« הקודםהמשך »
The promise of that morn of light,
TE Evils of IGNORANCE.-If you could only witners a When dust and spirit shall unite
few of the awful consequences resulting from ignorance, Again, in bliss to dwell,
your prayers would rise to heaven, that it might be And this cold form of senseless clay
shudder to see what still remains to be done for the Shall rise to reign in endless day.
moral benefit of the poor, and wbich can only be done
by the communication of knowledge. If you would Miscellaneous.
become familiar with the spiritual and social bereave
ments of those to whom the benefits of education have DEATHBED OF A RABBI.*-_When Rabbi Jochanan
not yet been extended, go into their miserable and Ben Zaccai was sick, his disciples went in to visit him. squalid abodes : there you might frequently read a When he saw them, he began to weep. His disciples lesson that would appal humanity, and scandalise a said to him: “Our master, the light of Israel, the Christian country. There you might behold infants, strong hammer, the right-hand pillar, why dost thou who have not long learned to lisp the endearing name weep?" He answered and said, “If I were this day of parent, steeped to the very crown in those loathsome led before a king of Hesh and blood, who is here to-day elements of vice, which so constantly ferment and and to-morrow in the grave; whose anger, if he were stagnate, with poisonous contagion, in the dwellings angry with me, would not last for ever; if he were to of the uneducated, demoralised, and destitute poor. consign me to prison, the imprisonment would not be There you would not only see guilt in its most repulan everlasting one; if he were to put me to death, it | sive forms, but often trace among its victims young would not an everlasting death; whom I could and tender females, with all the natural adornments of soothe with words, or bribe with money,—yet, if I were personal beauty, but debased, by example, to monsters thus led, I should weep: but now I am going before of iniquity. There you would behold fair creatures of the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be lie! who that sex whose creation has been such a blessed boon liveth and abideth for ever and ever; whose anger, if to man, just rising into womanhood, their personal he were angry with me, would last for ever; if he were charms only serving, as it were, to gild their deprato put me to prison, the imprisonment would be an
vity, with the plague-spot of pollution upon them; the everlasting one; if he were to consign me to death, divine image expunged, or no longer to be traced ; it would be death eternal; whom I could not soothe
the fiery scarlet of crime crimsoning their cheeks, with words, nor bribe with money. When, farther, I upon which the unsightly hues of excess of every kind have before me two ways, one to paradise and one to have untimely spread-and recollect it is the profligacy hell, and I know not whither I am going, -shall I not of women in particular which operates with such hane
ful influence upon the best interests of society; for by Poor PROTESTANT IRISH.1-I do not know a class women the vices or virtues of men are essentially in society whose case is more affecting than that of the governed. There you would see beauty wrecked by pons Irish Protestant. I speak not of the north of its early initiation into the horrible arcana of early Ireland, where union and number give a certain de- debauchery ; depravity in its most disgusting extremes; gree of strength; but I have in view that larger por- fathers receiving the wages of their daughters' insamy; tion of the island, Connaught, Munster, and most of physical and moral disease blended in horrible conLeinster, throughout which poor Protestants are, some- fusion. But I forbear to do violence to your feelings times in small communities or single families, insu- by working out a picture of the dreadful triumph of lated amid the vast abyss of popery around them; in ignorance - the awful consummation of that moral their habits and ideas they are of course mere peasants ; desuetude brought on and perpetuated, by a want of if at all more elevated than their neighbours, it is only education.- Rev. J. II. Caunier, a sufficient height to obtain for them envy, but not to secure them from the contagion of example. All the
THE PITCHER-PLANT.-This plant abounds in the customs, prejudices, "old wives' fables," and other
stony and arid parts of the island of Java, from which, under-currents of society, are working against their
were it not for this vegetable wonder, small birds and interest as men, and their faith as religionists; inter
quadrupeds would be forced to migrate in quest of marriage comes to complete the ruin: and thus it too
water. At the foot-stalk of each leaf is a small bag, often happens, that after a generation or two, the in
shaped exactly like a pitcher, furnished with a lid, and sulated Protestant family falls into the ocean of popery
having a kind of hinge that passes over the handle of around, and disappears. It may be, that policy cares
the pitcher and connects it with the leaf. This hinge for none of these things. A Gallio-like statesman
is a strong fibre, which contracts in showery weather
and when the dew falle. Numerous little goblets, may look upon every Protestant thus or otherwise removed, as a difficulty the less in “ pacificating Ire
filled with sweet fresh water, are thus held forth, and land;" but it is a hard trial for those who do care for
furnish a delicious draught to the tiny animals that the “ faith once delivered to the saints," who value an
climb their branches, and to a great variety of winged
visitants. But no sooner has the cloud passed by, and open Bible as the best blessing of the land, and the right to read it as man's best birthright,
-to such it is
the warm sun shone forth, than the heated fibre begins no small trial to see these things happening daily
to expand, and closes the goblet so firmly, as to prevent around them; and happen they must, with more or
evaporation, precluding a further supply till called for less frequency every day, unless the small communities
by the wants of another day. This beautiful and perof Protestants in the south of Ireland are afforded
fect provision of nature would afford a fine theme for a the protection education is calculated to give.
Thomson or Wordsworth; and furnishes an illustra
tion of the designs of Providence such as Paley would • From "Memoir of the eldest Daughter of Rev. M. S. Alex. have delighted to press into his service. .. ander, Professor of Hehrew in King's College, London, &c." Wertheim, 1840. This is an interesting little book, which we especially recommend to our younger readers, who will see therein how peaceful is the deathbed of one, even of the lambs of the flock, who has hope in Christ; presenting a contrast, never to be suthi
London: Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street, ciently pondered on, to the last hour of him who, as in the narra
Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-dlaria Lane, St. tive above quoted, knows not the Saviour.-Eo.
Paul's; and to be procured, by order, or all Booksellera in Town * From " A Letter to the Right llon. Lord Horpeth, Chief So.
:10) IT 1,1% cretary fur Ireland, with Proposals for modifying the National System of Education. By a Witness before the Committee of Inquiry into the New Plan of Education in Ireland.'” Dublin, Millikin and Son, 1840. A very exerleitt letter. buy one who seems to have studied ininutely the subject on which he writes.
PRINTED BY When will justice be done to the Church of Ireland !-ED.
10B8OX, LEVBY, AXD YRAYKLYN, 46 ST. MARTIN'S LAXE.
ON THE PERSONALITY OF SATAN.
sons of God came to present themselves before
the Lord, Satan came also amongst them.” BY THE Rev. EDWARD AURIOL, M.A.
And how could this be said of any but a disVicar of Newton-Valence-cum-Hawkley, Hants.
tinct person? In the same manner, also, we A REFERENCE to the services of the Church may refer to those places in the Bible where for the first Sundays in Lent must convince he is said to'“lead us captive:” “to deceive us of how great importance to those whom men;" “to walk about seeking whom he she calls to penitence, humiliation, and spe- may devour;" and according to our Lord's cial consideration, at this solemn season, the declaration to Peter, to “ seek to have him, compilers of our Liturgy esteemed the belief that lie might sift him as wheat :” all which in the agency of the great enemy of the world; expressions decidedly apply only to a perfor in the collect and gospel for the first Whereas in the epistle to the EpheSunday our Lord's temptation by the devil sians, the believer is said to “stand against is brought before us, and the gospels for the the wiles of the devil,” and to “ wrestle two subsequent Sundays give us an account against principalities, against powers, against of miracles performed in the casting out of evil the rulers of the darkness of this world :" spirits. The subject is also strikingly brought terms which evidently imply a multitude of under our notice in the first lesson of the spiritual enemies—all distinct persons: and morning service for Sexagesima Sunday, the existence of these is clearly stated by St. which describes the temptation of our first Jude, who tells us of the “ angels who kept parents. There is, however, one point con- not their first estate, but left their own habinected with this subject, the importance of tation, and who are reserved in everlasting which is often lost sight of— I refer to the ac- chains under darkness, unto the judgment of tual personality of the tempter of mankind. the great day.” And St. Peter declares to Vague notions are entertained and indulged us that “God spared not the angels that sinof a principle of evil; but the existence of ned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered wicked spirits, and the influence which they them into chains of darkness, to be reserved exercise over the souls of men (however ex- unto judgment." Whilst it is remarkable press the declarations of Scripture on this that our Lord worked an especial miracle head), are but too little regarded.
in suffering the devils to enter into a herd In offering some remarks upon this subject of swine, for which it is difficult to assign any I will endeavour, in the first place, to adduce other reason than that it pleased him, in comsome of the plain scriptural proofs of the person- plying with the request of the evil spirits ality of evil spirits. It belongs to the majestic themselves, to manifest by this means the plans of the divine word generally to state facts direct and positive, as well as the malicious rather than to enter into arguments; and so it agency of the devils whom he had cast out is in this instance. Thus in the book of Job, of the man possessed of the legion. We can however variously the whole passage may be imagine nothing more contradictory to the interpreted, the fact is related, that " when the notion, that all that is meant by spiritual inVOL. VIII. NO. ccx.
(London: Robson, Lcvey, and Franklyn, 46 St. Martin's Lane.]
fluence is the being actuated by some evil this contest. If there be so powerful a spirit of principles, than is afforded by this direct proof evil, it must be a spirit more powerful, wiser, of the agency of particular persons.
more active, and whose love to us shall exBut though these facts may be allowed, ceed the greatness of the malice and ill-will of the question may occur, of what importance our spiritual foes, who must oppose him. And is the doctrine which is thus proved? I con- where shall we find such a power? Blessed ceive of very great importance.
be God, in the agency of the Holy Ghost, First, as shewing us the power of our enemy. there is all that is required for us. 'St. John It is well that we should « not be ignorant of says of all in whose hearts the Holy Spirit his devices ;' and one, by no means of the least dwells, that “greater is He that is in you subtle, often is to throw a kind of ridicule than he that is in the world.” The power of upon the notion of his personality : but, if Sa- Satan may be very great, but he is not omnitan be indeed a spirit, and if there exist a potent: the subtilty and watchfulness of the number of such spirits, all intent on doing evil spirits may render them most fearful foes, mischief, and all acting on a determined plan, but they cannot be omniscient—and there how must the souls of men, whose nature is is but one to whom can belong the term " the also spiritual, be liable to be acted upon by only rise," even to “God our Saviour :" these evil spirits; whilst no doubt the passionis their hatred to the souls of men may surpass to which our own corrupt nature exposes us, all possibility of conception, but o, how the wants and weaknesses of our bodies, and much is there contained in one short sentence, the tendencies of our own wills to evil, afford as an answer to the fearful thought of the him the best opportunities of exercising his do- malice of Satan, “God is love and the minion, while he keeps the nature of his agency Spirit of truth has declared concerning all concealed from us, and thus uses the objects of his people, “the God of peace will bruise sense, to which we are continually exposed, as Satan under your feet shortly.” There is, a kind of masked battery by which he makes however, an awful reflection arising from the his attack upon us, himself escaping our ob- consideration of the reality of the personal naservation.
ture of Satan—the dreadful state of those over Secondly, this truth shews the horrible whom he reigns, of those children of disobedinature of some sins of which man is guilty, ence in whom he works. There is a remarkand which are natural to the fallen soul in able expression made use of in the epistle to the common with Satan himself. In several in- Ephesians, where he is called the “prince of dulgences we cannot suppose that he who is the power of the air.” Nothing can mark more a spirit can partake; but the sins of pride, strongly the secret, constantly present, and peropposition to the will of God, envy, malice, vading nature of his agency. The “god of this hatred, treachery, falsehood, are all such as world," again, is another name given to him. we are guilty of in common with him, who Now let it be perceived that there is really was a murderer from the beginning, and the such a being, that he has usurped (and been father of lies. Whilst many a tempted ser- permitted to do so) the kingdom which rightly vant of God has been permitted to derive belongs to the great and glorious God, and much comfort under severe trials occasioned that he and all his subjects are doomed to deby the suggestion of evil thoughts which, at struction—let the words of our Lord be the same time, his very soul abhorred, from remembered, and be considered as having to the reflection that these are the insinuations do with realities,—with no mere figures of of this wicked and shameless spirit, dealing speech, but with fearful realities,—when he with his spirit, and permitted for his humilia- declares that he will sentence the wicked to tion to buffet him, whilst, if possible, he would depart from him to the place prepared for persuade liim to believe they sprung from his the devil and his angels ;”—and surely in the own mind,--surely the remembrance of this fixed idea that is given of the actual existhorrible suggestion brought before our Lord, ence of such beings, and the reflection upon who was
tempted without sin,” that he what must be their fate, there is something should fall down and worship Satan, may so terrible, that, were it not that men are afford much consolation to the striving, strug- blinded, thoughtless, utterly unbelieving, so gling servant of God, who at once has re- that they are dead to all the calls of truth, course to the word of God for an answer to the none could rest satisfied until they had really tempter, under such painful circumstances. joined themselves to the Lord and to his peo
Thirdly, there is one most important re-ple, until they had been "turned from the sult from the discovery of this truth--if we power of Satan unto God," until, to use the have one so mighty to contend with, we have striking language of St. Paul to the Colosneed of one mightier to overcome him, one sians, they were “ delivered from the power stronger than the strong man armed. It is of darkness, and translated into the kingdom evident that we are not ourselves equal to of God's dear Son."
THE MUSIC OF THE REFORMED CHURCH. only in the public chapel, but the private closet;ms
officiated every day, both morning and evening, not METRICAL PSALMODY.
celebrated in the chapel with organs, and other musiThe music which, at the time of the Reformation, was
cal instruments, and the most excellent voices, both adopted in the Liturgy of the Church of England, did
of men and children, that could be procured in all the not differ much from that which had been employed
kingdom." in the corresponding parts of the Romish ritual. The
During Queen Elizabeth's reign, the Puritans made English Liturgy, or Book of Common Prayer, was
frequent demonstration of their hostility to the service published, and ordered to be generally used, in 1548 ;
of the Established Church. In 1571 they published and, in 1550, the whole cathedral service was set to
a Declaration, or Confession, in which they say, musical notes, and published by John Marbeck, organ
"Concerning singing of psalms, we allow of the peoist, of Windsor. The chants of the principal'hymns, ple's joining with one voice in a plain tune, but not such as the Te Deum laudumus, and responses, con
of tossing the psalms from one side to the other, with tained in this book, were nearly the same with the
intermingling of organs." In 1586 a pamphlet was missals, graduals, and antiphonaries, formerly used.
extensively circulated, entitled " A Request of all true
Christians to the House of Parliament," which, among The anthems, too, originally composed for the Reformed Church appear to have been similar to those
other changes, prays" that all cathedral churches may previously used, except that their words were English
be put down, where the service of God is generally instead of Latin ; and the great ecclesiastical com
abused by piping with organs, singing, ringing, and posers of the time of Edward the Sixth have also left trowling of psalms from one side of the choir to the specimens of their previous compositions of a similar
other, with the squeaking of chanting choristers, diskind, adapted to the Latin words of the Romish ritual. guised (as are all the rest) in white surplices; some When Queen Mary abrogated all the laws of her pre
in corner-caps and silly copes, imitating the fashion decessor concerning religion, and restored the Roinish
and manner of antichrist, the pope, that man of sin service, it appears that the compositions of the same
and child of perdition, with his other rabble of mismasters, Tye, Tallis, Bird, &c., with Latin words, were
creants and shavelings." These are specimens of the again performed in the churches; for the list of the spirit in which this hostility was carried on, with inestablishment of the queen's chapel contained nearly
creasing violence, till it at length accomplished its the same names with that of Edward the Sixth. And
object. it is not a little remarkable that, after the accession of
There was much that required reformation in the Elizabeth, the establishment of the royal chapel re
musical service of the Church. It was so complicated mained almost the same as in the two preceding
in its harmony, the voices were so intricately blended, reigns. These great barmonists seemn to have been
and single syllables were set to such long divisions little troubled with religious scruples.
and passages of notes, that the words were unintelliElizabeth succeeded to the crown in November
gible, and the music consequently unfit for the pur1558, and in April following gave the royal assent to
poses of devotion. This evil was reformed by Queen
Elizabeth. When she established the Liturgy in the the Bill for the uniformity of Common Prayer; and the Book of Common Prayer, thus established by law,
manner already mentioned, slie published injuncwas published immediately afterwards. At this time,
tions to the clergy, in one of which, on the subject of religious dissensions ran very high ; and, in respect to
church-music, it is said, -" The Queen's majesty, church-music, in particular, the Puritans had begun
neither meaning in anywise the decay of anything to raise that clamour against "playing upon organs,"
that might conveniently tend to the use and continu"curious singing," and "tossing about the psalms
ance of music, neither to have the same so abused in from side to side" - meaning responsive or alternate
any part of the church, that thereby the common siuging,--which, at a subsequent period, banished for
prayer should be worse understood by the hearers,
willeth and commandeth that there be a modest and a time, choral music from our churches. Elizabeth, in these circumstances, conducted lierself with the wis
distinct song, so used in aļl parts of the common dom which belonged to her character ; avoiding, on prayers of the church, that the same may be as plainly the one hand, the bigotry and superstition of the Ro
understood as if it were without singers.” This injuncmish Church, and, on the other, the fanaticism of the
tion has been generally obeyed, and its effect has been violent reformers. “In 1560," says Heylin, in his
the unrivalled excellence of the choral music of the “ Ecclesiastical History," “ the Church of England, as
Church of England, which, while it possesses all the it was first settled and established under Queen Eliza
grandeur which the power of harmony can bestow, is beth, may be regarded as brought to perfection. The
grave, solemn, and devout, and free from that mixture government of the Church by archbishops and bishops which yives such a motley and incongruous character
of intricate counterpoint with light and florid airs, its doctrines reduced to their ancient purity, according to the articles agreed on in Convocation, 1552;
to the music of the Romish Church. But the Puritans the Liturgy, conformable to the primitive patterns,
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries attacked and all the rites an ceremonies therein prescribed,
without discrimination every thing, whether good or accommodated to the honour of God and increase of bad, that was derived from the ancient service of the piety. The festivals preserved in their former dig
church; and therefore, not content with the reform nity; the sacrament celebrated in the most reverend
which had been effected in choral music, they still in
sisted on its total abolition. manner; music retained in all such churches in which provision had been made for the maintenance of it, or
Besides the music properly belonging to the Liturgy where the people could be trained up, at least, to
of the Church of England, the character and form of plain song. All which particulars were either esta
which was thus settled by law, there is another imblished by the laws, commanded by the queen's in
portant branch of church-music, common to all Pro. junctions, or otherwise retained by virtue of some
testant places of worship. This is metrical psalmody. ancient usages not by law prohibited. Nor is it much
Metrical psalmody appears to have been used so to be admired (wondered at), that such a general con
early as the twelfth or thirteenth century by the celeformity to those ancient usages was constantly ob
brated sect of the Albigenses, who anticipated, in some served in all cathedrals, and the most part of the
ineasure, the reformers of later times, and were cruelly parish churches, considering how well they were pre
extirpated as heretics. It is recorded by ecclesicedented by the court itself; in which the Liturgy was
astical writers, that when their great persecutor,
Simon de Montfort, in 1210, had lighted a pile for the * From "Musical History, Biography, and Criticism.' By
destruction of a body of them, they threw themselves George Hogarth." J. W. Parker
into the flames, to the number of a hundred and forty,
singing psalms. Psalms were sung in England by the music of Claude Le Jeune to that of Goudimel; for, as disciples of Wickliffe in the fourteenth century, and the counterpoint was simply note for note, the most by those of John Huss and Jerome of Prague in the ignorant of music, if possessed of a voice, and acfifteenth ; and it appears from a hymn-book of the quainted with the psalm- tune, might join in the perBohemian brethren, printed in 1538 (of which an ac- formance of any one of them ; which is impracticable count is given by Burney), that the tunes used by in the compositions of Goudimel, many of whose them were taken from the chants to which the Latin psalms, being composed in fugue, can be performed hymns of the Romish Church were sung. This doubt- only by persons weil skilled in music.” less was the case with the psalms of the other sects The first authority for the use of psalmody in Engthat have been mentioned.
land appears to have been the Act of Uniformity for Some of the oldest of the psalm-tunes still extant the use of common prayer in English, in 1545, which are said to have been composed by Luther. This contained a proviso, that "it shall be lawful for all great reformer was not only a lover of music, but con- men, as well in churches, chapels, oratories, and other versant with the art. In one of his epistles, he places places, to use openly any psalm or prayer taken out of music above all arts and sciences, except theology, the Bible, at any due time; not letting or omitting because religion and music are alone able to soothe thereby the service, or any part thereof mentioned in and compose the mind. In the same epistle he says, the said book;” that is, the Book of Common Prayer, “We know that music is hateful and intolerable to In the following year, 1519, a metrical version of fiftydemons;" and thus he concludes, “I verily think, one of the psalms was published by Thomas Sternhold. and am not ashamed to say, that, except theology, no It was reprinted in 1552; but neither cdition contained art is comparable to music.” Luther is supposed to musical notes. The entire version of the psalms was be the author of the melody to which we sing the hun- not published till 1562, when it was subjoined, for the dreth psalm, and of the hymn on the last judgment; first time, to the Book of Common Prayer, under this but this belief is not supported by any positive evi- title,—"The Whole Booke of Psalmes, collected into dence. Tradition gives to him several fine melodies, English Metre, by T. Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and which are preserved in the German psalm-books, and others, conferred with the Ebrue, with apt notez to still sung in all the Lutheran churches.* But, though sing them withal.” These notes consist of the mere he may or may not have composed any of these tunes, tunes, without bass or any other part. The tunes are it is certain that he himself published a collection of chiefly German, and the same which are still used psalms in the German language, for the use of the re- in the continental Lutheran and Calvinist churches. formed church ; declaring, in one of his epistles, that From this it may be inferred that the same tunes liad he intended, according to the example of the ancient been previously known in England, and made use of fathers of the church, to make psalms or spiritual from the time ibat metrical psalmody was allowed in songs for the common people, that the word of God our churches; and many of these venerable old melomight continue among them in psalms, if not other- dies are retained in our worship to this day. wise.
The first collection of these psalm-tunes, set in This example of publishing metrical versions of the parts, was published in 1579, by William Damon, psalms in the vernacular tongue was soon followed under the following title :-" The Psalms of David in in other countries. In France, the celebrated poet English Meter, with notes of four parts set unto them Marot, about the year 1510, versified thirty of the by Gulielmo Damon, to the use of the godly Chrispsalms; and they acquired such favour, that, in spite tians, for recreating themsclvcs, instede of sonde and of the censures of the Sorbonne, they were sung by the unseemely ballades." An excellent edition of the king, queen, and chief personages of the court, to the psalms, containing a separate tune for every psalm, tunes of the most favourite songs of the time. Marot, was published by T. Este in 1594. Several eminent afraid of persecution for heresy, fled to Geneva, where musicians, aniong whom were Dowland and Farnaby, he versified twenty more of the psalms; and these, were contributors to this work. The principal melody with the thirty which had been published at Paris, is given to the tenor, and the other parts are cantus were printed at Geneva in 1543, with a preface by (treble), altus (counter-tenor), and bassus. The counCalvin himself. The remainder of the psalms were terpoint is simple, or note against note; and the harafterwards turned into French verse by Theodore mony excellent. A still more valuable collection is Beza ; and the whole were published at Strasburg in that of Ravenscroft, first published in 1621, which con1545.
tains a different melody for every psalın. Many of None of these publications contained music, the them are by the editor hinself, and others are taken psalms being at first sung to such secular tunes as from the German, French, and Flemish collections. were conceived to be most suitable to them. But The harmony, in four parts, was composed by twentysoon afterwards, different persons composed tunes ex- one English musicians, among whom we find the dispressly adapted to the meirical versions. The first of tinguished names of Tallis, Dowland, Morley, Benuer, these seems to have been Guilleaume Franc, who com- Farnaby, and John Milton, the father of the poet. In posed a set of tunes published at Geneva, but without this publication Ravenscroft has put the name of Dowharmony, as singing in parts was not permitted by land to the hundredth psalm; from which circumstance Calvin. The other composers of these tunes were
the Rev. W. Lisle Bowles has inferred that Luther Louis Bourgeois, Claude Goudimel, and Claude Le could not have been its author,-strengthening this Jeune, whose different collections, published in the conclusion by shewing that the air is so well adapted, Jatter part of the sixteenth century, are still extant. not merely to the metrc, but to the accent, of the first Of these composers (except Le Jeune, who was distin- verse of the English psalm, that it must have been guished in other branches of the art) very little is composed expressly for those words. But this is by known. Goudimel, in consequence of his having set no means conclusive ; for, in the first place, all that is to music Marot's psalms, was one of the victims in the indicated by Ravenscroft is, that the parts were added massacre of St. Bartholomew. His work, which was by Dowland, the melody itself being placed by him, in first printed at Paris, was afterwards reprinted in the iudex, among the l'rench tunes; and, in the second Holland, in 1607, for the use of the Calvinists; but it place, no argument deduced from any supposed attenseems not to have been well adapted for congregational tion, on the part of the coinposers of those days, 10 singing; for, in an edition of the psalms of Le Jeune, the accent or prosody of language, is entitled to much printed at Leyden, in 1633, the editor says that, " In weight. Dowland's secular compositions shew that he publishing the psalms in parts, he had preferred the was wholly inattentive to such considerations. Mr. • Some of these may be found in the third vcluine of " Bur
Bowles, therefore, has left the question as to Luther's ney's History."
• " Parochial History of Breinhild" til