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not therewith follow those who are before him; what he hates to receive on the right, let him not bestow on the left; what he hates to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right :— this is what is called "The principle, with which, as with a measuring square, to regulate one's conduct."

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, "How much to be rejoiced in are these princes, the parents of the people!" When a prince loves what the people love, and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, "Lofty is that southern


hill, with its rugged masses of rocks! Greatly distinguished are you, 0 </ra?if/-teacher Yin, the people all look up to you." Rulers of kingdoms may not neglect to be careful. If they deviate to a mean selfishness, they will be a disgrace in the empire.

eight paragraphs, and teaches that the most important result of loving and hating in common with the people is seen in making the root the

E'imary subject, and the branch only secondary, ere, in par. 11, mention is again made of gaining and losing, illustrating the meaning of the quotation in it, and showing that to the collection or dissipation of the people the decree of Heaven is attached. The fourth part consists of five paragraphs, and exhibits the extreme results of loving and hating, as shared with the people, or on one's own private feeling, and it has special reference to the sovereign's employment of ministers, because there is nothing in the principle more important than that. The 19th par. speaks of gaining and losing, for the third time, showing that from the 4th par. downwards, in reference both to the hearts of the people and the decree of Heaven, the application or non-application of the principle of the measuring-square depends gu the mind of the

sovereign. The fifth part embraces the other paragraphs. Because the root of the i-ril of a sovereign's not applying that principle, lies in his not knowing how wealth is produced. >iv! employs mean men for that object, the distinction between righteousness and profit i= h«.iv much insisted on, the former bringing with it all advantages, and the latter leading to al! evil consequences. Thus the sovereign is »ilm.>^ished, and it is seen how to be careful of his virtue is the root of the principle of the nKoariiysquare; and his loving and hating, in eouuinri sympathy with the people, is its reality.'

1. There is here no progress of thought, brt a repetition of what has been insisted on in the two last chapters. In ^K at , -*S -g. the first characters are verbs, with the meaning *"' :| it requires so many words to bring out in the translation.


5. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, "Before the sovereigns of „ the Yin dynasty had lost the hearts of the people, they could appear • before God. Take warning from the honxe o/'Yin. The great decree

is not easily preserved.'1 This shows that, by gaining the people, the kingdom is gained, and, by losing the people, the kingdom is lost.

6. On this account, the ruler will first take pains about his own virtue. Possessing virtue will give him the people. Possessing the people will give him the territory. Possessing the territory will give him its wealth. Possessing the wealth, he will have resources for expenditure.

7. Virtue is the root; wealth is the result.

8. If he make the root his secondary object, and the result his primary, he will only wrangle with his people, and teach them rapine.

therless;' here,TM' the young and helpless.' tit, read as, and=T3ri,'to rebel,'' to act contrary to.'

"t here and throughout the ch., has reference to office, and specially to the imperial or Ligliest. jrfj^J.j^ w, —fp( is a verb, read

Jteg, ace. to Clioo Hci=/§!i ' to measurei' jig, — the mechanical instrument,' the square.' It havjnjf been seen that the ruler's example is so influential, it follows that the minds of all men are t he same in sympathy and tendency. He has then only to take his own mind, and measure therewith the minds of others. If he act accordingly, the grand result—the empire tranquil and happy—will ensue. 2. A lenylhtned rf«,c/v/>iivu of the principle of reciprocity. A, —up. 3d tone, 'to precede.' 3. See the She-king, II. ii. Ode V. st. 3. The ode is one that was sung at festivals, and celebrates the virtues of the

princes present. Clioo He makes p, (read cAt, up. id tuue) an expletive. Clritig's gloss, in

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9. Hence, the accumulation of wealth is the way to scatter the people; and the letting it be scattered among them is the way to collect the people.

10. And hence, the ruler's words going forth contrary to right, will come back to him in the same way, and wealth, gotten by improper ways, will take its departure by the same.

11. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, "The decree indeed may not always rest on «,?;" that is, goodness obtains the decree, and the want of goodness loses it.

12. In the Book of Ts'oo, it is said, "The kingdom of Ts'oo does not consider that to be valuable. It values, instead, its good

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13. Duke Wiitis uncle, Fan, said, "Our fugitive does not account that to be precious. What he considers precious, is the affection due to his parent."

14. In the Declaration of the duke of Ts'in, it is said, "Let me bavebut one minister, plain aiidsincere, notpretending to other abilities, but with a simple, upright, mind; and possessed of generosity, regarding the talents of others as though he himself possessed them, and, where he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, loving them in big heart more than his mouth expresses, and really showing himself able to bear them and employ them:—such a minister will be able to preserve my sons and grandsons, and black-haired people, and benefits likewise to the kingdom may well be looked for from kirn. But if it be his character, when he finds men of ability, to be jealous and hate them; and, when he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, to oppose them and not allow their advancement, showing himself really not able to bear them:—such a minister

its treasures, but on its able and virtuous ministers. 18. M APj 'uncle Fan >' tll.at is> uncle to Wan, the duke of Ts'in. See Ana. XIV. xvi. Wan is the T^ A , or, 'fugitive.' In the early

•jf, as in p, 5. 12. The Book of Ts'oo U found

i the 6J| g5, 'National records," a collection

purporting to be of the Chow dynasty, and, in relation to the other states, what Confucius' Spring and Autumn' is to Loo. The exact words of the text do not occur, but they could • ily be constructed from the narrative. An officer of Ts'oo being sent on an embassy to

Tgin (^3"). the minister who received him asked about a famous girdle of Ts'oo, called Q JfJ. bnw much it was worth. The officer replied ilut his country did not look on such things a*

part of his life, he was a fugitive, and suffered many vicissitudes of fortune. Once, the duke of Ts'in (f§C) having offered to help him, when he was in mourning for his father who had expelled him, to recover Tsin, his uncle Fan gave the reply in the text. The that in the translation refers to ^ [^,' getting the kingdom.' 14. 'The declaration of the duke of Ts'ia' is the last

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will not be able to protect my sons and grandsons and black-haired people; and may he not also be pronounced dangerous to the State?*

15. It is only the truly virtuous man, who can send away such a man and banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around, determined not to dwell along with him in the Middle kingdom. This is in accordance with the saying, "It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or who can hate others."

16. To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office; to raise them to office, but not to do so quickly:—this is disrespectful. To see bad men and not be able to remove them; to remove them, but not to do so to a distance:—this is weakness.

17. To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love;—this is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to come down on him who does so.

18. Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.

book in the Shoo-king. It was made by one of the dukes of Ts'in to his officers, after he had sustained a great disaster, in consequence of neglecting the advice of his most faithful minister. Between the text here, and that which we find in the Shoo-king, there are some differences,

but they are unimportant. 15. 4 '^l is here,

ace. to Choo He and his followers, the prince who applies the principle of reciprocity, expounded in the second par. Lo Chung-fan contends that it is xB K& 3f-, 'the lover of the

people.' The par. U closely connected with the

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not dwell together with him in the Middle king. dom.' China is evidently so denominator ir-.\\ its being thought to be surrounded by lurl-arous tribes,

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