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"Upon the accession of Mary to the throne, in 1553, Popery was revived, the statutes of King Edward repealed, and the penal laws against heretics enforced against reformers. It is supposed that about eight hundred persons (Bishop Burnet says above one thousand) fled into banishment to Basil, Frankfort, Geneva, Embden, Strasburg, Dresden, Arrow, and Zurich, where the magistrates received them with great humanity, and allowed them places for public worship. Many of these exiles contrived their escape by going in the company and as the servants of French Protestants, who, having come over in King Edward's time, were now required, as the Germans had been, to return into their own country. The congregation at Embden was supposed to be the richest; Weasel the latest of continuance; Arrow the slenderest for number; Frankfurt had the largest privileges; Strasburg of the most quiet temper; Zurich had the greatest scholars. At the two latter places and at Basil, were settled the more learned clergymen, and some younger divines, on account of the benefit to be derived froin the libraries of those places, and of the learned conversation of the professors, as well in hopes of some little employment in the way of printing. Fuller says there were also exiles at Deesburgh, Wormes, &c., but not in sufficient numbers to form a church.
The congregation at Frankfort in 1544, being divided in opinion as to the use of King Edward's service book, applied to Calvin, then pastor of the church at Geneva, for his advice, who not approving of “the leavings of the Popish dregs,” in the service book, the congregation resolved only to use it "so far as God's word commanded.” This gave rise to contentions, which ended in Mr. Fox, the martyrologist, and a few more going to Basil, and the rest of the old congregation to Geneva, where, having a church assigned them, they appointed Knox and Goodman their pastors.
The congregation at Geneva received additions from time to time until the death of Mary, when Mr. William Kethe was sent by them to the several congregations in Germany and Helvetia, to reconcile them in matters of religion and ceremonies, in order that on their return to England, the cause of reform might not suffer from their dissensions. Many returned to England, and obtained preferment in the church and state under Queen Elizabeth, while a few remained behind to complete the translation of the Bible.
The congregation at Geneva kept a Register of their Members and Ministers, and of their Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials.
The following extract will explain
how this Register came into the possession of the citizens of Geneva :-“ Tous les Anglais, bourgeois ou habitaris qui ont demeuri ici pendant la persécution sont venus remercier le Conseil et prendre congé, et remittant un livre où ils sont inscrits pour perpetuelle memoire.”—Fragmens Biographiques.
Fuller says. - It is no less pleasant to consider, than admirable to conceive, how these (Exiles ) subsisted so long, * and so far from their native country, in so comfortable a condition. Especially seeing Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, solemnly vowed so to stop the sending of all supplies unto them, that for very hunger they should eat their own nails, and then feed on their fingers' ends. But threatened folke live long, and before these banished inen were brought to that short bill of fare, the Bishop was first all eaten up of worms himself.””
Burn then prints the Register from a copy of the manuscript given to himn in 1831, by Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, Bart., appending biographical notes to the names of those persons whom he has been able to identify. The original, he says, (A.D. 1862) still exists in the Archives of Geneva, under the title of the “ Livre des Anglois.”
HISTORICAL PORTRAITS IN THE MAGNIAC
Among the numerous works of art forming the collection of the late Mr. Hollingsworth Magniac, of Colworth, Bedfordshire, and lately dispersed by auction at Messrs. Christie, Manson and Woods, there were several note-worthy portraits of various personages distinguished in French history, and specially connected with that of the Huguenots in France in the 16th century. A short notice of some of these paintings may be interesting to those Fellows of the Society who were unable to see them at the time of sale.
First may be mentioned a small, but fine, portrait of the Admiral, Gaspard de Coligny, by Janet, representing him in a black and gold dress and jewelled cap with feather; and
* Richard Springham and John Abel, Merchants in London, sent much to the exiles. As for Thomas Eaton, a London Merchant, but living in Germany, he was communis hospes, the Host-General of all English exiles, thanks (and that forced on him against his will), being all the shot, his guests paide, at their departure. - Fuller.
another by the same artist of François de Coligny, Sieur d'Andelot. The former of these brought £73 10s. and the latter £63. There were also by Janet portraits of Henri III., and his brother François, Duc d'Alençon.
By Corneille de Lyons was a half length portrait of Jeanne d'Albret, mother of Henri IV., and by an unknown, but contemporary French painter, a beautiful little portrait of François de Lorraine, Duc de Guise. This depicted him at full length, dressed in white satin, with a short black cloak and black cap, and wearing the insignia of the Order of St. Michel. This, it may be mentioned, is the Duc de Guise who was killed at the siege of Orleans in 1563, as related in the Despatches of the Venetian Ambassador, Marc' Antonio Barbaro, recently printed by the Society. The painting, which was in oil on panel, fetched £89 5s. From the Strawberry Hill collection came a portrait of Marshal de Montluc, who is also mentioned in the Venetian Despatches ; and from the Bernal collection one of Henri, Duc de Guise, commonly called “ le Balafré.” £493 10s. was the price paid for a picture of Marguerite de Valois, painted in 1570, when she was in her eighteenth year, and two years before her marriege with Henri of Navarre; and a slightly smaller equestrian portrait of Charles IX in watercolours by François Clouet, realized £29 4s.
One of the most interesting pictures in this great collection was that of a group of the Queen-mother Catherine de' Medici, and her children, Charles IX, the Duc d'Anjou (afterwards Henri III) the Duc d'Alençon, and the Princess Marguerite (afterwards Queen of Navarre.) The figures in this picture, which was formerly in the Strawberry Hill collection, are of small life size, standing at full-length on a low dais. Catherine in a widow's black dress is on the left; she holds Charles IX by the hand, her left hand resting on his shouldar. Beside the young King stands his brother, the Duc d'Anjou, holding a letter or small book in his right hand and a white handkerchief in his left. The Duc d'Alençon stands near his mother on the extreme left, the Princess being between her two elder brothers in the background. On the step underneath the King's feet is inscribed ANN. AETA. SUAE XI, an indication which corresponds exactly with his apparent age, and fixes the date of the picture as 1561. It was sold for £283 10s.
A pair of plaques with portraits of Charles IX and his Queen Elizabeth of Austria, and another pair representing the Cardinal de Guise and his mother, Anne d'Este, both sets by Leonard Limosin, realized the large sum of £3150 and £3045 respectively.