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on the back of each hand lies a quatrefoil. - Between the two forefingers and the thumb of the right hand, the king holds a sceptre with the cross made of copper gilt.-Between the two forefingers and the thumb of his left hand, he holds the rod or sceptre with the dove: —the stalk is divided into two equal parts, by a knob or fillet, and at its bottom is a flat ferule.—On the head of the corpse, which lies within a recess hollowed out of the stone coffin, is an open crown or fillet of tin, or laten, charged on its upper edge with trefoils, and gilt with gold.-On a careful inspection of the fingers, of both hands, no ring could be discovered : but we may conjecture, that on the shrinking of the fingers, the royal ring had slipped off, and buried itself in some part of the robes, none of which were disturbed in order to search for it.—The cloth was not removed from the feet, so it is uncertain whether they have sandals on them or not.

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23 Archæologia. Vol. 3. p. 376, ples. And from mere curiosity also; &c. These volumes are not com- as in the case of the prior of S. mon, and I need scarcely apolo- Augustine's, in the time of Henry gize for the length of the above III.; who opened the tomb of S. extract. People will of course Augustine, to satisfy himself that form their own judgment as to the the body actually was there. propriety of opening any tombs Thorn. Chron. Script. X. Tom. or graves whatever: if the occa- 2. p. 1876. sion justifies such an undertaking, In the Anglia Sacra, Tom. 2. and if it be conducted with all p. 227, is printed the official acpossible solemnity and care, not count, drawn up at the time, of with irreverent remarks, and from the opening of the supposed tomb idle curiosity alone, I must confess of archbishop Dunstan, at Canthat it would appear to rest upon terbury, in the year 1508. There reasonable grounds. One thing were found some bones; and an is very certain; that prying into inscription, which though much graves is not of modern date, but relied on by archbishop Warham, that we have many ancient exam- in proof of the identity of the remains, seems to me to cast very will be repaid by a careful perusal considerable additional doubt upon of the whole matter. It is an unthe fact, and somewhat more than happy exposure of ignorance and a suspicion of collusion. The superstition on the part of the inscription was “Hic requiescit country-people, of something very sanctus Dunstanus archiepisco- like deceit in the monks, and parpus:” and it was argued that the tiality in the archbishop: who settomb had never been disturbed. tled the dispute by declaring, if A correspondence followed be- the convent of Glastonbury would tween the archbishop and the not withdraw their claim, that he monks of Glastonbury, who had

CHAPTER V.

T'

THE Services, in this volume, after the Order of

Coronation, are those which relate to the ordination of priests, deacons, subdeacons, &c., and to the consecration of bishops. We have here a subject of enquiry before us, so vast, and branching out into so many collaterate questions, that I almost fear to enter upon it at all, in the necessarily confined limits within which I must keep myself. I shall propose therefore to do little more, than lay before the reader some collections from the English councils, and canonists, much in the same way as in the Dissertation in the first volume, bearing upon and illustrating the rubrics and ceremonies of the services themselves. Other matters, of no little interest, will be found discussed in the notes attached to those services.

I shall scarcely even approach the question, how far and in what sense we are justified in considering “ Orders” 24 to be a sacrament : in some sense it is undeniable that it must be so regarded, as also are confirmation, and matrimony by the homilies of the church of England. We cannot receive the Ordinal of our Church, without acknowledging the truth of this, and echoing the words of S. Ambrose, “ Homo imponit manum, Deus largitur gratiam : sacerdos imponit supplicem dexteram, Deus benedicit potenti dextera.”

would excommunicate all persons claimed, for some centuries, pos- who should presume to visit their session of the body: and the reader pretended relics.

25 There is no lack of evidence that before the 16th century, the English church regarded orders in the same light; and I am not now concerned with the proof, if any such were needed, that she also ranked thi rite too highly, and not according to the more just measure and rule of the Holy Scriptures, and the primitive ages. Thus, a synod of Durham, in the year 1220, in its canon, “ de numero sacramentorum” first specifies five, and then continues : “ Duo vero sequentia sunt ordo et conjugium, nec omnium licet quorundam, nec per eorum virtutem peccata dimittuntur, sed in eorum altero, scilicet in conjugio, peccatum fornicationis vitatur; in altero, scilicet ordine, quorundam virtutes augentur. Again, the famous synod of Exeter, in the year 1287 ; “Est et septimum sacramentum, sc. ordo; nam, sicut in veteri testamento sacrificia offerebantur, non per quoscunque, sed vocatos a Domino ; ita nec in novo, nisi per ipsos, qui ad hoc sacros susceperint ordines, ecclesiastica sacramenta poterunt dispensari.”27 So also Lyndwood in his gloss upon a constitution of archbishop Peckham: “Ordo. Istud est unum de duobus sequentibus [i: e: sacramentis] et sextum in numero, alias connumeratis præcedentibus : et nota quod Ordo, prout est sacramentum ecclesiæ ut hic, est signaculum quoddam, per quod spiritualis potestas traditur ordinato. Secundum Thomam istud sacramentum pertinet ad generationem spiritualem.'

21 “ Ordo" when we meet with tin Ordinatio, or Sacra Ordithe term in the Fathers, may be natio, and the Greek

χειροτονια understood in at least two ways, Or χειροθεσια. The definitions of according to the context: either which by the canonists may be refor the sacred rite itself of ordi- duced to this : “Ritus sacer seu nation, or for the ecclesiastical sacramentum, quo spiritualis pohierarchy, and various degrees of tastas confertur sacramenta conthe ministers of the Church, ficiendi et ministrandi, cæteraque which would seem to be its origi- ecclesiastica munia pro jure obnal and most strict interpretation. eundi.” In this last sense, S. Augustine 25 De dignitate sacerdotali. cap. declares: “Ordo est parium dis- 5. see also his treatise, de Spiritu pariumque rerum sua cuique loca Sancto. lib. 1. cap. 5. 1. ; S. Chrytribuens dispositio.” De civit. sostom, de sacerdotio, lib. 3. § 4; Dei. Lib. xix. 13. 1. In the for- and S. Augustine, contr. Parmen. mer we are to understand the La- lib. 2. cap. 13.

And once more, the “ Pupilla Oculi :" which commences with the enumeration of seven sacraments, of which the fifth is “Ordo :” and presently has several chapters “de sacramento Ordinis." 29

") 28

p. 574.

130. cf. p.

* Wilkins. Concilia Tom. 1. tents; and the value of them, as a

record of the practice and opin21 lbid Tom. 2. p.

ions of the clergy of the English 295. a canon of a synod at Win- church, during the middle ages : chester, A. D. 1308. and cardi- “Pupilla oculi, omnibus presnal Pole, Reform. Angl. fol.9.b. byteris præcipue Anglicanis sumedit. Aldus. 1562.

me necessaria: per sapientissi28 Lib. 1. Tit. 7. Ignorantia. mum divini cultus moderatorem, rerb. Ordo.

Johannem de Burgo, quondam 29 The “Pupilla oculi,” once a almæ universitatis Cantabrigien. very famous book, is now exceed- cancellarium : et sacræ paginæ proingly rare, and but little known; fessorem, necnon ecclesiæ de Conor do I believe that it has been lingam rectorem ; compilata anno a printed since the reformation. As natali Dominico, M.ccc.lxxxv. In this is the first time that I have qua tractatur de septem sacramenquoted it, the reader will not ob- torum administratione, de decem ject, probably, to seeing its full ti- præceptis decalogi, et de reliquis tle: from which he will be able to ecclesiasticorum officiis, quæ oporform some judgment as to its con- tet sacerdotem rite institutum non ignorare; jam primum accuratis- was the “ Manipulus curatorum :" sime castigata, atque tersissime in in which, as the first sentence delucem edita. Impensis honestis- clares, “pernecessaria officia eosimi ac fidelissimi mercatoris Wil- rum quibus animarum cura comhelmi Bretton.” Paris. Wolf missa est breviter pertractantur.” gang Hopylius. 1510. sm. Folio. This was frequently printed by Another edition before me, is by both Wynkyn de Worde and PynRegnault, Paris, 4to. 1514. son. It treats of the sacraments,

There is not the same ease in arriving at the decision of the English church, before the reformation, as to the number of the various orders. This, in fact, has always been an open question in the western Church : nor, as one might have supposed, did even the council of Trent venture to set it at rest among the doctors of the Roman communion. Her canon is: “Si quis dixerit, præter sacerdotium non esse in ecclesia catholica alios ordines et majores et minores, per quos velut per gradus quosdam in sacerdotium tendatur, anathema sit.” 30

By which decision, if decision it may be called, it is really wonderful to perceive how carefully the via media has been taken, so as not to condemn the Greek church upon the one hand, nor the old schoolmen on the other ; and how the great controversies are carefully not affected; for example, how many and what these “ordines majores et minores” are; whether they are all of Divine institution; whether all are of the nature of a sacrament, and equally so; whether all equally impress a character upon the person ordained ; and others of the like kind.3

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I may add that a “ Pupilla" is the articles of the faith, and the ten referred to, earlier than this of De commandments. I shall have occaBurgo, in a sentence of excom- sion to refer to it, as we proceed. munication settled by a provincial 30 Sess. XXIII. Can. 2. Comp. council at York, A.D. 1311. See Cap. II. of the same session. Wilkins, Conc. Tom. 2. p. 414.

31 The “ Catechismus ad paroAnother book of the same kind chos" however, does not speak

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