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The inhabitants are almost entirely of English descent. There are no Dutch, French, or Germans, and very few Scotch or Irish people in any part of New England.
Charakter, Manners, &c.] In addition to what has been already faid on these particulars, under New England, it may be observed, that we people of Connecticut are remarkably fond of having all their disputes, even those of the most trivial kind, settled according to law. The prevalence of this litigious fpirit, affords employment and support for a numerous body of lawyers. The number of actions entered annually upon the several dockets in the state, justifies the above obfervations. That party fpirit, however, which is the bane of political happiness, has not raged with such violence in this state as in Massachusetts and Rhode-Iland. Public proceedings have been conducted generally, and especially of late, with much calmness and candour. The people are well informed in regard to their rights, and judicious in the methods they adopt to secure them. The ftate was never in greater political tranquility than at present.
The clergy, who are numerous, and, as a body, very respectable, have hitherto preserved a kind of aristocratical balance in the very democratical government of the state; which has happily operated as a check upon the overbearing spirit of republicanism. li has been lamented that the unhappy religious disputes which have too much prevailed among some of the clergy; and the too great attention that others have paid to their temporal concerns, to the neglect of their flocks; and an inattention to the qualifications of those who have been admitted to the facred office, have, heretofore, considerably diminished their influence. It is a pleasing circumstance that the rage for theological disputation is abating, and greater ftriétness is observed in the admission of candidates to the ministry, Their influence is on the increase; and it is no doubt to be attributed, in part, to their increasing influence, that an evident reformation in the manners of the people of this state, has taken place since the peace. In regard to learning and abilities, the clergy at the present day are equal to their predecesors at any former period.
Religion.] The best in the world, perhaps, for a republican government. As to the mode of exercising church government and discipline, it might not improperly be called a republican religion. Each church is a separate jurisdiction, and claims authority to choose their own minister, to exercise government, and enjoy gospel ordinances within itself. The churches, however, are not independent of each other; they are associated for mutual benefit and convenience. The associations have power to license candidates for the minilry, to consult for the general welfare, and to recommend measures to be adopted by the churches, but have no authority to enforce them. When disputes arise in churches, councils are called by the parties to settle them; but their power is only advisory. There are as many asfociations in the state as there are counties; and they meet twice in a year. Thefe are all combined in one general association, who meet annually.
All religions that are consistent with the peace of society, are tolerated in Connecticut; and a spirit of liberality and catholicism is in realing. There are very few religious sects in this state. The bulk of the people are Congregationalists. Besides these there are Episcopalians and bapciils;
and formerly there was a soclety of Sandimanians at New-Haven; but they are now reduced to a very small number. The Episcopalian churches are respectable, and are under the superintendence of a bishop. There were twenty-nine congregations of the Baptifts in 1784. These congregations, with those in the neighbouring states, meet in affociations, by delegation, annually. These associations consist of messengers chosen and sent by the churches. Some of their principles are, • The imputation of Adam's fin to his posterity--the inability of man to recover himself-effectual calling by sovereign grace-justification by imputed righteousness-immersion for baptism, and that on profession of faith and repentance-congregational churches, and their independency-reception into them upon evidence of Sound conversion. The Baptists, during the late war, were warm and adive friends to their country; and, by their early approbation of the new form of government *, have manifested the continuance of their patriotic sentiments.
Damages sustained in the late war.] After the establishment of the peace in 1783, a number of gentlemen were appointed by the general assembly to estimate the damage done by the British troops, in the several towns which they ravaged. The following is the result of their enquiries,
Amount of loffes, New London, (burnt by Benedict Arnold, September 6, 1781)
£. 145,788 15
23,217 6 Scattering towns, do, do.
f. 178,812 10 8 Norwalk, (burnt by the British, 1779)
£. 34,867 9 confiscated property and other losses
4. 36,944 92
losses of men not on oath
4. 6,365 11 8
369 37 7
Fairfield, (burnt in 1779)
4. 40,807 210 New-Haven, ravaged by Governor Tryon July 1779 £• 24,89376 Eaft-Haven do.
4,882 16 4 Weft-Haven do. do.
3 Other losses not before computed
6, 30,836 4 2
Amount of the losses in the whole state in money, valued as in 1774
* In their association at New-York, Odober 1787.
} £. 294,235 16 !
Chief Toruns.) There are a great number of very pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, in Connecticut. It contains five incorporated towns or cities. Two of these, Hartford and New-Haven, are the capitals of the ftate. The general assembly is holden at the former in May, and at the latter in October, annually.
HARTFORD (city) is situated at the head of navigation on the west side of Connecticut river, about fifty miles from its entrance into the sound. Its buildings are a state-house-two churches for congregationalists—a distillery, besides upwards of 300 dwelling-houses, a number of which are handsomely built with brick.
The town is divided by a small sirer, with high romantic banks. Over this river is a bridge connecting the two divisions of the town. Hartford is advantageously lituated for trade, has a very fine back country, enters largely into the manufacturing business, and is a rich flourishing commercial town.
New-HAVEN (city) lics round the head of a bay, which makes up about four miles north from the found. It covers part of a large plain, which is circumscribed on three fides by high hills or inountains. Two small rivers bound the city east and west. The town was originally laid out in squares of fixty rods. Many of these squares have been divided by cross streets. Four streets run north-west and south-east, these are crossed by others at right anglesNear the centre of the city is the public square; on and around which are the public buildings, which are a statehouse, college and chapel, three churches for Congregationalists, and one for Episcopalians. These are all handsome and commodious buildings. The college, chapel, state-house, and one of the churches are of brick. The public square is encircled with rows of trees, which render it both convenient and delightful. Its beauty, however, is greatly diminished by the burial ground, and several of the public buildings, which occupy a considerable part of it.
Many of the streets are ornamented with two rows of trees, one on each fide, which give the city a rural appearance. The prospect from the steeples is greatly variegated, and extremely beautiful. There are about soo dwelling-houses in the city, principally of wood, and well built, and some of them elegant. The ftreets are fandy, but neat and cleanly. Within the limits of the city, are between 3 and 4000 souls. About one in seventy die annually; this proves the healthfulness of its climate. Indeed as to pleasantness of situation, and salubrity of air, NewHaven is not exceeded by any city in America. It carries on a considerable trade with New-York and the Weft-India Inands, and is flourish. ing *.
New-LONDON (city) stands on the west side of the river Thames, near its entrance into the sound, in latitude 41° 25'. It has two places for public worship, one for Episcopalians and one for Congregationalists, and about 300 dwelling-houses. Its harbour is the best in Connecticut, and as good as any in the United States; and is defended by fort Trumbull
* The following account of the number of inhabitants in the city of
and fort Griswold, the one in New-London, the other in Groton. A considerable part of the town was burnt by the infamous Benedict Arnold, in 1781. It has since been rebuilt.
Norwich (city) stands at the head of Thames river, i2 or 14 miles north from New-London. It is a commercial city, has a rich and extenfive back country, and avails itself of its natural advantages at the head of navigation. Its situation upon a river which affords a great number of convenient seats for mills and water machines of all kinds, render it very eligible in a manufactural view.
The inhabitants are not neglectful of the advantages which nature has fo liberally given them. They manufacture paper of all kinds, stockings,
New Haven, and their different ages, together with the number of build. ings of different kinds, is the result of an accurate enumeration, September 20th, 1787. As it may furnish fufficient date from which, at any future enumeration, several valuable and instructive calculations
be made, it is thought proper to preserve it.
Age No. Age No.
71 50 50
72 87 29
51 17 73
17 77 5
65 13 87
614 Seventeen years and under 1636
Dwelling-houses 456 Upwards of seventeen 1703
103 Number of students
Barns and Shops 324 Males
1645 | Total buildings of all kinds 893 Females
1694 In 1724 there were 163 buildings of all kinds, from which we may conclude, the number of souls and buildings has doubled since that time, in periods of about twenty years.
clocks and watches, chaises, buttons, stone and earthen ware, wire, oil, chocolate, bells, anchors, and all kinds of forge work. The city contains about 450 dwelling-houfes, a court-house, and two churches for Congregationalists, and one for Episcopalians. The city is in three de tached, compact divisions ; viz. Chelsea, at the landing, the town, and Bean-hill; in the latter division is a flourishing academy; and in the town is a school supported by a donation from Dr. Daniel Lathrop, deceased. The executive courts of law are held alternately at New-London and Norwich.
MIDDLETON (city) is pleasantly situated on the western bank of Connecticut river, fifteen miles south of Hartford. It is the principal town in Middlesex county-has about 300 houses—a court-house-one church for Congregationalists--one for Episcopalians-a naval office and carries on a large and increasing trade.
Four miles south of Hartford is WETHERSFIELD, a very pleasant town of between two and three hundred houses situated on a fine soil, with an elegant brick church for Congregationalists. A fair is held here twice a year. This town is noted for raising onions.
Windsor, Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fairfield and Guilford, are all considerable and very pleasant towns.
Curiosities.] Two miles west of New Haven is a mountain, on the top of which is a cave, remarkable for having been the residence of generals Whaley and Goff, two of the judges of Charles I. who' was beheaded,
They arrived at Boston July 27th, 1660, and came to New-Haven the March following. May ith, 1661, they retired and concealed themselves behind Weft-mountain, three miles from New-Haven ; and the 19th of Auguft, they removed to Milford, where they lived concealed until the 13th of October, 1664; when they returned to New-Haven, and imme, diately proceeded to Hadley, where they remained concealed for about ten years, in which time Whaley dicd. Goffe foon after abdicated. In 1665, John Dixwell, Esq. another of the king's judges, visited them while at Hadley, and afterwards proceeded to New Haven, where he lived many years, and was known by the name of John Davis. Here he died, and was buried in the public burying-place, where his grave-ftone is Randing to this day, with this inscription, · J. D. Esq. deceased March 18th, in the 8zd year of his age, 1688.'
In the town of Pomfret is a cave rendered remarkable by the humorous adventure of General Putnam. This cave is described, and the story elègantly told hy Colonel Humphreys, in his life of that hero. The story and the description I Mall infert in
own words. Soon after Mr. Putnam removed to Connecticut, the wolves, then very, numerous, broke into his sheep-fold, and killed feventy fine sheep and goats, besides wounding' many lambs and kids. This havoc was com mitted by a she-wolf, which, with her annual whelps, had for feveral years infefted the vicinity. The young were commonly destroyed by the vigilance of the hunters, but the old one was too fagacious to come within reach of gun-lhot: upon being closely pursued, The would gene. tally Ay to the western woods, and return the next winter with another litter of whelps.