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GENERALS STAVELEY AND BROWN, 3 I 5
was taken, the walled cities of Kading, Tsipoo, and
COLONEL GORDON AND MR HART. 317
its Foreign relationships. To the effects of the confidence which he has inspired may be ascribed the appointment of the Laou-yeh Pin to proceed to Europe in 1866 as a Commissioner from the Imperial Government, the establishment of a College at Peking for the study of European languages and science, and the appointment of Mr Burlinghame as Minister from China to the Treaty Powers. In character, and, to a less extent, in manner, Mr Hart reminds one of an Indian civilian of the higher class, and especially of that school of Indian civilians of which Sir Bartle Frere is facile princeps. The pleasant demeanour of an Irishman has been useful to him at Peking, as it was, many years before, to Earl Macartney. He is more inclined to lead than to drive the Chinese, and has established himself as a power in the country; but it may be well for him to keep in mind the deserved fate of Mr Lay, and not to lose sight of the fact that, though he has used them well, he has had great opportunities provided to his hand. Hitherto his course has been favoured by that of events; and while he has himself reaped a large share of the resultant rewards, perhaps the most arduous portion of the task of adjusting our international relationships with China has fallen upon those who have received no remuneration or even acknowledgment for their unselfish but invidious labours. Now that he is able in some degree to command events similar to those by which he has been guided, and of which he has so wisely availed himself, it remains to be seen how far he will be equal to the high responsibilty and grand opportunities of a very powerful position between England and China.
CHA PT E R XVI.
THE FALL OF NANKING AND THE LAST STRUGGLES OF THE TAI-PINGS.
THE TIEN-wang's INDIFFERENGE AND SECLUSION.—Sweet DEw— HIS WISDOM AND GOOD FORTUNE–COMPLETE INVESTMENT OF NANKING — DESPAIR OF THE FAITH FUL KING — LAST DAYS OF HUNG SEW-TSUEN–H IS DEATH AND BURIAL–HIS SON FU-TIEN ASCENDS THE THRONE–THE FALL OF NANKING—CAPTURE OF THE FAITH FUL KING – HIS CHARACTER AND AUTOBIOGRAPHYHIS EXECUTION.—FATE OF THE SHIELD KING AND OF THE YOUNG MONARCH – STATE OF NANKING WHEN CAPTURED — REPORT ON ITS CONDITION BY WICE-CONSUL AD KINS — RECEPTION OF THE NEWS AT PEKING—IMPERIAL IDECREE–THE FALL OF WUCHU – EXPERIENCES OF PATRICK NELLIS – RETREAT OF THE TAI-PING REMNANT THROUGH KIANGSI INTO FUKIEN–THEY APPEAR AT CHANGCHow, NEAR AMoy — MANIFESTO OF THE ATTENDANT KING—THEIR DISPERSION AND FINAL DISAPPEARANCE—FATE OF THE I WANG.
WHILE Soochow was in course of being taken in 1863, Tseng Kwo-tsun, the Imperialist General, was engaged with large forces in closely investing Nanking. He intrenched himself so closely and strongly round that city as to be able to cut off all supply of provisions, and easily to defeat the attempts of the Faithful King to bring it relief. That latter prince, however, managed himself to gain admission to the Rebel capital, and besought the Tien Wang to make his escape and give up the city, as it could no longer be held, and was defi
THE TIEN wanC's INDIFFERENCE. 319
cient in the necessaries of life ; but the monarch, according to the Faithful King's Autobiography, was highly displeased at this proposal, and indignantly exclaimed,
sm have received the commands of Shangte [God] and of
Jesus to come down upon the earth and rule the empire. I am the sole Lord of ten thousand nations, and what should I fear ! You are not asked your opinion upon anything, and the Government does not require your Supervision. You can please yourself as to whether you wish to leave the capital or to remain. I hold the empire, hills, and streams with an iron grasp, and if you do not support me there are those who will. You Say, ‘There are no soldiers l’ But my troops are more numerous than the streams. What fear have I of the demon Tseng? If you are afraid of death then you will die.” It was in this way only that the Heavenly Monarch would look at practical matters. Burying himself in the depths of his palace, and engrossed with religious exercises and the society of his women, he gave himself no concern about either the approach of his enemies or the terrible state of his people. When any one memorialised him on internal affairs, or made suggestions pertinent to the preservation of the kingdom, he would invariably silence them with remarks on heaven and earth, which, as the Chung Wang complains, were “totally irrelevant to the main point in view.” When it was mentioned to him that only the very wealthy people in Nanking had any food to eat, he issued a decree that the remainder should support themselves upon “sweet dew,” and illustrated his meaning by ordering some herbs from the palace garden to be prepared for his own dinner. His subordinates in the Government were allowed to do as they liked so long as they professed implicit submission to his decrees; but their