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was elected, who also succeeded Governor Bradford, and was annually elected, until his death in 1673, when Josias Winslow succeeded and continued until he died in 1680, and was succeded by Thomas Hinkley, who held the place, except in the interruption by Sir Edmund Andross, until the junction with the Maffachuferts in 1692.

In March 1624 Mr. Winslow, agent for the colony, arrived in the ship Charity, and, togeiher with a good supply of clothing, brought a bull and three beifers, which were the firit cattle of the kind in this part of America. From these, and others that were afterwards brought over from England, sprang the present multitudes of cattle in the northern {tates. None of the domestic animals were found in America by the first European fettlers.

This year Lyford and Oldham, two treacherous intriguing characters, influenced the factious part of the adventurers, to join them in opposing the church and government of the colony. Their artful designs got vent, and occasioned much diiturbance. Oldham was detected and banished. Lyford, who afterwards proved to be a yillain, was, upon apparent repentance, pardoned and received.

At the clote of this year, (1624) the plantation at New-Plymouth, confifted of 180 persons, who lived in thirty-two dwelling houses. Their Atock was a few cattle and goats, and a plenty of fwine and poultry. Their town was impaled about half a mile in compass. On a high mount in the town, they had erected a sort of wood, lime and stonė, and a handfome watch-tower. This year they were able to freight a ship of 180

Such was the healthfulness of the place, or of the seasons, that, notwithstanding their frequent destitution of the necessaries of life, not one of the first planters died for three years.

However rigid the New-Plymouth colonists may have been at their first separation from the church of England, yet they never discovered that perfecuting spirit which we have seen in Massachusetts. When Mrs. Hutchinson and her adherents were banished from that colony, they applied to the colony of Plymouth, for leave to settle upon Aquidnick or Rhode Island, which was then acknowledged to be within Plymouth patent, and it was readily granted, although their tenets were no more approved by Plymouth than by the Massachusetts. Some of the Quakers allo fled to Plymouth bounds, and probably saved their lives; for although they made laws severe enough against erroneous opinions, yet in no case capital; and the Baptists were still more favourably received, the town of Swanzey being principally settled by Baptist refugees from the Maffachus setts colony, and when one of their ministers settled in the church of Plymouth, they were content that he should baptize by immersion or dipping any who desired it, provided he took no exception to the other minister's sprinkling such for whom immersion was not judged necessary.

About this time several ineffectual attempts were made to settle Weymouth, Dorchester, Cape Ann and Nantasket.

The year 1625 is diftinguished by the death of the Rev. Mr. Robinson He died at Leyden in March, in the 50th year of his age. He was truly a great and good man, and lived in great love and harmony with his people. He was held in high estimation by all his acquaintance, for his learning, piety, moderation and excellent accomplishments. His death was lamented as a public loss, and felt by none more than by his beloved


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and far distant people at Plymouth. His fon Isaac came over to Plye mouth, where he lived to the age of go years. His descendants still live in Barnstable county in Massachusetts.

After the death of Mr. Robinson, the remaining part of his congregation were extremely desirous of coming over to their friends at Plymouth, and measures were taken for the purpose ; yet it was not until feveral years after, that they effected their design .

In August, 1629, thirty-five of the Leyden congregation, with their families, and many more pious people from England, arrived in a fhip from London, to the great joy of their friends at Plymouth. The next spring, another company of Leydeners came over. Whether these were the whole that remained, or whether others came over after them, is not certain.

From this time New-England began to flourish. Sir Henry Roswell and others, had received a patent of Massachusetts from the Council of New-England. Settlements were successfully enterprized at Salem, Charleston, Boston, Dorchester and other places, so that in forty years from this time (1629) 120 towns were settled, and forty churches were gathered.

The Laudian persecution was conducted with unrelenting severity; and while it caused the destruction of thousands in England, proved to be a principle of life and vigour to the infant settlements in America, Several men of eminence in England, who were the friends and protectors of the Puritans, entertained a design of settling in New-England, if they should fail in the measures they were pursuing for the establishment of the liberty, and the reformation of the religion of their own country. They solicited and obtained grants in New-England, and were at great pains in settling them. Among these patentees were the Lords Brook, Say and Sale, the Pelhams, the Hampdens and the Pyms ; names which afterwards appeared with great eclat. Sir Matthew Boynton, Sir William Constable, Şir Arthur Haflerig, and Oliver Cromwell, were actually upon the point of embarking for New-England, when Archbishop Laud, unwilling that so many objects of his hatred should be removed out of the reach of his power, applied for, and obtained, an order from the court to put a stop to these transportations. However, he was not able to prevail so far as to hinder New-England from receiving vast additions, as well of the clergy, who were filenced and deprived of their living, and for non-conformity, as of the laity who adhered to their opinions.

New-Plymouth, until this time, had remained without a patent. Several attempts were made, agents were sent, and much money was expended, with a view to obtain


but all hitherto had proved abortive. On the 13th of January, 1630, the council of New-England sealed a patent to William Bradford, Esq; and his heirs, of all that part of New-England lying beIween Cohafset rivulet towards the north, and Narragansett river towards the south, the western ocean towards the east, and between and within a strait line directly extending up the main land towards the west from the mouth of Narragansett river, to the utmost bound of a country in New-England, called Pokanokett, alias Sawamfett, weltward, and another like a strait line extending directly from the mouth of Cohaffett river to


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ward the weit fo far up into the main land as the utmost limits of the said Hokanoket extend: Also, all that part of New-England between the vinot limits of Caperlecont which adjoineth to the river Kennebeck, and the falls of Negumke, with the faid river itfelf, and the space of fifteen miles on each lide between the bounds above-said,' with all the rights, jurisdictions, privileges, &c. &c. usual and neceffary.

This patent passed the king's hand, and would no doubt have now been finithed," had not the agents, without the notice or advice of the colony, inserted a clause to free the colony from customs seven years inward, and twenty-one outward. But in consequence of this clause the patent was pever finished, and they remained without a charter, until they were incorporated with Massachufetts in 1691 or 1692. Notwithstanding this, New-Plymouth was a government de facto, and considered as such by king Charles, in his letters and orders which were fent them at various times previous to their incorporation with Massachusetts,

It was in the spring of 1639, that the GREAT CONSPIRACY was en, tered into by the Indians in all parts, from the Narragansetts round to the eastward, to extirpate the English, The colory at Plymouth was the principal object of this conspiracy. They well knew that if they could effect the destruction of Plymouth, the infant fe:tlement at Mafia ehusetts would fall an easy facrifice. They laid their plan with much art. Under colour of having some diversion at Plymouth, they intended to have fallen upon the inhabitants, and thus to have effected their design, But their plot was disclosed to the people at Charleston, by John Sagamore, an Indian, who had always been a great friend to the Englith. This treacherous design of the Indians alarmed the English, and induced theịn ta er forts and maintain guards, to prevent any such fatal surprize in future. These preparations, and the firing of the great guns, so terrified the Indians that they dispersed, relinquished their design, and des clared themselves the friends of the English,

Such was the vast increase of inhabitants in New-England by natural population, and particularly by emigrations from Great-Britain, that in à few years, besides the settlements in Plymouth and Massachusetts, yery flourishing colonies were planted in Rhode-Illand, Conneéticut, New-Haven and New Hampshire. The dangers to which these colonies were exposed from the surrounding lodians, as well as from the Dutch, who, although very friendly to the infant colony at Plymouth, were now likely to prove troublesome neighbours, first induced them to think of an alliance and confederacy for their mutual defence. Accordingly in 1643, the four colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven, agreed upon articles of confederation, whereby a congress was formed, confiiting of two commissioners from each colony, who were chofen annually, and when met were confidered as the representatives of The united colonies of New-England. The powers delegated to the commissioners were much the same as those vested in Congress by the articles of confederation, agreed upon by the United States in 1978. The colony of Rhode-I and would giadly have joined in this confederacy, but Massachusetts, for particular reasons, refused to admit their commitfioners. This union fubfilted, with fome few alterations, until the year

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1686, when all the charters, except that of Connecticut, were in effect vacated, by a commillion from James the Ild.

I shall close this general history of New England with a few remarks respecting the Indians.

We cannot even hazard a conjecture respecting the Indian population of New England, at the time of its settlement by the English. Captain Smith, in a voyage to this coat in 1614, supposed, that on the Massachufetts Illand, there were about 3000 Indians. All accounts agree, that the fea-coat and neighbouring islands were thickly inhabited.

Three years before the arrival of the Plymouth colony, a very mortal fickness, supposed to have been the plague, raged with great violence among the Indians in the eastern parts of New-England. Whole towns were depopulated. The living were not able to bury the dead ; and their bones were found lying above ground, many years after. The Massachusetts Indians are said to have been reduced from 30,000 to 300 fighting men. In 1633, the small-pox swept off great numbers of the Indians in Massachusetts.

In 1763, on the Illand of Nantucket, in the space of four months, the Irdians were reduced, by a mortal sickness, from 320 to 85 souls. The hand of Providence is noticeable in these surprising instances of mortality, among the Indians, to make room for the Engliih. Comparatively few þave perished by wars. They waste and moulcer away - they, in a manper unaccountable, disappear.

The number of Indians in the state of Connecticut in 1774, was 1 363. Their number was again taken in 1782, but was not kept separate from that of the Negroes. Their number is doubtless much leffened. The principal part of their present population in this state is at Mohegan, in New-London county:

The number of Indians in Rhode Island in 1783, was only 525. More than half of these live in Charleston, in the county of Washington. In 1774, the number of Indians in Rhode-Ihand was 1482 ; so that in nine years the decrease was 957. I have not been able to ascertain the exact state of the Indian population in Maffechusetts and New Hampfhire. In 1984, there was a tribe of about forty Indians at Norridgewalk, in the Province of Main, with some few other scattering remains of tribes in other parts ; and a number of towns thinly inhabited round Cape Cod.

When the English first arrived in America, the Indians had no tienes nor places fet apart for religious worship. The first settlers in NewEngland, were at great pains to introduce among them the habits of civilized life, and to instruct them in the Christian religion. A few

years intercourse with the Indians, induced them to establish several good and natural regulations. They ordained, that if a man be idle a week, or at most a fortnight, he shall pay five shillings. Every young man, not a servant, shall be obliged to set up a wigwam, and plant for himself. If an unmarried man shall lie with an unmarried woman, he hall pay twenty shillings. If any woman shall not have her hair tied

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The Rev. Mr. Elliott, of Roxbury, near Boston, who has been styled the

great Indian Apostle, with much labour, learned the Natic dialect of the Indian languages. He published an Indian grammar, and preached in Indian to several tribes, and in 1664, translated the Bible, and several religious books into the Indian language He relates several pertinent queries of the Indians respecting the Christian religion. Among others ; whether JESUS CHRIST, the inediator or interpreter, could understand prayers in the Indian language? If the father be bad and the child good ; why should God, in the second commandment, be offended with the child? How the Indians came to differ fo much from the English in the Knowledge of God and Jesus CHRIST, since they all sprang from one father? Mr. Elliott was indefatigable in his labours, and travelled through all parts of Mafichusetts and Plymouth colonies, as far as Cape Cod. The colony had such a veneration for him, that in any act of the general aflembly, relating to the Indians, they express themselves thus, . By the advice of faid magiltrates, and of Mr. Elliott.' Mr. Mayhew, who also learned the Indian language, was very active in propagating the knowledge of chrikianity among the Indians at Nantucket, Martha's-Vineyard, and Elizabeth-Island.

Mr. Brainard was a truly pious and successful missionary among the Indians on the Susquehannah and Delaware rivers. In 1744, he rode about 4000 miles among the Indians ; sometimes five or fix weeks together without seeing a white person. The Rev. Mr. Kirtland, of Stockbridge, has been laboriously engaged, aad greatly serviceable in civilizing and christianizing the Oneida and other Indians.

Concerning the religion of the untaught natives of America, Mr. Brainard, who was well acquainted with it, informs us, that after the coming of the white people, the Indians in New-Jersey, who once held a plurality of Deities, supposed there were only three, because they faw people of three kinds of complexions, viz-English, Negroes, and themfelves.

It is a notion pretty generally prevailing among them, that it was not the fame God made them who made us; but that they were created after the white people: and it is probable they supposed their God gained some special skill, by seeing the white people made, and so made them better : for it is certain they look upon themselves, and their methods of living, which they say their God expresly prescribed for theni, vastly preferable to the white people, and their methods.

With regard to a future state of existence, many of them imagine that the chichung, i. &. the shadow, or what survives the body, will, a: death, go fouthward, and in an unknown, but curious place—will enjoy some kind of happiness, such as hunting, feasting, dancing, and the like. And wliat they suppose will cantribute much to their happiness in the next ftate is, that they shall never be weary of those entertainments.

Those who have any notion about rewards and punishments in a future state, seem to imagine that most will be happy, and that those who are not fo, will be punished only with privation, being only excluded from the walls of the good world where happy spirits reside.

These rewards and punishments, they juppose to depend entirely upon their behaviour towards inankind; and have no reference to any thing which relates to the worship of the Supreme Being.


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