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in Naples, marched to Rome; not to relieve, but to add to its distresses. This army, envying the wealth of their companions, who had plundered the city, imitated their conduct, and with the utmost rapacity gathered the gleanings, which had escaped the avarice of Bourbon's army. The Pope in the castle of St. Angelo, after being reduced by famine, and feeding on asses' flesh, capitulated; agreeing to pay his besiegers 400,000 ducats; to surrender to the emperor all the places of strength belonging to the church; and to give hostages; and himself to remain a prisoner, till the articles of capitulation should be fulfilled. The Pope was accordingly delivered to the care of Alarcon, who had some years before been the keeper of Francis I, the monarch of France, while he was a prisoner to the emperor. After an imprisonment of six months, the Pope procured his liberty, by the additional sum of 350,000 crowns.

The emperor, when he came to hear of these things, feigned deep mourning and sorrow. But he was in. wardly pleased, because the Pope had excited and headed a coalition against him, consisting of the Pope, the king of France, and the king of England. All Christendom were struck with horror at a view of the violence offered to his holiness, and the plundering of Rome. The emperor afterwards came to Rome, restored to the Pope the church lands, and treated him with some apparent respect, that he might seem to make some amends for such indignities.

It has been before hinted that Solyman the magnificent, on the Ottoman throne, seemed to have been raised up in Providence to aid the same work of judgment, with Francis and Charles.

We accordingly find him, with fleets and armies, repeatedly, annoying those great Papal nations, at this period. He attacked Hungary with an army of 200,000 men, and a fleet of 400 sail, and took Belgrade and Rhodes. A second time he invaded Hungary with 300,000, men.

An army of 30,000 Hungarians and Bohemians undertook to meet him, led by the monk, archbishop of Golocza, in his pontifical dress. They fought at

Mohacz. The Catholic army was cut in pieces. The flower of the nobility, and more than 20,000 of the Hungarians fell. Hungary was overrun; and nearly 200,000 persons were by the Turks carried into captivity. Solyman not long after laid siege to Vienna with an army of 150,000 men. Naples was ravaged by the Turkish admiral Barbarossa. Rheggio in Italy was plundered and burnt by a Turkish fleet of 110 gallies. The same fleet the next spring ravaged the coasts of Naples and Tuscany. In Hungary the Turks defeated the Germans in a great battle at Essek on the Drave. And repeatedly was the Turkish emperor in alliance with the king of France against the emperor.

The civil wars, which broke out in Italy and Germany, were far from being of a trifling nature. The events in consequence of Charles's undertaking to vio. late the league of Smalkalde, were not without terror and blood. The subsequent war of Maurice, in which he out-generalled Charles, and wrested the rights of the German Protestants, and the liberties of the empire, out of his hands, was a heavy judgment upon the Papal see. Maurice and the landgrave of Hesse had before had a civil war with Henry of Brunswick, in which the latter was subdued. Albert of Brandenburg, one of the confederates under Maurice for humbling the emperor, conceived the wicked design of forming for himself an empire. And after the emperor and Maurice had made peace, Albert continued in arms, and made awful ravages in the empire. He turned his army of veteran desperadoes against the ecclesiastical states, which, with various cities on the Rhine, he ravaged and plundered with wanton barbarity. A league of princes was formed against him. An army was raised, and Maurice was appointed their general. The two armies, of 24,000 each, met. The battle was obsti. nate and bloody. Maurice was slain; and many of his first officers. But the vile Albert was defeated. Soon however he was in the field again with 15,000 men. Another bloody battle was fought. Albert was van. quished, and his army dispersed.

Two expeditions Charles made into Africa: The first to drive Barbarossa from Tunis, and to restore Muley Hascen; and the second against Algiers. In the latter we see much of the tremendous judgments of this pe. riod. In this view I will give a sketch of it. Charles embarked late in the fall of 1541, with a great army and feet, containing the flower of the Italian youth. He landed at Algiers, and prepared to attack the city. But a most furious storm came on; and the scenes, which followed were dreadful. The powder of the assailing army was wet; their matches were extinguished. The ground became soft, and almost covered with water. They had no shelter from the tempest. The soldiers were wet, numb, and almost dead with the cold rain. In this situation a sally was made upon them from the city. Many of them were killed, and the rest driven back. A dreadful consternation was excited. But all feeling or remembrance of this loss and danger (says the historian) were quickly obliterated, by a more dreadful as well as affecting spectacle. It was now broad daylight, after a most dismal night. The hurricane had abated nothing of its violence; and the sea appeared agitated with all the rage, of which that destructive element is capable. All the ships, on which alone the army knew their safety and subsistence depended, were seen driven from their anchors; some dashing against each other; some beat to pieces on the rocks; many forced ashore; and not a few sinking in the waves. In less than an hour 15 ships of war, and 140 transports with 8,000 men were destroyed. And such of the unhappy crews as escaped the fury of the sea, were murdered without mercy by the Arabs, as soon as they reached the land. The emperor stood in silent astonishment, beholding this fatal event, which at once blasted all his hopes of success, and buried in the deep the vast stores, which he had provided for the annoyance of the enemy, and for subsisting his own

The admiral with much ado got word to Charles, that he must repair with his remaining forces

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*Hist, Ch. V, vol. iii, p. 227.


to cape Metafuz, as it was impossible to find a harbor for his few remaining vessels short of that place. In this miserable state therefore his shattered troops had to perform a three days march. They had not a moment's time to lose. It seemed impossible for them to reach the destined place. But they had no choice between this, and certain death. They therefore in the most miserable plight set forth. They were harassed, day and night, by the Arabs. They were disspirited; subsisting chiefly on roots and berries, with a little horseflesh; wading over brooks to their chin; and their way almost unpassable. Many were killed. Many perished by famine. And many through fatigue sunk down and died by the way. The few, who reached the place, were taken on board, and returned to Italy. Doria their admiral informed, that during 50 years of his knowledge of the seas, he had never seen a storm of equal fierceness and horror. This was a small item in those days of vengeance upon the Papal

The French nation, a main instrument of the judgments of those days, suffered immensely. Repeatedly was it invaded by powerful armies; and the most distressing ravages were made in their country. Several times France was invaded by the emperor, and the king of England, in alliance against her. And more than once she trembled for her capital.

Charles, in his last war with France, suffered rough treatment. Merely in the siege of Mentz, he lost 30,000 men; and was obliged to raise the seige, and retire in great mortification. And being perplexed with his adverse affairs, he formed a determination to abdicate the Imperial throne, to resign his Spanish crown to his son Philip, and to retire. To prepare the way for which, he proposed a peace with the king of France, “that he might have the merit (says the historian) when quitting the world, of re-establishing that tranquillity in Europe, which he had banished out of it, almost from the time that he had assumed the administration of affairs.”* Accordingly Charles made peace with

*Hist. Ch. V, vol. iii, p. 215.

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Henry, king of France, (who succeeded Francis now dead) in 1556; abdicated the Imperial throne; constituted Philip his successor in Spain; and retired to the monastery of St. Justus in Spain, where he spent his time in a rigid attention to the rites of the Catholic religion, till he died.

By the base instigation of the Pope, one more furious and bloody war was undertaken by the king of France in league with the Pope on the one hand, and Philip, and his queen Mary of England on the other; which was the finishing scene of this vial. The object of the war was to take Naples from Philip, and annex it to the crown of France. The duke of Guise was sent from France with an army, to join the army of the Pope. Great ravages were committed in Naples and Italy. But Philip and Mary determined to prosecute the war nigher home. Their army therefore invaded France and invested the city of St. Quintin; which they soon reduced, with the dreadful slaughter of the French army under the prime minister Montmorency, who came to relieve the city, and who was taken prisoner. Upon this, France was filled with con. sternation, and preparations were made to defend Paris, in an expected siege. The duke of Guise was recalled out of Italy. This filled the Pope with consternation, as the war was furiously going on there, and his chief dependence was on the army of the duke. But the distresses of France could admit of no attention to the remonstrances and entreaties of the Pope. And the French army fled home with all speed, to defend their own capital. Their arrival in France soon changed the face of things. Calais was besieged and taken from the English; and the latter now lost all their possessions in the kingdom of France. And a peace was concluded among all the contending powers.

Various things indicated that the terrors and devastations of these scenes of war, new, and unprecedented in Europe since the northern invasions, were dreadful. The French on their part, in the general treaty of peace, gave up 189 fortified places, which they had taken during those contests. And the arguments, which had


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