the source of the Tyoga, and runs northwardly by the Chenesse castle and flats, and empties into Lake Ontario eighty miles east of Niagara fort.

The north-east branch of the Allegany river, heads in the Allegany mountains, near the source of the Tyoga, and runs directly west until it is joined by a larger branch from the southward, which rises near the west branch of the Susquehannah. Their junction is on the line between Pennsylvania and New-York. From this junction, the river pursues a north-west coast, leaving a segment of the river of about fifty miles in , length, in the ftate of New York, thence it proceeds in a circuitous south-west direction, until it crosses into Pennsylvania. From thence to its entrance into the Mississippi, it has already been described, (Page 45.)

There are few fish in the rivers, but in the brooks are plenty of trout ard in the lakes, yellow perch, sun-fifli, salmon trout, cat-fish, and a variety of others.

From this account of the rivers, it is easy to conceive of the excellent advantages for conveying produce to market from every part of the state.

The settlements already made in this state, are chiefly upon two nare; row oblongs, extending from the city of New York, eait and north.


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