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4. Once,' the second epistle of Peter is quoted, as written to the Gentile Christians.
5. He twice quotes 1 John iii. 16, in this manner: · Because as Christ laid down his life * for us, we also ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.' I mention this, because of our English translation of the former part of this verse, which is unsupported by any good authority:
Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us:” so our translation. However, I presume, it needs not to be supposed, that this author had the name of Christ in this verse. No: probably he read, as in most, or even all Greek copies : · Hereby perceive
we the love (which ought to be in us] because he (meaning Christ, or the Son of God, the • antecedent, mentioned ver. 8,] laid down his life for us; and (or so] we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.'
6. This writer quotes the fifth chapter of St. John's first epistle, without the heavenly witnesses.
IV. There is still another work, ^ De Vita Contemplativa, in three books, which was formerly ascribed to Prosper, and is now generally thought not to be his; but rather a work of Julian Pomerius, supposed to have been presbyter at the city of Arles, in Gaul, about the
1. This work does not abound with texts of scripture; though the Acts of the apostles are here several times largely quoted, and also the epistle of James.
2. This writer makes a lamentable complaint of the clergy of his time: That they sought riches, honour, power, and authority; but neglected the duties of their function, and the care of the people which had been committed to their charge.
C H A Pa CXXXVI. .
I. His work, called a Memoir or Commonitorium, and his time. II. III. The first and second chapters of that
work. IV. Remarks upon those two chapters. V. The third chapter of that memoir. VI. The meaning of it examined, and settled. VII. Remarks upon it. VIII. Books of the New Testament received by him. IX. Select passages. X. Remarks upon one of those
passages, for shewing the authority of scripture, as the rule of faith. 1.
INCENTIUS LIRINENSIS, or VINCENT, monk and presbyter in the monastery of Lerins, an island on the south coast of France, wrote a Memoir, or Commonitorium for the Catholic Faith, against the profane novelties of all heretics, as it is now entitled. It was written in the
a Testatur et Petrus apostolus in epistolâ ad Gentes. · Deus festinamus. Nec gregem Domini, qui nobis pascendus, tuen
enim,' ait, “angelis peccantibus non pepercit.' [2 Pet. ii. 4.] dusque commissus est, sed nostras voluptates, dominationem, Dimid. Temp. cap. 2.]
divitias, et cætera blandimenta, carnaliter cogitamus. Pastores b Testatur et Joannes apostolus, dicens : Sicut Christus pro dici volumus, nec tamen esse contendimus. Officii nostri nobis animam suam posuit, sic et nos debemus pro fratribus vitamus laborem, appetimus dignitatem. De Vit. Contempl. animas ponere. De Prom. P. 3. cap. 34. Vid. et Part 2. 1. i. c. 21. in.
& Vid. Cav. H. L. P. i. Pagi ann. 434. n. 15...20. S. . Dicit et Joannes apostolus : ' Tria sunt, quæ testimonium Basnag. ann. 434. 1. 10...12. J. Basnag. Hist. de l'Eglise, • dicunt: Spiritus, sanguis, et aqua.' Et sequitur: si testi- 1. 9. ch. 7. n. 4. Du Pin Bib. T. iii. P. 2. p. 170. Tillem. monium hominum acceperimus, testimonium Dei majus est. Mem. T. xv. Prom. P. 3. cap. 25.
A Vincentius, natione Gallus, apud monasterium Lirinensis d De Vitâ contemplativâ libri tres. Ap. Bib. PP. T. viii. insulæ presbyter, vir in scripturis sanctis doctus, et notitia p. 52... 83. et ap. S. Prosperi Opp. p. 51... 83. Paris. 1671. ecclesiasticorum dogmatum sufficienter instructus, composuit
e Vid. Cav. H. L. P. 1. De Prospero, p. 436. de Jul. Po- ad evitanda hæreticorum collegia nitido satis et aperto sermone merio, p. 466. Du Pin Bib. T. ii. P. 2. S. Prosper. p. 189. validissimam disputationem, quam, absconso nomine suo, tiet Jul. Pomere. ib. p. 273. &c. Tillem. S. Prosper. art. 12. tulavit Peregrini adversus hæreticos.' Cujus operis, quia T. xvi.
secundi libri maximam in schedulis partem a quibusdam furaSed nos präsentibus delectati, dum in hac vita commoda tam perdidit, recapitulato ejus paucis sermonibus sensu pristino nostra et honores inquirimus : non ut meliores, sed ut di- compegit, et uno in libro edidit. Moritus Theodosio et Vac tiores, nec ut sanctiores, sed ut honoratiores simus cæteris, lentiniano regnantibus, Gennad. cap. 04.
year of our Lord 434, as we learn from himself, who speaks of its being then three years since the council of Ephesus, which was held in 431. The work, as first composed by him, consisted of two books; but the second book having been lost by some accident, he contented himself with making a recapitulation of the whole : which we still have, together with the first book. It may be also observed that, for some reasons, he did not put his name to his work ; but published it under the borrowed name of Peregrinus, or, The Pilgrim against Heretics. As most of these particulars are mentioned by Gennadius, in his book of Illustrious Men, I have transcribed the chapter below. It is supposed that Vincent died about the year 450.
Vincent is generally called a Semi-Pelagian, and reckoned an adversary of the Augustinian doctrine ; nevertheless, as he is severe against all heresy in general, so‘particularly against Pelagianism.
11. After the preface, he says : · Having, with much care and diligence, inquired of great • numbers of learned and pious men, for a sure and general rule, whereby to discern the true • catholic doctrine from the errors of heretics, I received from almost all this answer: That he • who would escape the deceits and snares of heretics, and be preserved sound and entire • in the right faith, should secure himself by this twofold method; first, by the authority of • the divine law, and then by the tradition of the catholic church.'
III. That is the first chapter. The second is to this purpose : · But here, perhaps, some may ask; since the canon of scripture is perfect, and abundantly sufficient, what need can • there be to join with it the authority of the church's interpretation? The reason is this: Such • is the sublimity of the sacred scripture, that all do not understand it alike; but there are many • very different interpretations of it: Novatus understands it in one sense; Donatus, in another; • Sabellius, in another: and, in the like manner, Arius, Photinus, Priscillian, Pelagius, Nes• torius : insomuch, that there are almost as many opinions formed upon it, as there are men in • the world. It is therefore, necessary, upon account of those numerous and various deviations • of error, that the line of the prophetical and apostolical interpretation, should be guided according to the rule of the ecclesiastical and catholic sense.' IV. We cannot avoid making remarks upon these two chapters.
1. Vincent says, that having inquired of many, how he might discern the catholic doctrine from heresy, he received from almost all of them this answer: • That it might be done in ' a twofold method; by the authority of the divine law, and the tradition of the catholic church.' We must not charge Vincent with falsehood; or deny, that he had received this answer from some, and even from many: nevertheless, I cannot say that this direction has appeared in any of the writers whom we have hitherto examined. They do in general say, that the scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the rule of Christian belief and practice; that there are no other writings from which any doctrine of religion may be proved; that they build their faith upon the prophets and apostles, who alone are infallible; and that they are far from paying the like regard to Cyprian, or Hilary, or their writings. This has been the concurrent declaration of the primitive Christians, and of all other Christian writers to this time: and we perceive that Vincent 'had met with some who were of the same opinion; though, as he says, many were for joining ecclesiastical tradition with the divine law.
2. Here is mentioned, by Vincent, that allowed maxim, admitted by all Christians in general, that the canon of scripture is perfect, and in itself abundantly sufficient for all the purposes • of a rule;' and, I think, this must have been a general maxim in Vincent's age, as well as in former times.
• Et contra reclamant ranæ quædam, et ciniphes, et muscæ c Hic forsitan requirat aliquis : cum sit perfectus scripturæ morfturæ, quales sunt Pelagiani. Comm. cap. 14. Vid. et canon, sibique ad omnia satis superque sufficiat; quid opus est,
ut ei ecclesiasticæ intelligentiæ jungatur auctoritas ? Quia videh Sæpe igitur magno studio et summà attentione perquirens licet scripturam sacram, pro ipså sua altitudine, non uno eodema quamplurimis sanctitate et doctrinâ præstantibus viris, quo- que sensu universi accipiunt, sed ejusdem eloquia aliter alius nam modo possim certâ quâdam, et quasi generali, ac regulari atque alius interpretatur, ut pene quot homines sunt, tot illinc viâ catholicæ fidei veritatem ab hereticæ pravitatis falsitate sententiæ erui posse videantur. Aliter namque illam Novadiscernere, hujusmodi semper responsum ab omnibus fere tianus, aliter Sabellius, aliter Donatus exponit, aliter Arius, retuli : quod, sive ego, sive quis alius vellet exsurgentium ... aliter Photinus, Apollinaris, Priscillianus, .... Pelagius, hæreticorum fraudes deprehendere, laqueosque vitare, et in aliter postremo Nestorius. Atqui idcirco multum necesse est, fide sana sanus atque integer permanere, duplici modo munire propter tantos tam varii erroris anfractus, ut propheticæ et fidem suam, Domino adjuvante, debere: primum scilicet apostolicæ interpretationis linea secundum ecclesiastici et divinæ legis auctoritate, tum deinde ecclesiæ catholicæ tradi- catholici sensûs normam dirigatur. ib. cap. 2. tione. Comm. cap. 1.
3. There is no good reason to say, that the scriptures are too sublime to be understood.' It is certain, and has been generally allowed by all Christians of the early ages, that the scriptures are clear in all matters of importance; and that, if read with care, and an honest mind, men of ordinary capacities may gain from thence instruction in all things necessary to be known and understood by them, in order to their being saved.
4. The sacred scripture is the only proper rule of Christian belief and practice; because it is admitted, by Christians of all sects and denominations, to contain a true and
infallible account of the revealed will of God. To this all appeal : Sabellians, Novatians, Donatists, Arians, Priscillianists, as well as catholics; by this they are willing to be determined. But how can men of different sentiments be convinced and satisfied by catholic tradition, when they do not admit its authority ?
5. To say that the scripture is a perfect and sufficient rule,' and that “tradition must be • joined with it,' in order to our knowing the right faith, is a contradiction in terms; though some, as it seems, do not perceive it, through prejudice, or want of due attention.
6. To make tradition the rule of interpretation, is to advance it above the scriptures, and to render them of no effect: which, certainly, could not be the design of any of the numerous Christian writers whom we have hitherto consulted; for they do all express a very high regard for the sacred scriptures, and sincerely, so far as we are able to judge.
V. We now proceed to the third chapter of Vincent's Memoir.
• And, in the catholic church itself, great care must be taken, that we hold that which has • been believed every where, always, and by all; for that is catholic, as the word itself shews. • We are, therefore, to confess that one true faith, which the whole church confesseth, through• out the whole world; nor are we to depart from that faith, which our ancestors and holy • fathers have maintained. We are also to follow the determinations which have been made by • all, or almost all, the bishops, and eminent men of the church; so shall we obtain universality, • antiquity, and consent.'
VI. Upon this chapter, likewise, we are led to make remarks; but before we do so, some inquiries are needful for settling this rule.
First of all. Are the apostles here included, or excluded ? • If,' says Ja. Basnage, in • order to our receiving any thing as true, it ought to have been believed by all teachers, and in • all times, we must place the apostles in the rank of teachers; for why should they be excluded? • Are not they as venerable, and as judicious, as the bishops that have succeeded them; the
greatest honour of some of whom is, that they had conversed with the apostles? If we include • the apostles in the class of teachers, we must have recourse to their writings, and consult *them; if they are excluded, Vincent's rule is badly expressed: for in that way we must at • once, and first of all, retrench a quarter part of the time that had passed between Jesus Christ • and himself; that is, the first age, and the purest period of the church. We also, in this way, • set aside those teachers which are most to be relied upon, and have had the greatest authority.'
So that learned and diligent author. Nevertheless, it seems to me, that the inspired writers of the Old and New Testament are here excluded; for, at the conclusion of the preceding chapter, he said, It is necessary, that the line of prophetical and apostolical interpretation • should be guided by the rule of the ecclesiastical and catholic sense.' That 'rule' or 'norma, is here more distinctly specified. The prophets and apostles, therefore, are excluded. Vincent here speaks of quite other persons: he mentions not them, but only • bishops, and masters,' or eminent men. I think, he intends the immediate successors of the apostles; and also all succeeding catholics, all along in every part of the world to his own time, but especially bishops, and other eminent men.
In the second place. Another question may be put: Whether Vincent speaks of catholics only, or of all Christians in general, catholics and heretics, since the time of the apostles ? Then the rule will be thus : • Whatever has been believed every where, always, and by all, with
In ipsâ item catholicâ ecclesiâ, magnopere curandum est, esse fateamur, quam tota per orbem terrarum confitetur ecut id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus clesia. Antiquitatem vero ita, si ab iis sensibus nullatenus creditum est. Hoc est enim vere proprieque catholicum, recedamus, quos sancios majores ac patres nostros celebrasse (quod ipsa vis nominis ratioque declarat,) quod omnia fere nianifestum est. Consensionem quoque itidem, si in ipsâ universaliter comprehendit. Sed hoc ita demum fiet, si sequa- vetustate omnium, vel certe pene omnium, sacerdotum et mur universitatem, antiquitatem, consensionem. Sequeinur magistrorum definitiones sententiasque sectemur. Ibid. cap. 3. autem universitatem hoc modo, si hanc unam fidem veram 6 Histoire de l'Eglise, 1. g. ch. 7. 8. 4. VOL. III.
• one consent, may be depended upon as certainly the right faith.' This might be reckoned a true, or very probable proposition ; for there are some generals
, not denied or contradicted by heretics, in which they and catholics agree; but these would make out but a short and defective creed. Moreover, this cannot be Vincent's meaning: for he is laying down a rule to distinguish those catholic. doctrines which are different from those of the heretics; not those in which catholics and heretics agree. We must not consider this observation concerning universality, antiquity, and consent, as an independent proposition, but as in connection with what precedes and follows; which is the only way to know a writer's meaning.
VII. If we have rightly explained this passage, we may now make some remarks.
1. This way of arguing is a plain petitio principii,' a mean begging the question : that is assumed, which ought to be proved; it is determined, who are catholics, or which is the catholic faith ; whilst we are still inquiring, What is the catholic faith? which is absurd and ridiculous.
2. This rule is attended with unavoidable and insuperable perplexity and difficulty. It is impossible, or next to impossible, for the most learned and laborious men, much more for private and unlearned Christians, to know what opinions are now held by the whole church all over the earth, and have been held by the whole church from the beginning to their own time; and all the declarations and decisions of all bishops and teachers, called catholic.
3. The difficulty is increased by length of time. It is more difficult for us now, than it was for Vincent, to know what has been believed in the church, every where, always, and by all.
There is, indeed, one way to shorten this inquiry : which is, for some one man, or a few men, to declare decisively, and authoritatively, what is tradition; or what has been the judg. ment of all catholics, in all times, and in all places. Then the trouble here spoken of is saved, but this destroys all private judgment: thought, and examination, and consideration, are no longer needful, but quite useless and insignificant. But before any man can willingly and deliberately allow, that the right faith, or what he is to believe, should be so determined for him, he must be first quite indifferent about truth. He might as well consent, that what is right of wrong, true or false, should be determined by the throw of a die.
4. The only sure method, therefore, of knowing what is the true Christian doctrine, is to have recourse to the scriptures; and, according to our Lord's direction, to " search” them carefully and sincerely, without prejudice: which likewise is indeed the doctrine of all the many Christian writers of former times; as appears from the large extracts, which we have made from their works. And as Vincent is pleased to refer us to them, I hope we may be permitted to respect their judgments upon this head, in which there is a very general concurrence
The learned writer, before quoted, says: • It is wonderful, that so many Protestants, as ' well as Romanists, should have suffered themselves to be dazzled by this rule: which either • contażns þig words only, without meaning, or else would reduce a man to an examen absolutely impossible.'
It is farther observed, by the same writer, that this rule was invented in favour of Semipe-lagianism. • The Semipelagians,' he says, embarrassed with the numerous passages which
Augustine alleged from St. Paul's epistles, had recourse to tradition. They accused Ăugustine • of being an innovator; they boasted of the antiquity of their doctrine. This argument
seemed to them so cogent, that perhaps there is not any one of their works, in which it is not. repeated.' Pagi “ also speaks to the like purpose : though, upon other accounts, he greatly • commends this work of Vincent.
- Whatever might be the particular views of Vincent, I think that the divinely inspired scriptures are the sole rule of Christian belief and practice; and not the writings, or sentiments of any men, since the days of the inspired apostles of Jesus Christ.
a Enfin non seulement les Catholiques Romains, intéressés commendandum, eo fine conscriptum fuit, ut Augustini docà défendre les traditions, la mettent toujours à la tête de leurs trinam in suspicionem traheret. Ann. 434. n. 17.- Denique écrits ; mais il y a des Réformés, qui s'en étant laissés éblouir, Prosper etiam ad Augustinum scribens eum certiorem facit, s'en sont fait une règle sûre pour connoitre la vérité... Mais Semipelagianos sua dogmata venerando vetustatis nomine il est étonnant, qu' on se laisse éblouir par de grands mots, qui tueri, et ei novitatem objicere....' Obstinationem suam' ne disent rien, ou qui réduisent l'homnie à un examen abso- inquit, vetustate defendunt.'... At Vincentius Lirinensis in lument impossible. 1. Basn. H. de l'Eglise. 1. ix. ch. 7. iv. toto passim Commonitorio id unum inculcat, tuendam antiqui
tatem, vitandam novitatem : a doctore ea esse dicenda, quæ Opus illud aureum, et nunquam satis pro dignitate ejus ab antiquis didicerit. Ib. a. 18.
VIII. After this discussion of the first three chapters of Vincent, it may not be amiss to observe, briefly, the books of the New Testament, received or quoted by him.
1. I do not recollect in him any qu&tation of the epistle to the Hebrews, or reference to it ; which may create a suspicion, whether it was received by him.
Otherwise I should be apt to think that he received all the books of the New Testament which we now receive : for he has quoted the second epistle* of St. John; and the book of the Revelation is quoted or referred to in a passage of St. Ambrose, quoted by him. It seems also to be referred to in some words of his own.
IX. I shall now take some select passages.
1. Vincent describes a the cruelty of some Arian persecution ; either in the reign of Constantius, or Valens.
2. Vincent assures us that heretics received the same scriptures that were received by catholics.
• Here, perhaps, some one may say: Do heretics then quote the divine scripture ? Yes, very much. They have the phrases of scripture continually in their mouths: they quote every part : of scripture: the law; the books of the Kings; the Psalms ; the apostles; the gospels; • the prophets. They are perpetually citing scripture ; and they clothe all their language in * expressions of scripture; in public and private ; in their sermons, and in their books; at their • entertainments, and in their walks. Look into the writings of Paul of Samosata, Priscillian, * Eunomius, Jovinian, and other men of that sort: you will scarcely see a page which is not • larded with passages of scripture. They say nothing for which they have not a text of scripture, if you will take it in their sense : for which reason they are to be the more dreaded, and
• Siquis,' inquit, 'venit ad vos, et hanc doctrinam non menta sectentur, quæ ille nunquam profecto comminiscereadfert.'... Quid tum? Nolite,' inquit, ' recipere eum in tur, nisi sciret omnino nullam esse ad fallendum facilio
domum, nec Ave,' ei dixeritis. Qui enim dicit illi 'Ave,' rem viam, quam ut ubi nefarii erroris subinducitur frau* communicat operibus ejus malignis.' [2 Jo. 10, 11.] Com- dulentia, ibi divinorum verborum prætendatur auctoritas. Sed monit. cap. 33. p. 354. edit. Baluz. 1669.
dicet aliquis : Unde probatur, quia sacræ legis exemplis diab Vid. Comm. cap. 7. p. 320, 321. Baluz.
bolus uti soleat ?' Legat evangelia, in quibus scribitur: • Tunc Magnum hoc igitur eorumdem beatorum exemplum, assumsit illum diabolus,' id est, Dominum Salvatorem, et planeque divinum, et veris quibusque catholicis indefessâ medi- • statuit illum super pinnam templi.'. .. Quid hic faciet misellis tatione recolendum, qui in modum septemplicis candelabri hominibus, qui ipsum Dominum majestatis scripturarum testiseptenâ sancti Spiritûs luce radiantes, clarissimam posteris nor- inoniis appetivit? Si, inquit, • filius Dei es, mitte te deormam præmonstrârunt, &c. Com. cap. 8. p. 322. Baluz. sum.' Quâre ? • Scriptum est enim, inquit. Magnopere
d... disturbati clerici, verberati" Levitæ, acti in exilium nobis doctrina loci istius attendenda atque retinenda est : ut sacerdotes, oppleta sanctis ergastula, carceres, metalla ; quorum tanto evangelicæ auctoritatis exemplo, quando aliquos apostopars maxima, interdictis urbibus, protrusi atque extorres, inter lica seu prophetica verba proferre contra catholicam fidem deserta, speluncas, feras, saxa, nuditate, fame, siti affecti, con- videriinus, diabolum per eos loqui minime dubitemus. Nam triti, et tabefacti sunt. Comm. cap. 7. p. 320. Baluz, sicut tunc caput capiti, ita nunc quoque membra membris lo
• Hic fortasse aliquis interroget, an et hæretici divinæ quuntur, membra scilicet diaboli membris Christi, perfidi scripturæ testimoniis utantur? Utuntur plane, et vehementer tidelibus, sacrilegi religiosis, hæretici postremo catholicis. Sed quidem. Nam videas eos volare per singula quæque sanctæ quid tandem dicunt ? Si,' inquit, filius Dei es, mitte de legis volumina, per Möysis, per Regum libros, per Psalmos, per • deorsum.' Hoc est : și filius esse vis Dei, et hæreapostolos, per evangelia, per prophetas. Sive enim apud suos, ditatem regni cælestis accipere, mitte te deorsum, id est, ex sive alienos, sive privatim, sive publice, sive sermonibus, sive istius te sublimis ecclesiæ, quæ etiam templum Dei putatur, in libris, sive in conviviis, sive in plateis, nihil unquam pene doctrinâ et traditione demitte. Ac si quis interroget quempiam de suo proferunt, quod non etiam scripturæ verbis adumbrare hæreticorum sibi talia persuadentem: Unde probas ? unde conentur. Lege Pauli Samosatenti opuscula, Priscilliani, Euno- doces, quod ecclesiæ catholicæ universalem et antiquam fidem mii, Joviniani, reliquarumque pestium: cernas infinitam, dimittere debeam ? statim ille : • Scriptum est enim.' Et conexemplorum congeriem ; prope nullam omitti paginam, quæ tinuo mille testimonia, mille exempla, mille auctoritates parat, non Novi aut Veteris Testamenti sententiis fucata et colorata de Lege, de Psalinis, de apostolis, de prophetis ; quibus novo sit. Sed tanto magis cavendi et pertimescendi sunt, quanto et malo more interpretatis, ex arce catholicâ in bareseos baraoccultius sub divinæ legis umbraculis latitant.... Inde denique thrum infelix anima præcipitetur. Cap. 37. Baluz. p. 358, et Salvator clamabat : ' Attendite vobis a pseudoprophetis, 359. Sed dicit aliquis : si divinis eloquiis, sententiis, promis:
qui veniunt ad vos in vestitu ovium, intus autem sunt lupi sionibus, et diabolus et discipuli ejus utuntur, quorum alii vpraces.' Quid est vestitus ovium, nisi prophetarum et sunt pseudoapostoli, alii pseudoprophetæ, pseudomagistri, et apostolorum proloquia ?... Qui sunt lupi rapaces, nisi sensus omnes ex toto hæretici, quid facient catholici homines et mahæreticorum feri et rabidi ? .. qui. . manente luporum ferocià, tris ecclesiæ filii ? Quonam modo in scripturis sanctis veritatem deponunt lupinam speciem, et sose divinæ legis sententiis, a falsitate discernent? Hoc scilicet magnopere curabunt, quod velut quibusdam velleribes, obvolvụnt ; ut, quum quisque la- in principio Commonitorii istius sanctos et doctos viros nobis parum mollitiem præsenserit, nequaquam aculeos dentium tradidisse scripsimus : ut divinum canonem secundum univerpertimescat. Cap. 36. p. 357. Baluz.-... Ergo, secundum salis ecclesiæ traditiones, et juxta catholici dogmatis regulas apostoli Pauli magisterium, quotiescumque vel pseudoapostoli, interpretentur : in qua item catholica et apostolicâ ecclesià sevel psendoprophetæ, vel pseudodoctores divinæ legis senten- quantur necesse est universitatem, antiquitatem, consensionema. tias proferunt, quibus male interpretatis errores suos adstruere Cap. 38. Baluz. p. 360. conentur, non dubium est, quin auctoris sui callida machina