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in behalf of themselves and others meeting in New Row, in Dublin; both which were very graciously received by his majesty." And in a July Gazette is recorded an address from his majesty's" Dissenting subjects in Munster," and another from the “Presbyterian ministers of Ulster.” In fact, that official organ, number after number, so teemed with announcements of these effusions, that one might suppose there was hardly a difference of opinion in the country on the subject to which they referred.

Now came the memorable year 1688. The reader is referred to histories of England for details of the measures which ended in the substitution of William, Prince of Orange, for his father-in-law, James II., on the throne of these realms—an issue that secured much of what had been struggled for, but not permanently obtained, thirty years before. It is said that Tyrconnel had private knowledge of proceedings with William before James was acquainted with them, and that James received his earliest intimation of them from his Irish lord deputy. James at first treated the movement with contempt, but he soon was made to feel that it was a substantive and strong reality, before which he and his principles had to quail.

William arrived at Torbay on the 4th of November, and, before the end of December, James left the kingdom and retired to France. A convention of the lords and commons of England adjudged that he had, ipso facto, abdicated the throne, which they then offered to William, Prince

of Orange, and his princess Mary, James's daughter. The offer was accepted. Ireland had no share in that transaction : Tyrconnel held that country for James. While the English convention were presenting the crown to William and Mary, Tyrconnel was disarming all the Protestants of Dublin and other places over which his power extended. The churches of the city were made dépôts : Trinity College was converted into a barrack. Sir Thomas Hacket, the lord mayor, Colonel Lutrel, the governor of Dublin, and the lord chief justice Nugent, emulated the lord lieutenant in zeal against the Protestants. On the 12th of March, King James landed at Kinsale, reached Dublin on the 24th, and called a parliament, which sat till July 20th. Among other doings, it repealed the Act of Settlement, and passed an Act of Attainder against two thousand six hundred Protestants. King, dean of St. Patrick's and locum tenens of the archbishop, then absent, was repeatedly imprisoned, and in great danger through his steadfastness, when the Protestants were proscribed.

To provide for his necessities James established a mint in Dublin, for coining money out of the worst kind of brass, old guns, and other refuse metal, melted down together. The mass was worth from threepence to fourpence a poundweight; and by proclamation, dated June 18th, this money was made current, twenty shillings of it not being worth more than twopence. Of this base coin nearly 390,000 pounds weight were struck and made to pass for the value of nearly

1,600,000 pounds sterling, in what were called half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences. In this money the troops were paid, and all business transacted. A coinage of pewter was prepared the next year, but the final defeat of James prevented its being issued.

On the 3d May, 1690, Lutrel, governor of Dublin, issued an order commanding all ministers and curates of the several parishes in the city and liberties to send in the names of all male Protestants and Dissenters in the several parishes, by the following Thursday, under pain of being treated as spies or enemies. On the 18th, he issued another, requiring all Protestants who were not housekeepers, or who had not followed some lawful vocation for three months before, to depart within twenty-four hours, under pain of death or imprisonment; and all Protestants not of the privy council, nor in the king's army or 'actual service, to deliver up within the said time their arms and ammunition into the stores, on pain of death. He further ordered that no Protestant presume to walk the streets from ten o'clock at night till five in the morning, nor at any time during an alarm ; and that no greater number of them than five should meet and converse at any time, either in houses, streets, or elds, under pain of death, or such" punishment as a courtmartial should think fit. He also made disobedience to many of his verbal orders death. But deliverance was at hand:

On the day before the last-named edict was issued, King William landed at Carrickfergus, near


Belfast. Some of his officers suggested the priety of remaining for some time in that neighborhood, but he said, with a degree of warm resolve, “I came not to Ireland to let the grass grow under my feet.” He at once marched southward. On Tuesday, July 1, he routed James's army in the battle of the Boyne, and the next day took possession of Drogheda. James hastened to Dublin after the battle, called together the council and magistrates, and gave them a farewell address, representing that his Irish troops were not to be depended on, that fortune was against him, and that he should now shift for himself, as they also must do. He charged them not to burn or pillage the city, and concluded by promising to labor for their deliverance as long as he lived. The next morning he left, accompanied by the Dukes of Berwick and Tyrconnel and the Marquis of Powis, for Waterford, whence he embarked for France. On his departure, the principal Roman Catholics fled from Dublin; the Protestants possessed themselves of the militia arms, formed a committee of management, despatched letters to King William with an account of what had transpired, and invited his presence in the metropolis. On Saturday the 5th, William encamped at Finglass, and the next day, Sunday, he "rode," says Rapin, “in a triumphant manner into Dublin, and went directly to St. Patrick's Church, the cathedral of that metropolis, attended by the bishops of Meath and Limerick; and after the public services were solemnly performed, Dr. King, afterwards arch

bishop of Dublin, preached a sermon upon the power and wisdom of the providence of God, in protecting his people, and defeating their enemies. The mayor and aldermen waited on his majesty; and the people endeavored, by all demonstrations of joy, to express their just sense of their great and happy deliverance. In the afternoon, the king returned to the camp." On the Monday, he published a royal declaration, promising pardon and protection to all who returned and submitted, excepting the leaders in the outrages that had been perpetrated, and even holding out hope to them by an assurance that he would never refuse mercy to those who were truly penitent. On Wednesday, July 9th, the king removed the greater part of his army to Crumlin, two miles south of the city, and despatched the remainder of his forces towards Athlone. On the next day, he issued a proclamation, annulling that of James respecting the base money, and reducing its current value to its real worth. Having appointed brigadier Trelawny to the command in Dublin, William advanced as far as Inchiquin, twentytwo miles on his way to Kilkenny. Towards the end of the month, he came back from Carrickon-Suir to Dublin, and stayed at Chapel-Izod some days, hearing complaints and redressing grievances. He rejoined the army on the 4th of August, and, having besieged Limerick, he appointed lords justices, and sailed for England from Duncannon Fort, about the 1st of September.

The next year's campaign brought the war in

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