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ciple, by the appointment of a minister called "The Reconciler." The provision is very inferior to the cities of refuge which were set apart by Moses for the manslayer to flee to from the fury of the avenger. Such as it was, however, it existed, and it is remarkable that Confucius, when consulted on the subject, took no notice of it, but affirmed the duty of blood-revenge in the strongest and most unrestricted terms. His disciple Tsze-hea asked him, "What course is to be pursued in the case of the murder of a father or mother?" He replied, "The son must sleep upon a matting of grass, with his shield for his pillow; he must decline to take office; he must not live under the same heaven with the slayer. When he meets him in the market-place or the court, he must have his weapon ready to strike him."" "And what is the course on the murder of a brother?" "The surviving brother must not take office in the same State with the slayer; yet if he go on his prince's service to the State where the slayer is, though he meet him, he must not fight with him." "And what is the course on the murder of an uncle or a cousin?" £C In this case the nephew or cousin is not the principal. If the principal on whom the revenge devolves can take it, he has only to stand behind with his weapon in his hand, and support him.""
Sir John Davis has rightly called attention to this as one of the objectionable principles of Confucius.1 The bad effects of it are evident even in the present day. Revenge is sweet to the Chinese. I have spoken of their readiness to submit to government, and wish to live in peace, yet they do not like to resign even to government the "inquisition for blood." Where the ruling authority is feeble, as it is at present, individuals and clans take the law into their own hands, and whole districts are kept in a state of constant feud and warfare.
But I must now leave the sage. I hope I have not done him injustice; but after long study of his character and opinions, I am unable to regard him as a great man. He was not before his age, though he was above the mass of the officers and scholars of his time. He threw no new light on any of the questions which have a world-wide
1 The Chinese, vol. II. p. 41.
interest. He gave no impulse to religion. He had no sympathy with progress. His influence has been wonderful, but it will henceforth wane. My opinion is, that the faith of the nation in him will speedily and extensively pass away.
Chapter I. 1. The Master said, "Isit not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?
2. "Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?
3. "Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him ?.-"
Title Of The "work.—Literally, "Discourses and Dialogues ; " that is, the discourses or discussions of Confucius with his disciples and others on various topics, and his replies to their inquiries. Many chapters, however, and one whole book, are the sayings, not of the sage himself, but of some of his disciples. The characters may also be rendered " Digested Conversations," and this appears to be the more ancient signification attached to them, the account being, that, after the death of Confucius, his disciples collected together and compared the memoranda of his conversations which they had severally preserved, digesting them into the twenty books which compose the work. I have styled the work " Confucian Analects," as being more descriptive of its character than any other name I could think of.
Heading And Subjects Of This Book. The two first characters, literally, "To learn and—" after the introductory—"The Master said,1' are adopted as its heading. This is similar to the custom of the Jews, who name many books in the Bible from the first word in them. In some of the books we find a unity or analogy of subjects, which evidently guided the compilers in grouping the chapters together. Others . seem devoid of any such principle of combination. The sixteen chapters of this book are occupied, it is said, with the fundamental subjects which ought to engage the attention of the learner, and the great matters of human practice. The word "team" rightly occupies the forefront in the studies of a nation, of which its educational system has so long been the distinction and glory.
1. The Whole Work And Achievement Of The Learner, First PerFecting HIS KNOWLEDGE, THEN ATTRACTING BY HIS FAME LIKEMINDED Individuals, AND Finally Complete IN Himself. 1. "The Master" here is Confucius; but if we render the original term by " Confucius," as all preceding translators have done, we miss the indication which it gives of the
II. 1. Yew the philosopher said, " They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. "The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all right practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission !—are they not the root of all benevolent actions ?,}
III. The Master said, " Pine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue/''
IV. Tsang the philosopher said, "I daily examine myself on three points :—whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;—whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;— whether I may have not mastered and practised the instructions of my teacher."
handiwork of his disciples, and the reverence which it bespeaks for him. Some years ago, an able Chinese scholar published a collection of moral sayings by David, Solomon, Paul, Augustine, Jesus, Confucius, &c. To the sayings of the others he prefixed their names, and to those of Confucius the phrase of the text,—" The Master said,5' thus telling his readers that he was himself a disciple of the sage, and exalting him above Solomon, and every other name which he introduced, even above Jesus himself!
2. The " Friends " here are not relatives, nor even old and intimate acquaintances ; but individuals of the same style of mind as the subject of the paragraph,—students of truth and friends of virtue.
3. The "man of complete virtue " is, literally, "a princely man." The phrase is a technical one with Chinese moral writers, for which there is no exact correspondency in English. We cannot always translate it in the same way.
2. Filial Piety And Fraternal Submission Are The Foundation Of All Vietuous Practice. 1. Yew was a native of Loo, and famed among the other disciples of Confucius for his,strong memory, and love for the doctrines of antiquity. In personal appearance he resembled the sage. See Mencius, III. Pt. II. iv. 13. There is a peculiarity in the style—" Yew, the philosopher," the title following the surname, which has made some Chinese critics assign an important part in the compilation of the Analects to his disciples; but the matter is too slight to build such a conclusion on. The tablet to Yew's spirit is in the same apartment of the sage's temples as that of the sage himself, among the "wise ones" of his followers.
3. Fair Appearances Are Suspicious.
4. How The Philosopher Tsang Daily Examined Himself, To Guard Against His Being Guilty Of Any Self-deception. Tsang was one of the principal disciples of Confucius. A follower of the sage
V. The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for the people; and the employment of them at the proper seasons/'
VI. The Master said, u A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."
VII. Tsze-hea said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:—although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has."
from his 16th year, though inferior in natural ability to some others, by his filial piety and other moral qualities he entirely won the Master's esteem, and by persevering attention mastered his doctrines. Confucius employed him in the composition of the Classic of Filial Piety. The authorship of the "Great Learning" is also ascribed to him, though incorrectly, as we shall see. Ten books, moreover, of his composition are preserved in the Le Ke. His spirit tablet, among the sage's four assessors, has precedence of that of Mencius. There is the same peculiarity in the designation of him here, which I have pointed out under the last chapter in connection with the style—" Yew, the philosopher;" and a similar conclusion has been argued from it.
5. Fundamental Principles For The Government Of A Large State. "A country of a thousand chariots" was one of the largest fiefs of the empire,-—a state which could bring such a force into the field.— The last principle means that the people should not be called away from their husbandry at improper seasons to do service on military expeditions and public works.
6. Duty First And Then Accomplishments. "Polite duties' 'are not literary studies merely, but all the accomplishments of a gentleman also: ceremonies, music, archery, horsemanship, writing, and numbers.
7. Tsze-hea's Views Of The Substance Of Learning. Tsze-hea was another of the sage's distinguished disciples, and now placed among the " wise ones." He was greatly famed for his learning, and his views on the She-king and the CWun Tsie?v are said to be preserved in the commentary of Maou, and of Kung-yang Kaou, and Kuh-leang Ch'ih. He wept himself blind on the death of his son, but lived to a great age, and was much esteemed by the people and princes of the time. With regard to the scope of this chapter, there is some truth in what the commentator Woo