תמונות בעמוד

other hand in the signatures appended to this very document by A Lasco, Micronius, and Utenhove, Micronius designates himself 'dissipatæ in Anglia Ecclesiæ Germanicæ minister.'1

Utenhove, in writing an account of the wanderings of the congregation after its dispersal from London entitled his book Simplex et fidelis narratio de instituta ac demum dissipata Belgarum aliorumque peregrinorum in Anglia Ecclesia,' that is, the church of the Dutch and other strangers. This, however, was not published until 1560 (at Bâle), two years after the accession of Queen Elizabeth.

But even in the reign of Elizabeth the word 'German’ was still used in the title of the church, though now coupled with the adjective ' Dutch. An instance of this occurs in a list of those of its members who had come from the Low Countries, then under the rule of Philip II. of Spain, compiled by the ministers and elders for the use of the English government in or about the year 1566. The title of this list suggests that it was a return of the names of part only of the congregation. It is in Latin, and is— Catalogus eorum qui ex ditione Philippi Hispaniarum Regi Ecclesiæ °Belgico-Germaniæ Londoniensi subsunt.' This designation Strype translates—the BelgickGerman Church.'

· Belgicus' is, however, the usual Latin rendering of · Dutch,' and the word occurs on the seal of the Dutch Church of London, one of the inscriptions on which isSIGIL. ECCL, LOND. BELG.'

No doubt the old English custom of speaking of Germans as Dutchmen, has given rise to some misunderstanding in the minds of writers on this subject. An early instance of this

practice is afforded by the account of the House of the Crutched Friars' given in Strype's edition of Stow's Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster 3 It states that 'Two Fraternities of Dutch Men, which nation seemed chiefly to inhabit hereabouts, were founded in the Church of the Friars.' The one is described in a certificate dated October 25, 1495, as the Fraternitie of St. Katheryn, founded and ordenyd by Duychmenne fourscore years passid,' while the other is said in its ordinances, dated April 14, 1459, to have been founded in honour of the Holy Blood of Christ of Wilsuak4 in Saxon.' The latter, therefore, was undoubtedly a fraternity of Germans; possibly the former was too, and an expert in foreign names

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1 Ibid.,

p. 684.


Strype's Life of Archbishop Grindal, Book I, p. 164, and Appx. of Original Papers, p. 501. The date of this list is possibly a little earlier than that assigned to it by Strype. 3 Vol. i, p 407.

Wilsnack near the junction of the Havel with the Elbe. VOL IV.-NO. II.

* Sic;

might be able to decide this, as a list of several of the members occurs in the certificate referred to above.

An example of the same custom in the reign of Elizabeth is afforded by a return of the names of strangers in London compiled by order of the Privy Council in 1571, or possibly a few years earlier. Though a large proportion of the aliens named in this list came from various towns and provinces in Germany, some even being described as High Allmaynes,' in making up the totals they are included under the designation of Douche' with those coming from the Netherlands.?

Even at the present time it is not at all uncommon to hear a native of Germany (Deutschland) referred to as a Dutchman amongst the lower orders in the United States where so many of our ancient forms of speech still survive.




The following document is a summary of the contents of memorials presented to the English government respecting the non-payment of the pension granted to Vaudois ministers and schoolmasters, to which reference was made in the last volume of our Proceedings. The original, unfortunately, is not dated, but it is bound up with the Treasury Papers of the year 1700 preserved in the Public Record Office, the reason, no doubt, being that it was found with the documents of that year when the Calendar to them was compiled. It might be possible to assign an exact date to it by careful examination into the dates of the resignations or deaths of the pastors and schoolmasters mentioned in it, many of whom are well-known personages. Failing this we suggest that it perhaps belongs to the year 1716.

1 Domestic State Papers, Eliz., Vol. 84.

2 In fact there is no mention of Germans at all in the totals which are as follows : • Frenche, 440 ; Douche, 3160; Italians, 138 ; Spaniardes, 58; Burgonions, 423 ; Lucans, 5 ; Venetians, 5; Portingales, 3 ; Scottes, 32 ; Men of Fresland, 2 ; Danes, 2'; making a grand total of 4268, incorrectly stated to be 4287, of whom but 611 are said to be denizens. It will be observed that the so-called Dutch are more than seven times as numerous as the French, while the complete total falls far short of the numbers named in such estimates as those of the Bishop of Aquila. (See p. 353.)

3 Vol. iii, pp. xxxvii, 583.
* Treasury Papers, Vol. lxxi, No. 69.

As so many of the documents concerning the relations of the Vaudois with the English have to do with this pension, which we may have occasion to refer to in the future, and very little seems to be known in this country about its origin, the following brief notes upon its history may be here recorded until we have an opportunity of obtaining a more complete account.

Dr. Alexis Muston, in his History of the Waldenses, states, on the authority of a 'preface to the Records of the Church of Dürmentz' that in 1692 Queen Mary, of England, established 'twelve pensions of 100 crowns each, one for every pastor, and a like number of 50 English crowns each, for every schoolmaster' of the twelve congregations then existing amongst the Vaudois in their original home in Piedmont. • This assistance was afterwards increased with the number of the parishes, and soon amounted to the sum of £150 sterling.

This sum not having appeared in the civil list during the reign of William III, the payment of it was suspended for some years after his death.'

Another account formerly preserved in the archives of the same church, also quoted by Muston, says that a pension of £555 was granted for the support of these ministers and schoolmasters by 'King William and Queen Mary' Owing to the representations made to the English Government by Henri Arnaud in the course of a visit to London, part of this sum was subsequently allotted to the Vaudois colonies founded in Germany in 1698 and later years, leaving but £268 to the parent churches of the Valleys, which were then obliged to levy contributions on their own flocks to make up the deficiency.

It is difficult to reconcile these two statements. Perhaps however, the first mentioned annuity was granted by the Queen as a private act of charity, while the other, if there were then two pensions, may have been charged from the commencement upon the public revenues.

If so both grants would seem to have been perpetuated, for in a petition addressed to their sovereign in 1816 by the Vaudois pastors of Piedmont it is stated that their_stipends' were formerly derived from two subsidies from England, the one called royal, the other national. So distinct were these pensions, that when Piedmont became united to France some years earlier, the royal subsidy, which then 'formed the greater part of their slender stipends' was withdrawn, while the national subsidy was still continued, though payment was made irregularly.

1 Muston himself says there were only nine pastors in this year.

Another difficulty is presented by the documents here printed refering to 1689 as the year in which the pension of the English Court'originated.

These pensions are said to have been regularly paid until the death of Queen Anne, when they suddenly ceased. In 1716 the Vaudois sent Jacob Montoux, pastor of the settlement at Rohrbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, to London, to endeavour to obtain their renewal, and it will be observed that Montoux's name heads the list of pastors in this document. The Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt also interceeded on their behalf with George I. The result was that direction was given that the same amount of £555 yearly, was charged upon the rents of the Hospital of the Savoy, and was placed at the disposal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Carlisle, the Lord High Almoner to his Majesty, and Messrs. Wil (sic) and Chetwynd'1 to be distributed by them as they should deem best for the support of the Vaudois ministers and schoolmasters. The payment of certain arrears also sanctioned. During the reign of George II. the pensions nominally amounted to £500 per annum, but of this no less than the sum of £100 was deducted for Land Tax and other charges, leaving £400 clear, which was distributed half-yearly, the expenditure for March 35, 1728, being as follows:


To each of the fifteen ministers of the valleys
To each of the thirteen schoolmasters
To each of the seven ministers in Germany
To each of the seven schoolmasters

£ 8. d.
6 11 09
3 0 51
6 13 4
3 6 8

£ 8. d. 90 13 9 39 5 111 46 13 4 23 6 8

£200 003

The seven ministers in Germany here mentioned were those of 1, Gros Villar; 2, Diirmentz; 3, Pinache; 4, Lucerna or Wurmberg, in Wurtemberg; 5, the minister of Rohrbach, Wembach, and Heim, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; 6, the minister of Waldorf, near Frankfort; and 7, the minister of Dornholzhausen, near Homburg.'

* These supplies were again suspended from 1765 to 1767, and also in 1804; but, upon new petitions, payment was again resumed,' and, as Sir Henry Layard has pointed out, did not finally cease until 1885.

1 The petition to George II. praying for the continuation of these pensions says that they had been paid thitherto by the direction of 'les Archevecques et de Monsieur Jean Chetwynd.' Proceedings, Vol. iii, p. 583.

? Evidently an error for £6 Os. lld. 3 The correct total is £199 19s. 8!d.

Dr. Muston says that Nordhausen, Perouse,' New Engstedt,' and Waldensberg received pensions from Holland, and that the three first-named settlements did not participate in the English subsidies,' the latter part of this statement, however, is at variance with the document here printed. Canstadt, too, which is also named in this document, received, he says, a pension from Holland, and on its being eventually withdrawn, obtained one from the Duke of Wurtemberg.

Another volume which devotes some attention to the Vaudois colonies in Germany is Dr. Reginald Lane Poole's Huguenots of the Dispersion. But neither this work nor Dr. Muston's names all the settlements mentioned in this list, even allowing for its eccentric orthography. Perhaps the most curious instance of this spelling, which though not that of an Englishman certainly cannot be attributed to any one familiar with the places named, is 'a Zelboorn,' representing no doubt the Haselborn' which puzzled Dr. Poole to identify? The spelling adopted in the foot-notes to the list is mostly taken from the pages of Dr. Muston as are also the alternative names of Vaudois villages bestowed upon these German colonies in memory of the former homes of their inhabitants. .

The Vaudois colonies lay mainly in two districts on the eastern side of the Rhine; the one, of which Frankfort-onthe-Main was centre, extending from the river Lahn on the north to Darmstadt on the south, and the other lying near a line from Carlsruhe to Stuttgart. Most of the places here mentioned can easily be identified, but there are others we cannot find, and perhaps one of our German brethren will be so good as to send a tracing of a map marked with the position of all the towns referred to, and showing the correct modern form of their names.

From Dr. Poole’s book it appears that there is some uncertainty prevailing amongst the various German and French authorities upon the history of the alien Protestant communities in Germany as to the particular colonies which were Vaudois in their origin, and which were purely French, a point which this list may help to settle.

It only remains to point out that, in stating the numbers composing the several congregations, in two instances the word 'heads' is used. If this implies 'heads of households,' a common way of reckoning in England, and it be the same in the other cases, the grand total would be largely increased.

[ocr errors]


1 This place does not appear in the following list, at least not under this 2 Huguenots of the Dispersion, p. 201 note.



« הקודםהמשך »