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of Canterbury “ Ad honorem Dei omnipotentis, et B. Mariæ virginis, et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et domini papæ Cælestini, et S. Romanæ ecclesiæ, necnon ecclesiæ tibi commissæ, tradimus tibi pallium de corpore Petri sumptum, plenitudinem scil. pontificalis officii; ut utaris eo infra ecclesiam tuam certis diebus, qui exprimuntur in privilegiis ab apostolica sede concessis.”18
ROYAL AND EPISCOPAL RECEPTIONS. The next Order, edited in this volume, is that which was appointed to be used upon the occasion of solemnly receiving either at a city, or cathedral, or abbey, any sovereign, legate, cardinal, or bishop. The custom of the clergy of the place, at which such a personage was to arrive, to go forth in procession to meet him, and to conduct him to the church, is of very high antiquity, as may be seen by many accounts of it, to be found in the Acta Sanctorum, or in the collection of lives by Surius: and again, the well known reference made by S. Gregory Nazianzen to the reception of S. Athanasius, after his return from exile, or the procession with which S. Chrysostom met Epiphanius, in the succeeding century."
16 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199. I Espen.
“ Id tamen nequaquam must refer the refer the reader to hoc sensu accipiendum est, quasi the letters of the pope, on the in- ipsum pallium aliquam revera orthronization of Simon de Mepham, dinis potestatem ipsi consecrato A. D. 1328, “ et de pallii recep- tribueret ; cum sit merum extertione.” Ibid.
num aliquod ornamentum; sed The frequent reference which quod ante illius receptionem ex the student will find, to the pall jure mere positivo, seu consuetubeing “de corpore beati Petri,” dine jam recepta, metropolitani relates to the circumstance that nec suas functiones obire, nec nothey were not made (if I may so men archiepiscopi assumere quecall it) at the high altar of the ant; quæ disciplina quo præcise church of S. Peter, but at the tempore invaluerit, incertum est; altar over the supposed tomb of videtur autem tempore Conc. viij. the apostle: and the benediction (Ecumenici saltem in oriente fuisse being completed, the pall was left nota : et ex oriente ad Latinam one night upon that altar. As to ecclesiam transiisse.” Jus. Ecthe doctrine of the plenitude of cles. tom. 1. p. 171. Compare the episcopal office being con- Ferraris. Prompta Bibl. verb. veyed by it, I extract the follow- Archiepiscopus. art. iij. ing important observations of Van
And, as of bishops, so also we find, in later times, many examples of legates, received with the due solemnities : I quote the words of Matthew Paris, relating the arrival of the legate Otho, whose constitutions afterwards published are so famous, and of such high authority. “ Occurrerunt ei episcopi et clerici famosi usque ad littus :-rex autem ei usque ad confinium maris occurrit ; et inclinato ad genua ejus capite, usque ad interiora regni deduxit officiose. Et adventantes episcopi, cum abbatibus, et aliis ecclesiarum prælatis, eum cum omni honore et reverentia, cum processionibus et campanarum classico, receperunt.” 20
19 Sozomen. Hist. Ecc. lib. 8. ejus opperientes." Apud Su
“ Eum ingredientem rium. Aug. xxvij. Joannes occursu cleri totius hono- 20 Hist. Angl. p. 371. A. D. ravit.” A mark of respect, of 1237. This is not the place for which, in this particular case, the me to enter upon the history, and bishop afterwards shewed himself functions, and dignity, of the lescarcely worthy. I would add gates of the church of Rome ; I this illustration also from the life shall merely remind the reader of Cæsar Arelatensis: “ Ubi au- that the canonists make three tem percrebuit hominem Dei re- distinctions of legates: viz. (to verti, jamque eum urbi propin- adopt the words of Van Espen) quare, omnes utriusque sexus cum “ Legati a latere vocantur legati crucibus et cereis ei processere cardinales : quia assumuntur de obviam, psallentes, et ingressum latere papæ.-Legati missi sunt, qui mittuntur ad aliquam provin- Eccles. Pars 1. tit. xxi. The ciam, sed non sunt cardinales; et whole title should be consulted : hujus generis esse solent hodierni and Thomassin, de Benef. II. lib. nunti, et internuntü, apud reges 1. 52. et principes, tanquam legati pontificis residentes.—Legati nati vo
I would give the following early example in the English church, of the reception of a bishop: the Historia Eliensis, speaking of S. Wulstan, says: qualis denique vir iste apud Deum semper extiterit, circa vitæ finem evidenter apparuit, quodam enim tempore contigit eum hanc ecclesiam orationis causa visitare, cui fratres loci processionaliter cum magna ut decuit reverentia occurrerunt, cumque jam in ecclesiam fuisset deductus, et in capite processionis episcopali more baculo pastorali staret innixus; subito, etc.”21 Nor does the reader probably forget the account given us by Bede, of Ethelbert's reception of S. Augustine in the open air, for fear of some magical influence: “ at illi non dæmonica, sed divina virtute, præditi veniebant, crucem pro vexillo ferentes argenteam, et imaginem Domini Salvatoris in tabula depictam.” 22
From about the twelfth century it was usual to receive all bishops, on their visitations and progresses through their dioceses, with ringing of bells : and there are frequent entries in ancient parish records of payments on that account. A foreign canon gives a just reason for this observance. “ Mandamus, et statuimus, quod quotiescunque episcopi per civitates suas, et diæceses transierint, rectores, seu clerici ecclesiarum, qui sciverint, eos per suas parochias transire,
2 Script. XV. tom. 3. p. 506. cantur, qui dignitati suæ ecclesi- 22 Hist. Eccles. lib. l.
25. asticæ officium et munus legati Compare the end of the same apostolici annexum habent.” Jus. chapter.
campanas pulsent, seu pulsari faciant, ita quod populus audire possit et exire, et genua flectere ad benedictionem suscipiendam.” I must refer the reader to the appendix to Dugdale's history of S. Paul's cathedral,** for an “Ordo ad recipiendum episcopum,” according to the use of that church, but he does not state at what date.
There are several notices in the chronicles of royal receptions : I extract one only; the place was S. Alban’s, in the time of Richard II. “ Finitis vesperis cum processione solemni obviam regi processum est ab abbate et conventu ad occidentale ostium monasterii, acceptusque est honorifice cum pulsationibus campanorum, cantuque tam debito quam devoto.”25 These royal visits were not always so acceptable, it would seem, as they ought to have been: the same author tells us soon after ; “ Dum hæc aguntur, rex Angliæ et regina cum suis Boemiis abbathias regni circuunt visitando, quibus tanto tristior fuerit eorum adventus, quanto gravior, quia et accesserunt in excessivo numero, et non offerre sed auferre venerunt." 26
But I must not omit one of the latest examples which we have, before the reformation, after which
23 Concil. Raven. Can. 6. A.D. is related by R. de Graystanes ; 1314.
Anglia Sacra, tom. 1. p. 760.
26 Ibid. p. 302. In this “ruin2 P. 238. edit. 1658. And ous” progress, the abbey of Bury compare for a reception of an is especially mentioned as having abbot of S. Albans,“ processionali- suffered the severe infliction of a ter,” Matt. Paris. Vitæ abbatum. ten days' visit ; at an expense, be
sides other losses, of 800 marks.
The historian does not tell us 25 Walsingham. Hist. Angl. p. what processions took place, on 274. A curious circumstance re- the occasion of the royal degarding queen Philippa at Durham parture.
period the ancient religious ceremonies on such occasions were, of course, no longer observed. In the summer of 1541, Henry VIII. kept his progress, and a contemporary account has been preserved of his entry into Lincoln. We are concerned only with one part of the ceremony, at his approach to the cathedral. “ Item, the bushoppe of lyncolne wth all thole Queere and crosse were readye, and stodde in the mynster alonge on bothe sydes the bodye of the churche, gyvinge attend'unce, and when his grace was alyghtid at the weste ende of the mynster, where were ordenyd and spred as well carpett as stooles wh quyssheons of clothe of golde, for the kyng's hyghnes, wheron was a crucyfyx laid, and one other on the queenes grace's stoole. Item, aftre his grace was kneelid downe the busshoppe came forthe of the churche and gaue the crucyfyx to the kinge to kysse, and then to the queene, and then censyd them, hys myter beinge on hys heade, and thus proceaded they into the churche, the kinge and queenes grace goinge vndre the Canape to the Sacrement, where they made theyre prayers, thole queere synginge melodyouslye Te Deum, and aftre this don, his grace went strayght to his lodginge.”97
RECONCILIATION OF A CHURCH. We come now to the Form which was used at the Reconciliation of a Church or Churchyard: which was
27 Archæologia, vol. 23.p.338. evidence of the fatal night she Communicated by Sir F. Madden: passed at Lincoln.” Compare also who observes, as giving a further the very interesting account of a interest to this instance; “ the reception of Henry VI. at Bury queen's guilt (Catharine Howard) S. Edmund's, from a register of it will be remembered, with Tho- that abbey : also printed in the mas Culpeper, was established by Archæol. vol. 15. p. 66. VOL. III.