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It will be observed in the notes below, that an archbishop, if translated from one see to another, was obliged to apply to the court of Rome for a new pall: this was on account of the personal character which was attributed to that ornament. Hence Cælestin III. decided, in his answer to an enquiry on the subject, “ quod non videatur esse conveniens, ut pallium tuum alicui commodes : cum pallium in personam non transeat, sed quisque debeat cum eo (sicut tua novit discretio) sepe

This is introduced into the rubric of the modern Roman pontifical. There are numerous accounts of the burying of archbishops in their vestments, to be found in their Acts, and in the Bollandists : but I remember only one English example in which the pall is expressly mentioned. Catalani says that we are to conclude that S. Dunstan was buried in his pall, because we are told that at the translation of his body, it was found, upon examination, that the ring was upon his finger: and therefore the other vestments proper to his dignity. This seems a somewhat hasty inference. However, the following is clear enough: arch

liri.'” 12

pitur, ut subinde assumatur cum veral very ancient formulæ are prodeundum in publicum ; depo- given in the diurnal, upon occanatur, quando quisque domi apud sions when the pall was sent from se est.

In sacris ornamentis vox Rome to archbishops, p. 125. illa ambiguam habet significatio- These also should be referred to. nem; sumitur enim, aliquando 12 Cap. 3. x, de auctoritate et pro veste sacra, quæ superinduitur, usu pallii. Van Espen. tom. I. ut quod pluviale dicitur, quodque p. 171. See also Castaldus, cappa et casula ; aliquando pro Praxis Cærem. lib. 1. §. X. cap. insigni quodam dignitatis eximiæ, 12. quod ipsi etiam cappæ casula- 13 Comment. in pontif. Rom. que imponitur, sicut pallium re- tom. I. p. 248. Martene. tom. 2. liquis vestibus, vel est pallii ornamentum quoddam et decus.” Se- Martene cites the following from

p. 368.

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bishop Becket, the day after he was murdered, was hastily buried : still with regard had to certain solem

arm.

a manuscript of some anonymous pontificalibus est indutum: mitra writer, entitled the Speculum Ec- capiti appositum, manibus chiroclesiæ. • Sigillum cereum in mo- thecæ, cum annulo, et dextro sub dum crucis compactum et aquam

brachio baculus consuetus, manibenedictam continens super caput bus cancellatis, sandalia in pedibus defuncti ponimus, quod est signum decenter aptata.” P. 1064. baptismi et christianitatis suæ, et In the above, there is a refertestimonium quod ipse fidem ence to a custom or distinction, Christi habuit in mente. Clerici upon which I take this opportunity vero ordinati cum illis indumentis of making a remark, as I am not in quibus fuerunt ordinati debent aware that it has been noticed by et sepeliri, et sacerdos cum illis writers upon the subject. Matthew cum quibus assistit altari, mona- Paris says, that the pastoral staff chus vero cum cuculla sua, quod was placed under the abbot's right est professionis suæ signum. Su

It is well known, that one per pectus vero sacerdotis debet distinguishing mark, between the poni calix loco sigilli, quidquid sit mode of carrying this staff, by a de oblata : quod si non habetur, bishop or by an abbot, was, that stanneus saltem Samius, id est the first turned the crook outwards fictilis. Episcopus debet habere to denote his jurisdiction over anulum, quia sponsus est: cæteri diocese, the other inwards, tosacerdotes non, quia sponsi non wards himself, to denote that his sunt, sed amici sponsi vel vicarii. jurisdiction reached over the memItem capilli debent clerico tonderi, bers only of his own House. But corona fieri, barba radi.” Tom. the first moreover carried his staff 2. p. 368.

in his left hand, the latter in his A very detailed and interesting right. And according to this rule, account of the ancient manner of we find many effigies. For exburying and performing the obse- ample, there is an early monument quies of the abbots of S. Albans is of an abbot of Westminster, in given in Matt. Paris' lives, at- the cloisters, with his staff in the tached to his History. Speaking right hand: (the crook, by the of one he says, after explaining way, outwards.) Again, there is the way in which the

corpse

had a very interesting account, with a been previously prepared : “ Por- plate, in the Archæologia, of the tabatur igitur corpus a camera discovery lately of the body of an quæ dicitur abbatis, ubi expirave abbot of Evesham, who died in rat, in infirmariam; et ibidem 1263: it was found vested, with a

nities : “amotis distributisque ejus quotidianis vestibus superioribus, sepultus est in ipso, in quo inventus est cilicio, et famularibus interius cilicinis, exterius lineis, et in eisdem caligis, et in ipso quo erat habitu monachali. Et supra hæc, in ipso eodem in quo ordinatus fuit vestimento, alba quæ Græce poderis dicitur, superhumerali simplici, chrismatica, mitra, stola, mappula : supra quæ habuit archiepiscopaliter tunicam, dalmaticam, casulam, pallium cum spinulis, calicem, chirothecas, annulum, sandalia, pastoralem baculum ; quo consuetum est more, quo dignum est honore.” 14

chalice and paten; and reaching of bishop John de Sheppy, in Roacross the body, with the crook chester cathedral, has the staff turned inwards, over the right surrounded with a veil. Archæshoulder and clasped by the rightologia, vol. 25, p. 122. Neither arm, lay the pastoral staff. Vol. probably was it the case with ex20. 566. See also the figure empt abbots. of Adam Islip, in Strutt's Regal Matthew Paris relates also the Antiq.: and another, in pl. LX. funeral solemnities of S. Hugh, On the contrary, the seals and bishop of Lincoln, in the year effigies of bishops represent them 1200. The kings of England and carrying the staff in the left hand : Scotland, three archbishops, and as, in Salisbury cathedral, the thirteen bishops, with a multitude boy-bishop, and bishop Jocelyn. of clergy, met the corpse. “ Quod Or compare those in Stothard's ipsi reges, cum comitibus et cætemonumental effigies. Before I ris principibus portaverunt in huclose this note, I would remark meris suis, usque ad atrium cathethat it has been said by some, that dralis ecclesiæ. Ad ostium autem an abbot, ad differentiam, had a ecclesiæ susciperunt illud archiveil round his staff: this may have episcopi præfati et episcopi; et sic been true in some churches abroad, per ministerium prælatorum perand Gavantus, tom. 1. p. 122, latum est usque in chorum, ubi cites some acts of the church of est honorifice pernoctatum. Milan to that purpose: but I Dum ipse more pontificum discocannot say whether it was ob- operta facie jaceret, mitram habens served, as a distinction, in Eng- in capite, chirothecas in manibus, land. One thing is certain, that annulum in digito, cum cæteris if it was, it was not confined to pontificalibus ornamentis, etc.” abbots: because the splendid effigy Hist. p. 172.

William of Malmesbury's account of the reception of his pall by archbishop Anselm is important: “Data ei publice potestate, ut per totum regnum primatus sui jus exerceret libere, dies præfixa, qua Albanensis episcopus cum pallio Cantuariam veniret, venienti, et sacrum insigne in vase argenteo deferenti vulgo applausum, ab archiepiscopo nudipede, sed sacerdotalibus vestimentis indutus occursum. Inde super altare Domini salvatoris pallium assumptum sacratus pontifex beatis humeris composuit, et ad divina celebranda processit.15” I shall further cite the following from the chronicle of Gervase : relating to the reception of his pall by archbishop Hubert, A. D. 1193. Archiepiscopus Cantuariam veniens ab episcopis Angliæ et conventu Cantuariensi honorifice et in osculo pacis vij. idus Novembris susceptus est. Deinde alba indutus et cappa, sequente conventu, nudus pedes incedens, pallium suscepit per manum nuntii Cælestini papæ. Quo redimitus pallio cum cæteris episcopalibus indumentis, inthronizatus est, et missam celebravit.” 16

14 Vita, a W. Stephanide. apud into it, proving how eagerly in Sparkes. p. 89.

the middle ages, the bishops of 15 De gestis Pontif. Ang. Edit. Rome employed it, as an instruSavile, p. 125. The historian adds; ment to extend and support their “ Erat tunc dies Dominica, 4. Idus usurpations, and to obtain reveJunii, fuitque nonnullis ingenti nues. Having steadily, as time miraculo, quod idem evangelium went on, added now a little and illa die occurrit, quod ante prog- then a little to the unjust claims nosticon ejus fuerat.” See below, which they made over the origip. 257, note 25. And compare the nally independent metropolitans of account in Eadmer, Hist. lib. 2. the English Church, among which cap. 5. who adds; “ Pater etiam the privileges which they preipse episcopis, qui ob hoc Cantu- tended to convey or withhold with ariam venerant, dextra lævaque the pall, were not the least flastipatus ac sustentatus, sacro beati grant and unfounded; our histoPetri muneri nudis pedibus de- ries, as Dr. Inett has said, “from votus occurrit. Tali devotionis the reign of Innocent III. downcultu, pallium assumptum est, at- ward, are very full of the oppresque ab omnibus suppliciter deos- sions and most horrible abuses culatum."

and exactions, which were the Although, as I have already consequences of such doctrines." said above, the origin of the pall, And he rightly characterizes them and its first adoption, as an eccle- as “bold insults (to say no worse ) siastical ornament, cannot be dis- on the rights and authority of the covered, yet there is ample evi- whole catholick church.” Origines dence, if it was necessary to go Anglic. vol. 1. p. 165.

In the collection of Wilkins are several forms of the oath anciently taken by the archbishops on receiving the pall:17 and in the year 1293, is the following Forma petitionis pallii. Postulat devota vestra filia ecclesia Christi Cantuar. concedi pallium de corpore beati Petri sumptum electo suo consecrato, ut habeat plenitudinem officii; et pro hoc instanter et fortiter supplicat sanctitati vestræ.” In the same place is a Forma traditionis pallii,differing from that in the office below : this is said to be taken from the registers

16 Script. X. tom. 1. p. 1586.

17 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199: tom. 3. p. 154. 647. See also, Anglia Sacra, tom. I. p. 372. and Gibson, Codex. Juris. Ecc.

p.

105. It is quite clear from what Ralph de Diceto says, of the nuncio, in describing the ceremony on the occasion of archbishop Hubert, that the oath frequently varied : “ Qui veniens ante majus altare, triplici sacramento quod ab antiquis temporibus introductum est, adauctis quibusdam novis verborum formulis involvit archiepis

copum.” Script. X. tom. 1. p.671.

The engagement entered into to visit the see of Rome personally or by deputy, within a certain number of years, was deferred often by leave from the pope : and, in some cases, the sovereign himself interfered, and in the form of a humble supplication, requested the time to be prolonged: this was backed by a similar missive directed to the cardinals for their interposition. See Rymer, dera, tom. 2. pars 2. p. 84. and again, p. 127.

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