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term of years' apprenticeship to one of those Alnwick always awakes to unusual activ. the natural beauties of its landscape it is privileged burgesses. Candidates are elected ity on this morning of St. Mark's Day. Around unnecessary to speak, except to remark that for life, and are entitled to vote for parlia. the White Swan, Black Swan, Turk's Head, the ancient charter distinctly forbids any in. mentary representatives of the county, divis- and Star Hotels, groups of gossiping towns. terference with them by any form of cultivaion, or borough, to which they belong. folks are congregated, recalling “the glorious tion. The gorse or the heather may be

In times past, when the franchise was days of the old stage-coach," when Alnwick burned, but not hoed or otherwise eradicated confined to the aristocratic few, these Free. was a town of bustling importance on the by any implement; while no crop whatso. men were naturally held in high estimation. route between London and Edinburgh. Ev- ever, except of Nature's original planting, Then they were a power in the land, and, as ery quaint little tavern bas its knot of idlers, shall be raised upon any portion of it. Each they generally stood united, their “vote and every tortuous alley - way bas vomited its Freeman is allowed the pasturage of a stipu. interest” was of considerable importance at complement of spectators into the street, lated number of sheep, oxen, cows, or horses, election-times. To their credit be it said, while around the Market Cross and St. Mi. or be may sell his privilege from year to they usually “plumped” on the side of lib-chael's Pant there are still larger knots of year; and, as nu fences are permitted except erty and reform, and in opposition to the con- loungers speculating on the events of the day at the boundaries, the flocks are cared for by servative interests of the Tory lord of the —who will be “first through,” who will “win shepherds. Thus, for centuries, the Free.

Historians have been too chary in the boundaries,” how many equestrian disas- men, closely watched by grasping lords of according to these Freemen full credit for the ters will befall, and so on.

the house of Percy, maintained their moor part they played in patiently assisting the de- Meantime, sparse droves of country peo- intact. But, a quarter of a century since, an velopment of those great principles of par- ple are beginning to bustle along Bondgate, infusion of restless spirits was received into liamentary reform that England now enjoys. down Pottergate and Clayport, and up Water- the hitherto staid and eminently cautious The names of great reform leaders naturally gate and the Peth, toward the centre of in- body. The old charter was torn from its become household words, while the particular terest. Every one looks for the holly-bush sanctuary, examined, and learnedly criticised class of voters that sent them to St. James's as he walks along—for the huge holly at the by these rash reformers. Meetings were held, is overlooked. The Greys of Northumber. door is the immemorial insignia of such as speeches made, and resolutions passed to the land, to take a single example, owed their aspire to the Freedom of Alnwick on this au- effect that a certain portion of Alnwick Moor seats in the House of Commons to the Free spicious day. At what time the great castle- be straightway inclosed and cultivated as men of Alnwick and Morpeth, who, in firm clock and Town-Hall clock agree in boom- arable land for the use of said Freemen, etc. phalanx and with sometimes perilous perse- ing forth, stroke for stroke, the hour of The duke sat in his castle hard by the silver verance, did battle against the Tory noininee ten, the excitement has reached fever-heat. Alne, and to these resolutions he gave no of Percy, Duke of Northumberland. The Everybody is now in the market-place. The token of his approval or disapproval. But, part that the Greys enacted during the great Freemen, in esse, gallantly mounted on all when the ploughshare pierced the virgin soil struggle that culminated in the Reform Bill sorts of steeds - colts, broken-down thor- of Ayden, the Percy made wassail in his of 1832 belongs to history; and many in. ough-breds, shaggy-hoofed Belgians, and huge hall; and his forester and his woodmen were stances might be cited where the Freemen's Cleveland roadsters--each man in his “Sun. directed to inclose one thousand acres of the vote turned the wavering balance against ar- day claes,” and his grandsire's sword clank- moor that adjoined his park. It was the istocratic despotism.

ing awkwardly by his side, are drawn up in fairest portion of the tract, and it had been Inasmuch as the various charters of these front of the Town Hall. Their friends, some surveyed two centuries before in anticipation Freemen date back to feudal times, it is not mounted, more afoot, surround them, and re- of that fatal ploughshare. This was the pensurprising that the act of bestowing immuni- count to button-holed listeners the memorable alty imposed by a violation of the charter: ties and privileges invariably involved some achievements of their several years. Pres. "one third of the land to revert to the lord mortifying humiliation. Thus, in one town ently emerge from the ancient portals of the of the manor.” And there it will remain, so the candidate for freedom is led round cer- Hall, and gravely descend the broad stone far as the Freemen are concerned, till the tain streets like a horse with his bead in a stairway, the four chamberlains, in cocked. crack of doom. hempen halter. In another, he is swung feet hat and flowing wig, enveloped in ample gold- The duke's piper, mounted on a gayly-caand hands by and between two officers of the laced cloaks, breeches, and silk stockings, parisoned horse, led by a groom, having now Freemen's Guild, and thus for half a score and bearing proudly their white wands of of. joined the high officials, the cavalcade is times has his bams brought into vigorous col. fice. Accompanying them is the castle bai. ready to move. Foremost rides the piper, lision with a huge round bowlder on the town liff, in equally conspicuous regalia, somewhat | skirling a merry tune, his attire apparently moor

r; while in Alnwick, as all the text- more austere bearing, and more pronounced composed of bottle-green velvet, bespangled books tell you,“the person who takes up bis withal about the calves. It is this high offi- with huge silver buckles; then the bailiff, Freedom is obliged by a clause in the charter cial's duty to see that the twelve candidates severe of mien, mounted on a noble charger, to jump into an adjacent bog, in which some- comply with every provision of the ancient followed by the chamberlains, on substantial times hr must sink to his chin."

charter; failing in any jot or tittle of which but excessively gentle steeds ; then come the The subscriber jumped into this “bog" he will report to his noble master, the Duke dozen aspirants for Freedom, riding in as nearly a score of years since; and, on the of Northumberland, when there will certain- many styles and degrees of awkwardness as 25th day of April, 1874, while revisiting old ly be trouble.

might be imagined from their various pur. scenes in England, he again stood beside the While they are organizing the departure suits and modes of life. A tailor, a hatter, a Stygian mud-pool, and beheld a dozen candi- to “the Well," it may not be amiss to glance vintner, a tanner, a clogger, an eggler, a cardates pass " through the Well.” Here was a briefly at the privileges these Freemen enjoy. rier, three farmers, and two of uncertain ocmost grotesque and extraordinarily amusing By grant of King John, “ Ayden Forest," cupation, form the group; and chaff and criti. rite celebrated on an extensive common, in or, as it is commonly called, Alnwick Moor, cism and laughter greet this group on every the open daylight, and yet there was not a belongs to the Freemen forever; or, to speak side. Through Narrowgate, along Bailiff. single reporter present. Imagine such a con- more accurately, for so long as they strictly gate, and up the shady “Rattan Raw," the dition of affairs in enterprising America! Nor observe the conditions imposed. This “ for. piper leads the way, until a noble old Gothic does it appear-and the memory of man est " consists of three thousand acres of land, archway is passed, and we are fairly on the serves not to the contrary—that a single rolling in a billowy slope westward from moor-edge. The clayey road, stretching far member of that industrious fraternity ever the town until it attains a considerable eleva- up over the rolling hills of purple and green, witnessed the ceremony of making an Aln- tion, and its western boundary, at Lemington looks like a huge saurian; and, as we ride wick Freeman. Nothing approaching a de- Ridge. It is mostly inferior land, more or down the steep declivity to the “Stocking scription, so far as the present writer knows, less covered with purple heather and the yel. Burn,” we find that it is excessively slippery has ever been printed. The following sketch, low-blooming gorse; but it is “a fine sheep- from recent rains. The eager pedestrians therefore, of the scenes witnessed last year walk," and a few hundred acres near Aln. hail this as a joyful circumstance, and keep on St. Mark's Day is hereby offered, as ingen- wick, and bounded on the north by the park. remarking, “ There'll be fun on this hill on ious inventors say, to "supply a felt want." wall of the duke, is very superior soil. Of the way back.”

Over the moor for five miles-now de- tanner, with the sagacity to be expected of At this “Rattan-Raw" Arch the respec. scending a brent bank, now ascending a stae one whose business it is to soak his nether tive victors of tbe “Well” and the “boun. brae—we finally reach Freemen's Hill, where- extremities in pits, keeps well behind the daries " are presented with floral trophies by on is situated the drumlie Styx, through ruck of excited plungers, feels his way cau- two young ladies—daughters of prominent which these dozen have to pass. Every one tiously, and takes his disasters philosophi- Freemen designated for the purpose. The Dow dismounts. The rabble, considerably cally.

procession is then formed, as before, with thinned, gathers round. The chamberlains One and all, however, at length safely the shrill “small-pipes” in the van. Sur draw their silver-mounted horns, and toast reach the opposite bank, but in such a con- rounded by a demonstrative crowd, Water. the bailiff. The neophytes produce their dition as not to be recognizable by their near- gate pump, as a Freeman's possession, is ridflasks and toast their friends and each other, est friends. Friends make baste to offer den round by the twelve; and Bailiffgate is and the utmost good-humor prevails.

the welcome dram and dry clothes often to traversed until the barbacan of the castle is Imagine a tank one hundred and fifty feet strangers, for neither spangles nor ribbons reached. After certain antique ceremonials, square formed in the ground, brimful of in- avail as helps to recognition. Every mother's the warden throws open the massive gates, tensely yellow-clayey colored water, and you son has precisely the same complexion-half and the chamberlains and the new Freemen hare the surface idea of Freemen's Well. an inch thick-of plastic yellow clay. Even are heralded through the outer, second, and Beneath that non-committal surface, how. the voice—if the clay soup have been gener. into the inner ward. Here they are lavishly erer, are mazes dire and pitfalls profound.ously partaken of—is not always to be im- regaled with wines and potent twentyyearsEarthen dikes, forming fantastic geometric mediately relied upon.

old ale; served in huge two-handled silver figures, are run across the unseen depths. Soon, however, the new Freemen are pu- tankards, at the expense of the noble duke. Strong straw ropes are deftly trained across rified without and fortified within. Every- The horsemanship of the unterrified Freeangles and diameters to trap unwary feet.body wants to shake hands with the tailor, men is not improved as they are seen to sally Here there is a mound of varying width, inasmuch as he has won the “honors of the from the barbacan an hour afterward; and Dearly level with the surface; close by there Well" by getting “ first through.” He is on this occasion the tailor and the tanner is a pitfall six feet deep, where a short man absurdly proud of his feat, and takes more prefer to “ do it" on foot. The twelve quietly plumps over head, to emerge like a "tastes” from offered flasks than are likely proceed to the houses of such of their num. clay figure fresh from the modeler, gasping, to be of use to him in view of the exhilarat. ber as are within the town limits, and as blowing, and flopping until, haply, another | ing ride home.

each holly - bush is reached decanters and ridge or rope shall jerk him head-first into The chamberlains give the signal to mount. glasses are produced, and a good deal of deep another miry lurking · hole. Such is the The twelve now ride in front along the south drinking is accomplished. "Well," and every one on its brink is aware boundary of the moor, and at certain ancient When the emancipated dozen retired to of its character.

stations dismount and place each a stone upon their respective pillows, to dream over their The twelve candidates have now stripped a cairn. When the last cairn has been thus new-born privileges, it seemed to the writer to their under-clothes, and each has bound a honored, the twelve await, with breathless an open question whether the filthy ablution colored silken handkerchief tightly round his anxiety, the word “Go” from the bailiff. in the “ Well,” or the bacchanalian orgies in brow. Some of them are gaudily beribboned There, at last! Off start the twelve horses the town subsequently, were the more objecover the chest and around the waist. And devouring the road, and raising thick show- tionable. But he has not given an over-drawn here what a wit among the rabble aptly de- ers of sloppy mud. They are two good miles picture of the process by which Freemen nominates a bow-houghed and hen-shinned from the arch at the head of Rotton Row, are made in Alnwick. hutter" has actually added circus-spangles and the track, at first, is up-hill. Every rider

JAMES Wight. to his blaze of cherry-colored ribbons. Even reaches the summit in good order, for every h-re on this bleak hill, amid this wild moor, rider has been duly warned to save his horse

THE NEW EGYPT OF KHÉone is reminded that there are fops every- till the Stocking Burn is crossed. Downwhere. hill, however, the fun now begins. For the

DIVE ISMAİL. But the twelve are now ready, and the tailor, prompted by a frenzied ambition to "entrance" side of the Well is cleared. By win both the great events of the day, grabs

I. common consent they retire a few paces from his steed by the mane and yells at him like a

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. the brink, so that by a running leap they may Comanche. The old roadster is still full of clear as much of the muddy mystery as prac- mischief. He cranes out his neck, lays down AVING spent part of last winter in ticable. Whoop! there they go. Nine have his ears, and bolts. In less than two min- Egypt, I purpose giving your readers, krpt their feet, but the bespangled latter and utes Snip is rolled ignominiously into the from time to time, some sketches of what I the two Agricolas have come to sudden grief. midst of an exceptionally well-armed furze- saw there, and some idea of the immense Soon there is only one man, and that man bush, while Bucephalus drifts away down changes wrought on place and people by the the tailor, standing unbaptized. The churn- the long hill until he reaches the Burn, where energetic efforts of one man—the Khedive Ising, and floundering, and yelling, and laugh. be stoops to drink, and then turns quietly maïl-since I left the country a few years ago. ing of the others are outrageously funny. aside to graze.

These changes are both external and inShouts of laughter burst from every throat. Meantime, the eleven, fired by the tailor's ternal, and it is no exaggeration to say that, Every mouth, in the fringe of faces surround-daring, are enacting a side-splitting travesty since Czar Peter, no ruler has ever wrought ing the pool, is wide open. Even the bailiff of a fox-hunt. All England certainly could so wonderful and radical a revolution in the hıs surrendered his gravity, and joins in the not produce eleven more clumsy exemplars character, habits, and training of a people, nad " lla! ha!” But the guffaw culminates of the glory of motion. The townfolks, en or in the march of an empire, as the Khedive in a paroxysmal roar when the tailor bobs masse, have come up to the moor to see the of Egypt has already initiated, and is pressclean out of sight in the deepest and muddi- fun, and banters and yells rend the skies, ing to successful completion, into the very est limbo of the whole Avernus, and then and totally demoralize the already distracted heart of Africa. erawls slowly to view with whole bucket. horsemen. When the foremost farmer cross- Passing by, for the moment, the outward fils of slimy clay moving like an avalanche es the Stocking Burn, five of the new Free. evidences of material progress which now down his limbs. There, one fellow has found men have retired from the race, while the force themselves on the eye and attention of a bank, and is standing thereon to recover tailor is trying to capture his ancient road. the latter-day tourist, at Alexandria, Cairo, wind and collect his liquefied senses. Yon- ster, but the exasperating brute knows too and other great centres of population — as der four have rolled into the same straw. much, and dodges every attempt, amid the well as the vast acquisitions but recently roped cellar, and madly clutch each other in laughter and jeers of the rabble. The fore- made in Central Africa-the abolition of the the frantic effort to be up and out, while they most farmer rides carefully up the last hill, internal slave-trade, and the establishment of only manage to prolong their disastrous im- and passes through the arch, amid the accla- the new mixed legal tribunals (each one of prisonment and the roars of laughter that mations of the on-lookers, and “the boun. which is a revolution), I design to briefly greet their wriggling contortions. Here the daries" of 1874 are won.

state some facts in relation to the educa


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tional progress made and making within the schools for the instruction for the rank and -is to furnish a class fit to undertake those last ten years.

file, numbering from thirty to forty thousand duties now confided to slaves, and elevate Never before in the history of mankind -all of whom are picked young men-the both employer and servant in the social scale has the effort been made to educate an entire elder soldiers having been discharged and and in civilized habits. The twin sisters, people all at once-to drag them up from utter returned to field - labor in their native vil- polygamy and slavery, he believes can thus ignorance into the light of culture and civil lages. Promotion, both of officers and sol. be made to disappear; and the great work of ization through the instrumentality of abso- | diers, is now dependent on their educational | extirpating the slave-trade of the Nile Basin, lute power; and the success is almost as progress, and even leave of absence is grant- which he has successfully accomplished thus wonderful as the attempt. Under Saïd Pasha's ed only to those able to apply for it in writ- far by the expeditions of Baker and Gordon, administration, in 1862, the government ap- ing—which, I believe, is the case in no oth- is to be supplemented in Egypt itself - a propriations annually for educational pur- er army in the world in most of which igno- grand idea, and one in a fair way of accomposes (then in the bands of the imaums, or rance is the rule and intelligence the excep-plishment, though, of course, it will take serpriests) amounted to about twenty thousand tion—the soldier regarded as a machine, not eral years to carry it out thoroughly in a dollars. In 1872 the government appropriated a man. Europe and America, in this matter, country and with a people so wedded to old four hundred thousand dollars for that pur. might well take a lesson from Egypt—since ideas and customs. pose, with large and liberal donations from the horrors of war might be greatly lessened He has struck a heavy blow at the habit the khédive and his sons, to the tune of many by educating and humanizing its tools, as the of plural wives in his own household, by inthousands more, to the private schools, na- khédive is doing. If he can elevate the sisting that all his sons and daughters shall tive and foreign, Mussulman and Christian, dumb drudges of the fields into intelligent be the husbands and wives of but one spouse male and female.

beings, as well as his soldiers, even England each, a most significant indication of his purIn Mehemet Ali's time there were but six may have cause to blush at the contrast with pose and sentiments in this regard. All these thousand boys receiving public instruction; her rural population, for wbom no such hu- sons and daughters, too, he has caused to be and this such as the native priests were ca- manizing efforts are being made, and who, ) carefully educated in foreign languages, liter. pable of giving them—which, of course, was to-day, are scarcely more intelligent than the ature, and acquirements, and they are habitvery little-they, as a class, being ignorant oxen they drive, as their fathers were before ual attendants at the opera and theatre he of all but the Koran and a little ciphering. them, and their sons must be; and the same has caused to be established at Cairo during The schools of the missionaries, established is the case in most of the Continental states, the winter season-than which better perunder his successors, very limited in means As another proof of the importance he formances cannot be found at Paris or Lonand extent, have only been useful to a few of attaches to this matter, the khédive bas put don. The ladies, it is true, are but partially the children of the native Christians at the head of the Ministry of Public In- visible, the harem - boxes—six in number — handful of the population.

struction his son-in-law, Joussoum Pasha, being veiled with muslin curtains, through The schools now established, under the son of the late viceroy, with able European which flashing eyes and outlines of faces are supervision of European instructors, such as subordinates.

alone visible to the other spectators. But this the learned and skilled Inspector of Schools, The Arabs are naturally quick-witted and semi-publicity is a stride toward the abolition M. Doa—Swiss—and Mr. Rogers, late Brit- fond of study, and the progress made by the of the seclusion of women, which seems so ish consul at Cairo, now School Superintendo children is exceedingly rapid. In this they ingrained in Eastern habitudes and sentiments. ent — and one of the best Arabic scholars differ from the negro or woolly-headed race, When the door of the cage is left balfamong the foreign residents—are intended to who are chiefly employed as domestic ser- opened, the caged birds will be very apt to educate the whole growing male community vants. Although there are black regiments find a way out of their captivity sooner or later. of Egypt. Separate schools, richly endowed, in the army, a black officer of high grade is The heir - apparent, Prince Tewfik, has have been established for the education of an exception.

ably seconded his father's efforts in this matgirls—a startling novelty-patronized by the The fellah is copper-colored, as dark as, or ter of education. Being a large landed proroyal princess, and presided over by Miss darker than, the American Indian, and with prietor, he owns numerous villages attached Whately, the niece of the Archbishop of the same sparse beard and straight bair, the to bis farms, and has founded a school in Dublin, whose zeal is only surpassed by her latter of which he shaves, the former he lets

each one.

At all of these instruction is free. ability. alone, reversing Western precedents.

In the neighborhood of his palace at Koubeh Already the male pupils in these schools At the Citadel at Cairo, which is now he has just finished a large school-house for are estimated at one hundred thousand in really a high-school for the instruction of of- boys — the children of the fellahs - and the the cities and the villages. As the whole num- ficers, and central point for the dissemination day the school opened thirty - six boys atber of boys in Egypt proper would not exceed of information, I saw native young men busily | tended, every subsequent day adding to their three hundred and fifty thousand, it will be employed at type-setting, proof-correcting, number. Every evening he himself inspected seen how large a proportion are now being book-publishing, lithographing, and map-mak. their progress for the first week. With ad. educated-areater in fact than in most coun- ing, and showing wonderful skill and aptitude mirable judgment, the furniture of these tries calling themselves civilized, for the pro- at their work. They now issue a monthly mag- schools intended for peasant-children is of portion is fourfold greater than in Russia, and azine of science and literature, printed in the the simplest kind, though cleanliness is strengreater even than that of Italy.

Arabic characters; and the number which I uously enforced. All the solid branches of Education in Egypt has now been made have contains diagrams of the transit of Venus, primary instruction are taught by competent compulsory, as it is in Prussia, and even the and much reading-matter. I have also some teachers ; and, in addition to gardens atfemale children of the fellabs, or rural labor- volumes of manuals of tactics, very prettily tached to the school-building, the prince has ers, are to be educated and fitted for domes- illustrated, all the work on which was done given eight feddans (acres) of land to be used tic service, so as to replace the present negro by native Egyptians.

for teaching the pupils the modern improveslaves—one of the strongest blows at slavery The American officers, at the head of ments in agriculture. All this shows how in the household that could be aimed-prov. whom are Generals Loring and Stone (old zealously the son is treading in the footsteps ing both the will and the wisdom of the khé- and distinguished United States Army offi- of his father. The difficulties that environ dive in this regard. The girls are said to cers, both of whom rank as pasbas), have the gigantic task of educating an entire peomake rapid progress, as well as the boys; initiated and are successfully carrying out ple, plunged in the depths of ignorance and and the next generation of Egyptians will be these educational improvements under the semi-barbarism, are enhanced by the peculiar very different from the present, owing to this intelligent administration of the khédive's character and moral and religious training of state of things.

second son, Hussein, who is Minister of War- the Egyptian native population. Opposed by In addition to these common schools, the his eldest, Prince Tewfik, acting as Minister the passive resistance, the vis inertiæ of an khédive has also instituted special schools of the Interior, and filling that post to the great obstinate and bigoted people, with whom cus. of instruction for the officers of his army, in satisfaction of all. The khédive's idea in ed. tom and old prejudices have all the force of which modern languages, mathematics, and ucating the children of the lower classes, laws, and the idleness engendered by an enerthe higher branches are taught-as well as hitherto suuk in the depths of utter ignorance vating climate, the Khédive Ismail is reso



lately pushing on, and fast freeing the grow

was the quaint collection of colored prints of ing generation of his people from the yoke PORTUGUESE SUPER- sacred subjects-pious daubs, fearful to the of ignorance, apathy, and fanaticism — the


artistic eye-which hung about the walls. three gods of their old idolatry. He is com

Presently our supper was on the table, and

let the reader take note that the table was not pelling them to their good, and using abso. Jute power for the most beneficent purposes L

EAVING Valença early in the morning, decked with a cloth “coarse, but of snowy

we followed the course of the Minho to whiteness.” Indeed, for the matter of that, to which that perilous privilege was ever ap- the sea, passing on the way the fortified town we did not even indulge in plates, but before plied. For he has had to create not only an of Villa Nova da Cerveira, and the little har- each of us was placed a good-sized earthenempire, but to revive an apparently effete and bor and town of Caminba, surrounded by flats ware bowl and a wooden spoon. And if the exhausted people, generally supposed not only and marshes, with its outlying island-fortress; reader should ask of what the meal consisted, to be obstinately opposed to progress and en- then, again striking southward by the sea- let him know that there was one dish and a lightenment, but also to be incapable of re

shore, through a half-cultivated region which remove. The dish, sopa secca (literally “dry ceiving them.

in former times was a royal forest, we reached soup”), made of wheaten bread, beef, cabIf the East has turned a deaf ear to the

a gloomy-looking fortress close to the sea, the bage, and mint, almost a national dish in PorWest, and hugged its old idols closer to its

first of a series which continues along the tugal; and the remove, bacalhau, dried cod

whole coast-line of the province of the Min- fish, boiled—which is quite a national dishbosom because of the efforts made to alienate ho.

and the man who objects to such a bill of fare her from them, on the other hand the West

Toward nightfall we overtook a farmer on must, indeed, be an epicure. has done less than justice to the capacity and horseback, and when, after riding on in friend- I praised the fish for its tenderness, and actual intelligence of her elder sister, from ly conversation with him for a mile or so, I my hostess explained to me that to make it so whose old stores so much of modern knowl- asked him how far off I might be from an ind it was essential that the dried fish-which, inedge has been drawn.

and shelter for the night, he good-humoredly deed, is often, when cooked, as hard as & The experiment of renewing intellectual laughed at the idea of my condescending to board—should be previously soaked for exactculture in the East has now been initiated in

put up at any place nearer than Vianna. On ly eighteen hours in running water. the old fields of Egypt, and Christendom my telling him that I was by no means par

Then the host filled me a large tumbler of ticular, and that my guide's horse was too country wine, his own vintage, assuring me cannot but watch with hope the spread of

tired for farther traveling, he drew up his horse that wine never tastes so well as after bacallight into those dark places. At the coming

to a stand-still, and looked hard at me. hau. It is a very remarkable drink, this Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia — for " There is a house about one mile from green wine," as it is called. I have tasted which the khédive is making ample prepara- here,” said the farmer; "you will get poor the country wines of many lands, but never tion-Egypt will be represented, and it will fare and poor shelter, but none better, I think, | yet such a one as this. Perfectly sound, but probably surprise most Americans to on this side of Vianna. I will show you the possessing a fruitiness, astringency, and sharpwbat her exhibition will be. Not only our way," he added.

ness enough to take one's breath away, it has agriculturists, but our manufacturers and

So saying, he trotted on, and soon, turning! yet little more alcoholic strength than claret.

aside from the main road, guided us along a draughtsmen, will have to look to their lau

So full is it of what may be called vinous matvile ox-cart road, the worst of all roads to ride ter that it is hardly ever clear; it is apparentrels, in the competition which she can now

over in a bad light. For about a mile we trav- ly, however, not liked the less for being quite offer in these varied fields; and her portion

eled up a narrow valley. On each side of the thick and muddy. To an exhausted man, on of that great international show-ground will

road grew pollarded oaks and chestnuts, whose a summer's day, I know no greater restorative certainly prove not the least interesting. branches were twisted so as to join overhead ; than a full draught of this Minho wine.

Some recent “sentimental travelers” from and on these trees were trained vines, whose When we had eaten and drunk, the dishes America and elsewhere have been shedding foliage, though it was only May, already gave were pushed “below the salt,” and one or hysterical tears (in ink) over the changes a dense sbade.

two of the farm-servants fell to on the plentiwrought by the march of improvement at

Presently this narrow road opened out into ful remainder, while we, wrapping ourselves Cairo, in the demolition of the “pictu- fectly embowered and shaded by vines, carried a square walled inclosure, which was also per- in our cloaks, and leaning our elbows on the

table, lighted our cigarettes, and proceeded to resque" but exceedingly dirty and dan

on stout rafters of wood, the whole supported hold grave discourse. gerous mud houses, and erection of stone

by the side-walls and by five or six stone pil- Knowing that my host must be curious to buildings in their place. The same class of

lars in the centre, so that the place was like a be told where I came from, and the purpose people howled loudly over the Emperor Na- huge room, the ceiling of which was of vine- of my traveling, I thought it due to his hospoleon's demolition and reconstruction of leaves. It was, in fact, the court-yard of a pitality to offer him a sketch of my proceedold Paris, and with the same effect. Fine good-sized farm-house.

ings, in which I was assisted by the horsephrases are harmless, if inexpensive.

The farmer stopped at the door of the dealer, who, after the manner of such squires, ".... The poet's eye, house, which opened on to this yard.

added fancy details illustrative of the magnifiIn a fine frenzy rolling,"

“Why," I said to him, “ this is a private cence, wisdom, and so forth, of bis master. I house."

ended by saying that I was going to travel prac

through Portugal at my pleasure, and to see tical or the useful; but the present genera

the farmer, as he stood uncovered, with the whatever was curious or worthy to be seen by tion prefer looking at the inside rather than

true courteous hospitality of an old-fashioned a foreigner. the outside of things, and the tourist had bet Portuguese.

The farmer nodded his head slowly once or ter leave his “singing - robes” at home and It was, in truth, his own house; and pres- twice as I finished. The idea was too strange come down to common-sense, when professing ently a man appeared to take our horses, a dog to him to be taken in at once; at last he got to give a description of one of the greatest

came and licked the master's hand, children firm hold of it. national movements of this generation.

issued from the house and greeted their father, “Your country, I dare say, is very different

and the wife stood in the doorway and wel- from Portugal,” he said. Surely the sympathy and moral support comed us.

“Very different," I answered. “You may of all educated Americans ought to go with

6 Cea! cea !" the farmer called out cheer- understand how much so when I tell you that the great Eastern reformer, who has borrowed fully, which, interpreted, is supper, a pleasant our farmers neither grow maize nor make so much from American example, and is mod. sound to a belated traveler.

" Here is a gen

wine." eling his country as closely after theirs as tleman who has eaten nothing since he was in “Coitadinhos !” (poor devils !) said the the difference of place, people, and situation, Spain.”

man; “then what do they eat and drink?" will permit, even if, in the attainment of Looking round the room we entered, I saw “Well,"

," I said, “ it is not so difficult as these ends, he must remove much rubbish, much that I should have seen in a farmer's you may think. We can make all sorts of material and sentimental.

kitchen at home: the old single-barreled gun things in England, and sell them to all counBut the man and his works will survive, slung on the wall, the English willow-pattern tries, and then buy what we want from them. when the caviling critics

like the grass

plates ranged on the shelves, the well-polished, For instance, there is the shirt you wear, it

high-backed chairs, the sides of bacon hanging was made in England, and that gun, it was hopper filling the fields with its clamor—are

from the rafters. What was not like England made there, too; so, you see, if we wanted to anheard and forgotten. The poet lives in

cat maize or drink wine, we should have somethe past-the statesman in the present and

* From Travels in Portugal, by John Latouche. thing to offer in exchange." future. EDWIN De Leon. ! London, 1875.

“ Wonderful !" cried the farmer, quite de

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lighted. It was clear that he had never been twenty years ago ; and, moreover, I was my- " Very soon after this the child was born, lectured before on political economy.

self a witness of what I am going to relate, / and the new girl took the mistress's place-We talked on many matters. At last I for I was then a young man living at a farm cooked for us, and so forth. thought of questioning the farmer on a subject near Cabrasam, among the mountains of the Now, the newly - horn infant was a rewhich has always had a great interest for me Estrica, which is, as you know, as wild a coun- markably fine and healthy one. Everyhody -the superstitious beliefs and tales of the try as any in Portugal.”

said so, except one old woman, a neighbor, peasantry.

The farmer filled up his own and my glass, who was thought to be a 'wise woman.' This I have long held a theory that, wherever and his wife and children and the servants person looked rather put out the moment she tbe Romans have left permanent marks of gathered round us, and stood with solemn saw the child, and said it was bewitched. The their stay, there the superstitions have the pe- faces to listen to a tale which they had proba- | father and mother laughed heartily at this, culiar gloomy stamp of the legendary myste- | bly already beard more than once :

seeing how well the child looked. Then the ries of ancient Italy. If this is true any- "The farmer with whom I served was a woman said she was mistaken if tbe child had where, it must be true in Portugal, where young man, and his wife a young woman. He not the devil's mark somewhere on its skin; these people have left their vestiges not only had just come on to the farm. Two or three and, sure enough, so it had-a mark on its in the language, which is nearer to Latin than other men besides myself worked with him, shoulder, exactly as if the pattern of a small any other known tongue, but even in the man- but there was no other woman in the place than crescent or half-inoon had been pricked upon ner of cultivating the soil, which, to this day, his wife. Now she, being about to give birth the skin with a pin. Then we all began to is done in accordance with the procepts of Cato to a child, desired to get another woman into get frightened, but the woman said there was and Columella.

the house to do such work as she would short- no cause for alarm except during the time of The type of Latin legend to which I refer is ly not be able to perform herself. So the mas- the new moon, and then the child must be that well-known and most grizzly and hideous ter went about the country to engage a wom- watched all the night through. of all ghost stories, the tale of the soldier in but, for some reason or other, he could not " When the old woman passed out of the Petronius Arbiter. Now, the belief in the succeed. As time passed, he sent me to the house, the new servant was sitting on the floor lobis-homen is very prevalent in parts of North- nearest town, Ponte de Lima, with directions with her brown cleak pulled rigbt over her ern Portugal. It is the legend of the loup- to inquire along the way, and engage the very face, and, though the old woman spoke to her, garou—the were-wolf-the periodical transfor- first likely-looking young woman I should she made her no answer, pretending to be mation of human beings into wolves, with all meet with.

asleep. the savage instincts of that animal. It is a “I started next morning before daylight, “Nothing particular occurred for some superstition whose existence in many coun- and I had not gone more than a mile on the months. The servant Joana was very useful tries has been too well investigated to need road before I saw, sitting by the wayside, one in the house, and both master and mistress further de tion from me; suffice it to say, of the queerest-looking girls my eyes ever fell con ated themselves on having engaged a that nowhere is this belief invested with so She was wrapped up, head and all, in a chamorra to work. However, we, her fellowmany peculiar and gloomy circumstances as in brown cloak, such as we never see in this part servants, did not much like her.

She was Portugal.

of the country. The sun had just risen, and very sharp in her speech, and, whenever she I began to sound the farmer on the subject . she was stretching out her hands as if to warm was angry, her eyes, which were long and of folk-lore and popular superstitions rather them in its rays. The oddest thing about her narrow in shape, seemed almost to emit fire cautiously, for people are apt to be reticent in was that her hair was cut close to her head, and gave her a terribly savage aspect. Howtalking of these matters to strangers, but the like a man's. Now, this is common enough ever, when not out of temper, she was a handfarmer was not shy at all.

with our women when they get old and do not some girl. She seldom spoke much, but she Yes," he said ; " he had known some care to be troubled with long hair; but for a very soon got into the confidence of her masstrange things to happen, and in that very young and handsome girl like her to be cha- ter and mistress; and, one day, when the latneighborhood, too!"

morra (crop-haired), was a thing I have ter mentioned to her what had been told her " Would he tell me what?"

never seen before or since. So I stood still by the old woman, she said : “Well, he would," he said, “and with and stared at her like a fool as I was.

"Ali, yes! I have known it a long time, great pleasure ; he would tell me one of the "• Well, Santinho,'* said the girl, "you but I was afraid to tell you. Children with most singular things he ever heard of; but" are wondering to see me warm my hands in that mark grow into lobis-homems before they ---looking at me doubtfully-"you will hardly the sunbeams?'

get to be sixteen, unless something is done to bring yourself to believe it; and, to tell the “ “ I think you would get warm quicker,' I truth, no more should I, if it had not been re- answered, 'if you went on your way, instead 666 And what can be done?' said my mislated to me by one who saw it-no other than of sitting still in this cold wind.'

tress. iny own brother's son.

6. And what if I am tired as well as cold?' 66 * You must cover the evil mark with the " You must know," said the farmer, with a she said, sharply.

blood of a white pigeon, strip the child naked, grave air, “ that not many miles from this is a ""Have you been traveling all the night?' and lay it on a blanket on the mountain-side river in which are vast quantities of fish. “. Indeed I have,' said the girl,' and many the very first time the moon rises in the heavNow, every year there comes a stranger to a one before that.'

ons after midnight. Then the moon will draw this river; he stands upon the bank, and, "" Then you come from a long way off?' the mark up through the blood, just as sho holding in his hand a magical fly (uma mosca "I come from Tarouca, in the mountains draws the waters of the sca up at full tide, and encantada) tied to the end of a very long of Beira, and that is a long journey from here.' the child will be saved.' thread, he blows the fly away from him as far "• And, if it is not a secret, what bave you “ The farmer and his wife agreed to do as a man can throw a stone: it falls upon the come so far from home for ?'

this, to save their child from becoming a lobiswater, and no sooner does it touch the surface “No secret at all,' she replied. My homem, and, it happening to be a vew moon than a fish seizes it, and the stranger draws name is Joana, and I am looking for a place as late in the night a day or two afterward, the both fly and fish ashore by the thread which servant at a farm. Do you know any one who needful preparations were made, and when he holds in his hand. Now, what do you think requires one?'

the night came the child was laid on the mounof that?"

“Now, it struck me here was the very tain-side, near the house, while the moon was My host had given me this fancy descrip- | thing I was looking for – a strong, hearty- still below the horizon. This done, we all retion of fly-fishing with so very serious a face, looking girl who wished to be a servant; so I turned to the house, for it was essential that that I was almost afraid to laugh, till I ob- told her I was out with the object of engaging no eye should be upon the child until the served a sympathetic twinkle in his own eyes; such a person as herself, and, if she would moon had risen. The farmer began to be unbut he nodded toward his servants as if to hint come with me to my master's, she might find easy, thinking that there might be wolves that I was not to betray the secret of the mys- the place she wanted. The girl expressed her near, but the men reassured him, saying that terious fisherman to them. readiness, and we started homeward.

a wolf had not been seen in the neighborhood Then the farmer, perceiving that I was an "I left her outside the house while I went for many years. Nevertheless, he loaded his attentive and by no means a captious listener, in. The farmer did not much like the idea of gun, putting into it, for want of other ammubegan another story.

having so strange a being for a servant; but nition, five or six rusty nails. ** We are all good Christians here, and his wife, hearing that she was a chamorra, in- “ He had hardly done so when, to our horought not to fear the malice of the evil spirit; sisted upon engaging her; for we have a say- ror, we heard the most piercing screams from nevertheless, we know that power is given | ing that chamorras make the best of workers. where the child was lying. In an instant we him sometimes to work mischief in some mys

had all rushed out-the screams increasing as terious manner which all the priests put to- Literally, "Little Saint"-a common form of we neared the spot. At this very instant the gether do not understand. In proof of this I address, among the peasantry, from one stranger moon rose, and we saw a huge brown wolf will tell you of an event that happened not to another.

standing over the body of the child, liis fangs

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