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GENERALS STAVELEY AND BROWN, 3 I 5

was taken, the walled cities of Kading, Tsipoo, and
Cholin, and several intrenched camps. He has the repu-
tation of being very active and kind-hearted, but cau-
tious, and more inclined to fulfil the duties of a second
in command than for assuming the initiative and the
responsibility required of a chief. His appointment of
a British officer to command the Ever-Victorious Army
was an event forced upon him by circumstances rather
than of his own seeking, and his bearing towards the
Chinese was dignified, reserved, and guarded; but at
the same time he was very polite towards them, and they
thought very highly of him. His successor, Major-Gen-
eral W. G. Brown, on the contrary, was not at all afraid
of incurring responsibility, and was apt to be a little high-
handed with the Chinese. The acquaintance of this
officer with active service had been drawn chiefly from
the Punjaub campaign, he having been wounded at the
battle of Chillianwallah, and commanded the 29th Regi-
ment at the battle of Goojerat. Like many other officers
who have seen much service in India, he was disposed to
deal with the Chinese as we do with the natives of India,
which the Celestials do not at all appreciate; but any un-
pleasantness arising from that cause was amply compen-
sated to them by the hearty and effective support which
he gave to Colonel Gordon, and, in general, to the Im-
perialist cause, regardless of the outcries of Tai-ping
sympathisers, and fearless of the responsibility which he
incurred.
In the persons of Colonel Gordon and of Mr Robert
Hart the Chinese have, at a very critical period of their
history, been happily brought in contact with two Fo-
reigners of a higher tone of mind and character than
their previous experience had made them much acquainted
with. Of the former officer I have thought it necessary
already to say much more than is agreeable to himself
and shall only add here a very few words. A great deal
of what has been mentioned to his credit I should never
have learned from himself; and the reader who has gone
through the details of fighting and bloodshed with which
his name is associated, might be surprised on finding him
to be a man still young, of quiet manners and disposi-
tion, and of varied culture. Deeply religious in sen-
timent, and a soldier of the Havelock and Stonewall
Jackson type, Colonel Gordon presents few of the char-
acteristics usually associated with the common notion of
the dashing leader of an irregular force. Great pleasure
in activity, a self-sacrificing disposition, and a sense of
duty, have been evidently the mainsprings of his conduct;
and the results, whatever others may think, have been
too pleasant and satisfactory to himself, and, as he thinks,
too undeserved, to allow of his glorying in them.
Mr Hart, the Inspector-General of the Chinese Imperial
Maritime Customs, was in the British Consular Service
in China before he entered that of which he became the
head on the dismissal of Mr Lay in 1863, and brought
much previous culture to assist him in acquiring a know-
ledge of the Chinese language and people. While fully
alive to the defects of the Celestial Government, he has
shown great tact and wisdom in leading it along the
path of progress; at the same time he has commanded
the respect of his own countrymen in the somewhat in-
vidious position of Inspector-General of Customs. His
lucid memorandums on the trade and the condition of
China are well worthy the consideration of those who
desire to see gradual and pacific improvement in that
country. Of late he has almost entirely taken up his
residence at Peking, and has become the confidential
adviser of the Peking Government in all that refers to

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COLONEL GORDON AND MR HART. 317

its Foreign relationships. To the effects of the confidence which he has inspired may be ascribed the appointment of the Laou-yeh Pin to proceed to Europe in 1866 as a Commissioner from the Imperial Government, the establishment of a College at Peking for the study of European languages and science, and the appointment of Mr Burlinghame as Minister from China to the Treaty Powers. In character, and, to a less extent, in manner, Mr Hart reminds one of an Indian civilian of the higher class, and especially of that school of Indian civilians of which Sir Bartle Frere is facile princeps. The pleasant demeanour of an Irishman has been useful to him at Peking, as it was, many years before, to Earl Macartney. He is more inclined to lead than to drive the Chinese, and has established himself as a power in the country; but it may be well for him to keep in mind the deserved fate of Mr Lay, and not to lose sight of the fact that, though he has used them well, he has had great opportunities provided to his hand. Hitherto his course has been favoured by that of events; and while he has himself reaped a large share of the resultant rewards, perhaps the most arduous portion of the task of adjusting our international relationships with China has fallen upon those who have received no remuneration or even acknowledgment for their unselfish but invidious labours. Now that he is able in some degree to command events similar to those by which he has been guided, and of which he has so wisely availed himself, it remains to be seen how far he will be equal to the high responsibilty and grand opportunities of a very powerful position between England and China.

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CHA PT E R XVI.

THE FALL OF NANKING AND THE LAST STRUGGLES OF THE TAI-PINGS.

THE TIEN-wang's INDIFFERENGE AND SECLUSION.—Sweet DEw— HIS WISDOM AND GOOD FORTUNE–COMPLETE INVESTMENT OF NANKING — DESPAIR OF THE FAITH FUL KING — LAST DAYS OF HUNG SEW-TSUEN–H IS DEATH AND BURIAL–HIS SON FU-TIEN ASCENDS THE THRONE–THE FALL OF NANKING—CAPTURE OF THE FAITH FUL KING – HIS CHARACTER AND AUTOBIOGRAPHYHIS EXECUTION.—FATE OF THE SHIELD KING AND OF THE YOUNG MONARCH – STATE OF NANKING WHEN CAPTURED — REPORT ON ITS CONDITION BY WICE-CONSUL AD KINS — RECEPTION OF THE NEWS AT PEKING—IMPERIAL IDECREE–THE FALL OF WUCHU – EXPERIENCES OF PATRICK NELLIS – RETREAT OF THE TAI-PING REMNANT THROUGH KIANGSI INTO FUKIEN–THEY APPEAR AT CHANGCHow, NEAR AMoy — MANIFESTO OF THE ATTENDANT KING—THEIR DISPERSION AND FINAL DISAPPEARANCE—FATE OF THE I WANG.

WHILE Soochow was in course of being taken in 1863, Tseng Kwo-tsun, the Imperialist General, was engaged with large forces in closely investing Nanking. He intrenched himself so closely and strongly round that city as to be able to cut off all supply of provisions, and easily to defeat the attempts of the Faithful King to bring it relief. That latter prince, however, managed himself to gain admission to the Rebel capital, and besought the Tien Wang to make his escape and give up the city, as it could no longer be held, and was defi

THE TIEN wanC's INDIFFERENCE. 319

cient in the necessaries of life ; but the monarch, according to the Faithful King's Autobiography, was highly displeased at this proposal, and indignantly exclaimed,

sm have received the commands of Shangte [God] and of

Jesus to come down upon the earth and rule the empire. I am the sole Lord of ten thousand nations, and what should I fear ! You are not asked your opinion upon anything, and the Government does not require your Supervision. You can please yourself as to whether you wish to leave the capital or to remain. I hold the empire, hills, and streams with an iron grasp, and if you do not support me there are those who will. You Say, ‘There are no soldiers l’ But my troops are more numerous than the streams. What fear have I of the demon Tseng? If you are afraid of death then you will die.” It was in this way only that the Heavenly Monarch would look at practical matters. Burying himself in the depths of his palace, and engrossed with religious exercises and the society of his women, he gave himself no concern about either the approach of his enemies or the terrible state of his people. When any one memorialised him on internal affairs, or made suggestions pertinent to the preservation of the kingdom, he would invariably silence them with remarks on heaven and earth, which, as the Chung Wang complains, were “totally irrelevant to the main point in view.” When it was mentioned to him that only the very wealthy people in Nanking had any food to eat, he issued a decree that the remainder should support themselves upon “sweet dew,” and illustrated his meaning by ordering some herbs from the palace garden to be prepared for his own dinner. His subordinates in the Government were allowed to do as they liked so long as they professed implicit submission to his decrees; but their

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