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ASCEND. The cartilaginous kind, (of fishes) which, by what artifice they sphere. Oblique, is an arch of the equator inter- ASCENpoize themselves, ascend and descend at pleasure, and continue cepted between the first point of aries, and that point
Ray on the Creation.
TAIN. the days begin to increase, though the sun be then ascensive, and
AscENSION Day, commonly called Holy Thursreturning from the winter tropick.
day. A festival of the church of England in com
Brown's Vulgar Errors. memoration of the day on which our Saviour ascended
into Heaven. It is the fortieth day after Easter Sun-
On this day (says Wheatley) our blessed Saviour
publicly ascended, with our human nature, into
heaven, and presented it to God, who placed it at
his own right hand, and, by the reception of those
Dryden's Aurenge-Zebe. first fruits, sanctified the whole race of mankind.
AscensIONAL DIFFERENCE, is the difference between
rise or set before or after the sixth hour, from the
ASCENSION, Isle of. An island between Africa and
Hume's History of England. Thursday, in the year 1508. It is about ten miles in
Smith's Wealth of Nations. ·
resembles the common lavas of Vesuvius and Iceland,
formerly on fire, a great part of the rocks being burnt -Fire fill'd his eyes;
to a pumice.” Captain Cooke touched there in 1775.
He says not a shrub or plant is to be seen for several
miles, and nothing to be found but stones and sand,
south-east end of the isle, called the Green Mountain, Which carry'd strange ascendancy, a spell
seems to be left in its original state, and to have escaped Controlling nature, was the youth abash'd.
the general destruction. Its soil is a kind of white Glover's Athenaid, book xiv.
marl, which yet retains its vegetative qualities, and The Acts of the Apostles continue the history of our religion produces a kind of purslain, spurge, and one or two after our Lord's ascension,
Porteus' Lectures, v. l.
grasses, a supply, however scanty, which is sufficient
Ascerta'INMENT.) certum, froin cerno, cretum; from
My hands to heauen I held, and prayed, and giftes and off'rings
Anchises I ascertaine then, and him declare the caas.
Æneidos, by Thos. Phaer, book iii.
In whiche tyme, and soone after, whereof the tyme is nat duely
ASCER- leuynge after him a sone, named Charlys, the whiche after, was that appeared about the second century, and made ASCETAIN- surnamed symple.
profession of uncommon sanctity and virtue, which TICK. ASCE
Necessary it is that both good and badde knew it. The faith- they supposed to consist in self-denial and mortificaTICK. full to be assartened that their finall redemption is at hande, to
ASCITÆ. tion. They considered it an act of great merit to their consolation. The vnfaithfull to haue knowledge that their deny themselves the use of those things which were iudgemente is not farre of, that they may repent and be saved.
esteemed lawful for all other Christians to enjoy, and Bale'e Image.
held it as an indispensable duty to undergo continual
severe discipline. Their object was, by raising the
soul above all external objects and all sensual plea-
sures, to enjoy a nearer communion with God on Bolingbroke's Essay on Human Knowledge. earth, and, after the dissolution of their mortal Fools only engage on a sudden, without ascertaining the bodies, to ascend to the supreme centre of happiness strength of their enemy.
and perfection, unretarded by the impurities and imSir William Jones' Hitopadisu. perfections which debase mankind in general. (MoHe tells us, that the positive ascertainment of its limits, and sheim Eccl. Hist. cent. ii. part 2.) The appellation its security from invasion, were among the causes for which civil was also given to those who were more than ordinasociety itself has been instituted.
rily intent on the exercises of prayer and devotion, Burke on the Revolution in France. and hence St. Cyril, of Jerusalem, calls the prophetess To what common use or want of the insect kind, a provision so
Anna, “who departed not from the temple, but
a most religious ascetic. In the present day, by
ourselves, in their functions and faculties, or with which conversation and pleasures of the world, and pass
Paley's Theology. primitive ages such as pretended to this title were
men of active life, living in society, and differing
the gospel. and three acolythists, whose occupation was one of
ASCHARIANS, v. ASHARIANS. most active employment, namely that of continually
ASCHBILIA, v. Sevilla.
ASCIDIA, in Zoology, a genus of the class Tuni-
cata; order Disjuncta. Generic character; body en-
AscE'TICISM. fathers to those who exercise at the base. Exterior tunic somewhat coriaceous,
forated above by two unequal foramina, one lower
closing the body, not entirely filling the external sac,
to which it is united only at the foramina.
The animals of this genus were by Linnæus consi-
Wood. Athene Oxonienses,
and have by subsequent naturalists been generally Our calling therefore doth require great industry; and the bu- arranged with the mollusca. Cuvier appears to have siness of it consequently is well represented by those perform supported this opinion; and in order more completely ances, which demand the greatest intention, and laborious acti- to demonstrate the analogy, compares the external vity; it is styled exercise; agonistic and ascetic ; exercise. tunic with the shell of the acephalous mollusca. But
Barrow's Sermons. there surely can be no real analogy etween sub-
structure; and appearing, as Lamarck observes, even
vascular, on its internal surface. The comparative
were inspired by the savage enthusiasm, which represents lowed out, into a more detailed investigation. La-
numerous, and several of them are natives of the
Gibbon's History, vol. vi.
shores of Great Britain.
arms, poisoned arrows; their food, the berries of the
pale urus (a species of zizyphus); they were naked, ASCETIC, the term was originally applied to a sect ferocious pirates. The Arabian geographers observe,
ASCITÆ. that their language differed from that of their neigh- The greater part have been forward to reject it, upon a mistaken ASCRIBE bours; for there can be little doubt that the pirates persuasion, that those phænomena are the effects of nature's abhor
ASEKI. ASCRIBE, on the borders of Mabrah and Hadramaut, mentioned rency of a vacuum, which secın to be more fitly ascribable to the
weight and spring of the air.
I do not hereby ascribe any thing to the magistrate that can pos
sibly give him any pretence of right to reject God's true religion,
or to declare what he pleases to be so, and what books he
Ascribe, thou nation, every favour'd tribe, divided into two species, ascites abdominalis, when
Excelling greatness to the Lord ascribe;
The Lord! the rock on whom we safely trust, there is a regular and equal intumescence of the abdo
Whose work is perfect, and whose ways are just. men; and ascites saccatus, when the ovaries, &c. are
Parnell. The Gift of Poetry. the seat of the disease, and the swelling, at least in
Such pow'r have they as factious lawyers long the beginning, is partial. The cure is difficult, since
To crowns ascrib'd, that kings can do no wrong.
Dryden's Hind and Panther.
To industrious study is to be ascribed the invention and perfec-
Behold, Sir Balaam, now a man of spirit,
Ascribes his gettings to his parts and merit;
What late he call'd a blessing, now was wit, where it was celebrated by a contest between the
And God's good providence, a lucky hit. poets and musicians; whence it was termed iepós
Pope. Moral Essays, es. ii.
These extraordinary convulsions of the material world must be
ascribed to the power by which God in the beginning created it,
and still directs the course of it.
Skinner. Ger. schreien, to cry out, to vociferate.
lish, to drie. Wachter. Schrewing, exclamatio, a cry-
occurrence in G. Douglas; and the Glossarist observes, English name,
swallow-wort. This is prinipally that it is frequently used on the Scottish border for
cry; as to skry a fair ; that is, to proclaim it. Skry
þe kỳng said on hie, “Symon ieo vous defie;
Edward was hardie, pe Londres gan he ascrie."
R. Brunne, p. 217.
And taught hem how thei shulde askrie,
All in a voice par companie.
Gower. Con, A. book vii.
Some of the French men came to Calice gate, and were ascried
Grufton, vol. ii.
By day all the bridges were made, so that all the horsemen
Suane toward Oxenford went fulle smertly,
& in þat ilk toun did he krie a krie.
R. Brunne, p. 42.
In the morning a certeine number of gentlemen that were within
the towne issued ont to the number of two hundreth speares, to
Grafton, v. i.
ASCYRUM, in Botany, a genus of plants; class
Poladelphia ; order Polyandria. Generic character;
Udall. S. James, c. 1.
cell, two or three valved.
genus, very nearly allied to Hypericum, or St. John's
ASEKI, a corruption of the Turkish word khās'-
North's Plutarch. exclusively to the most confidential servants of the
ASELLUS, sultan; hence his favourite wife is called the khás- ASH, 1. sekì sultán, the sultane par eccellence.
Asca, pulvis, asce, cinis. Dust, ASGAR ASELLUS, in Zoology, a genus of the class Arach
ashes. Applied to dust produced by BY. nides ; order Tetracera ; family Asellota of Latreille.
burning any substance.
þat perceyued þe Sarazines, with fire brent þam down right.
His engýns fond he lorne, brent & tille askes dryuen.
R. Brunne, p. 176.
O ze cauld assis of Troy, and flambis bayth,
And extreme end of cuntre folkis, here i
Drawis zou to witnes, and dois testify,
I nothir sparit wappyngs, strenth nor pane,
Nor nane onset eschewit of Grekis mycht.
Douglæs. Æneados, book ii. p. 53.
Ye Troyan ashes, and last flames of mine,
I cal in witnesse, that at your last fall, the poll-tax, and other burdens, all who would settle
I fled no stroke of any Grekish swerd. Surrey. there; and these privileges were confirmed by the
Tho came this woful Theban Palamon states of the kingdom, at the diet, 1720. The parish
With flotéry berd, and ruggy asshy heres, of Asele measures about nine Swedish miles, and is
In clothes blake, ydropped all with teares. chiefly inhabited by Swedish peasants, whose sole
Chaucer. The Knightes T'ale, v. i. p. 114. subsistence is derived from a few cattle and the pro
For whan we may not don, than wol we speken,
* Yet in ður ashen cold is fire yreken. duce of their nets, a resource which seldom fails.
Chaucer. The Reves Prologue, v. i. P.
153. The inhabitants are large, laborious, active, and hos
Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires. pitable towards strangers. In consequence of fre
Gray's Elegy. quent scarcities, and the high price of corn, they
Still she entreats, and prettily intreats, substitute the bark of the fir-tree, dried and moulded,
For to a pretty ear she tunes her tale; from which they make a species of bread, when
Still is he sullen, still he low'rs and frets,
'Twixt crimson shame and anger ashy-pale. barley (which is their chief grain) is not to be pro
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis. cured; and even in times of greater plenty they mix
His ashy coat that bore a gloss so fair, it with their flour, both to preserve the custom, and
So often kiss'd of the enamour'd air, to keep themselves free from disorders accompanying
Worn all to rags, and fretted so with rust, a sudden change of diet.' There is one church in Asele
That with his feet he trod it in the dust. built under the reign of Christina, in 1648, for the
Drayton's Poems. The Owl. conversion of the Laplanders; service is performed
Porneius next him plac'd a meagre wight,
Whose leaden eyes sunk deep in swimming head; once in fifteen days to a very small congregation,
And joyless look, like some pale ashy spright, occasioned by the distance of their residences; and
Seem'd as he now were dying, or now dead. there is a government school for the education of six
P. Fletcher's Purple Island. children. Asele is troubled, during the summer with
-But as when a species of gnat, called knort, from which the people
The bird of wonder dies, the mayden phenix,
Her ashes new create another heyre,
As great in admiration as her selfe.
Who from the sacred ashes of her honour
Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she was,
And so stand fix'd. called Asphunis in the Notit. Imperii, and built on the
Shakespeare's K. Henry VIII. fol. 232. site of Aphrodites-polis. (D'Anville ; Hartmann.)
If the said (Turkish) ambassador were here among us, he would. ASFORDBY, in the county of Leicester; a rec- think that our modern gallants were also all mad, or subject to be tory, valued in the King's books at £15. Ils. 8d. mad, because they ashe and powder their pericraniums all the year
They fondly thinking to allay
Their appetite with gust, instead of fruit. in the pound. It is 31 miles W. from Melton Mow
Chew'd bitter ashes, which th' offended taste
With spattering noise rejected.
Milton's Par. Lost, book x.
When heauelie the ashes heapes which there confused lay:
In vrnal pottes they put; and smoultringe moulde theron do
Phaer's Eneados, book xi.
Now liad the morning thrice renew'd the light,
And thrice dispell’d the shadows of the night;
These and the bones unburn'd, in earth bestow,
These relics with their country rites they grace;
And raise a mount of turf to mark the place.
Dryden's Virgil's Æn, xi, fol. 597.
A sudden horror shot thro' all the chief,
95. Parish rates, in 1803, £254. 93. 64d. at 5s. in ASH. And wrapt his senses in the cloud of grief;
the pound. It is 54 miles E.N.E. from Whitchurch.
Asu, in the county of Surrey; a rectory, with ASHAME,
the chapel of Trimley; valued in the King's books Those he deforms with dust, and these he tears;
at £15. 188. 114d.; patron, Winchester College.
Church dedicated to St. Peter. Population, in 1811,
553. Parish rates, in 1803, £579. 18s. at 12s. in the
pound. It is 5 miles, N. E. by E. from Farnham.
Asu-BOCKING, in the county of Suffolk; a dis-
charged vicarage, valued in the King's books at
£9. 18s. 6d.; patron, the King. Church dedicated Descending settled on his fragrant vest.
to All Saints. Population, in 1811, 237. Parish Then stretched in ashes, at the vast extent
rates, in 1803, #114. 128. 31d. at 25. 9d. in the Of his whole length he lay, disord’ring wild
pound. It is 54 miles, east by south from Needham.
Cowper's Iliad. Ash, North, in the county of Kent; a rectory,
valued in the King's books at £9. 188. 4d. Church
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul. Population, in A'shen. S suggests the Greek Avw, to burn.
1811, 500. Parish rates, in 1803, £367. 16s. at Wachter, the Greek loxvw, to be strong.
48. old. in the pound. It is 31 miles, north by There sawe I eke the fresh hauthorne
west, from Wrotham.
Ash, Priors, in the county of Somerset. Popula.
tion, in 1811, 155. Parish rates, in 1803, £57. 88. 2d.
by west, from Taunton. This small church is a
curacy in the deanery of Taunton, valued in 1292 at
Asu WEDNESDAY, a solemn fast kept by the Chris-
tian church on the first day of Lent. It was anciently
called the head of Lent, and was a season of extraor
dinary humiliation. Penitents had ashes sprinkled -He fell,
upon their heads and stood clothed in sackcloth, acAs when an ash on some hill top (it selfe topt wond'rous well) The steele lewes downe, and he presents his young leaves to the cording to the rite mentioned, Isaiah, lviii. 5. In the spoyle :
Reformed Church the office of Commination, which So fell be, and his faire armes gron'd.
is always read in the course of the service of this Chapman's Homer's Iliad, book xiä.
day, has been substituted in the room of this open As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown,
Asn-WEED, in Botany, an English name for the
@gopodium Podagraria, or Gout-weed.
The word exists in all the northerr:
various Lexicographers, Erubescere—and perhaps the
meaning of the word may be to blush, to redden. It With all its tender foliage meets the ground.
is now applied to the feeling which occasions the So Imbrius fell; loud rang his armour bright
erubesco. Gothic, Bidyan Skama Mic. Saxon, Scea-
meth thæt ic wædlige. Wiclif, I schame to beg.
bis Lier was a schamed þo, and in wrappe at þe ende
To hys oper dogter, þe quene of Cornewail, he gan wende,
And playnede of þe vnkynde dede of hys dogter Gornorille,
And wende pere amendement to hal be aftur ys owne wille. fied value of £70.; patron, the archbishop of Can
R. Gloucester, p. 32. terbury; chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas. Popu- Now then when all false folke be ashamed, which wenen all lation, in 1811, 1685. Parish rates, in 1803, bestialtie and yearthly thing, he sweeter and better to the bodic £1585. 6s. 7d. at 3s. in the pound. It is 2 miles than beauenly is to the soule: this is the grace and the fruict that east by north from Wingham.On a sandy eminence I long have desired ; it doeth me good the savour to smell. in this parish, about 3 miles from Sandwich, on
Chaucer. Test, of Loue, book iii. fol. 318. c. 1. the north side of the high road to Canterbury, many
Eschame ze not, Phrigianis, that twyis tak is, antiquities have been dug up, from a spot supposed
To be inclusit amyd ane fald of stakis; to have been a Roman burial place. A particular
Schame ze not to prolong zour liuis, said he?
Douglas' Eneados, book ix. p. 298. account of them will be found in Boys's Sandwich,
And whanne he seide these thingis alle his aduersaries weren 268-9. Some are engraved in the Nænia Britannica;
ashamed: and al the puple joyede in alle thingis: that weren gloand Gough has given others in his Camden, i. 203.
riously don of him.
Wiclif. Luk, c. xiii.
An when he thus sayde, all lys aduersaryes were ashamed, and alued in the King's books at £9. Ils. 5d. Church all the people reioysed on all the excellent 'dedes, that were done edicated to the Holy Trinity. Population, in 1801, by hym.