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cuith. “ Undecimo præcipimus, sicut priscis temporibus a sanctis patribus traditum esse reperitur; ut nulli episcoporum liceat alterius parochiam invadere, vel etiam aliquid alterius ministerii ad se pertrahere in aliqua consecratione ecclesiarum, vel presbyterorum, diaconorumque, nisi solus archiepiscopus, quia caput est suorum episcoporum.' In the year 1126, the tenth canon of a council at London. “ Nullus episcoporum alterius parochianum ordinare, vel judicare præsumat.” 34

Lastly, the following provincial of archbishop Wethershed, in the year 1229, as given by Lyndwood. “ Quia quidem clerici desperantes ab episcopis suis ordinari propter imperitiam, aut ætatem minorem, extra provinciam suam a transmarinis episcopis ordinantur, vel ordinantur, vel ordinatos se mentiuntur, ignorata sigilla episcopis suis deferentes : statuimus talem ordinationem irritam esse habendam, sub interminatione anathematis inhibentes, ne a quoquam ad

31 Ibid.


171. 408. Cf. p. sixteenth century. The chronicle 609. xv. Among other privileges of W. Thorn, an ardent partizan claimed by or allowed to monaste- of the monks of S. Augustine of ries, one frequently was,

that their Canterbury, is not a little instrucmembers might be ordained by tive upon this point. However, any bishop, and not necessarily by upon the privilege of that abbey, the diocesan. In fact, to such an for example, as regards ordinations, extent had the exemptions of many I quote the following: “Præterea religious houses reached, that they quod crisma, et oleum sanctum, acknowledged no diocesan, except consecrationes altarium, ordinathe Pope. And the abuses to tiones monachorum et clericorum which this had led, and the fre- a quocunque voluerimus episcopo quent quarrels which took place catholico poterimus suscipere, nec between the monasteries and the ea nobis audeat aliquatenus denebishops are so undeniable, that gare.” Script. X. Tom. 2. p. the necessity of some reformation 1835. was plain enough, long before the

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sui officii executionem suscipiantur. Episcopum quoque nostræ jurisdictionis, qui talem sciens et perpendens ordinaverit vel susceperit, ab illius ordinis collatione, ad quem eum susceperit vel ordinaverit, usque ad condignam satisfactionem se noverit esse suspen

And the dictum of the Pupilla oculi; “ Episcopus non debet ordinare clericum alterius diæcesis præter licentiam sui superioris, id est, episcopi in cujus diæcesi iste qui ordinari vult fuit oriundus." 36

But as in the majority of these irregular ordinations, the persons receiving were, probably, oftener alone in fault, and always must have been themselves conscious of, even though the bishop might possibly have known also, the existence of some canonical impediment, we find very frequent penalties levelled against such

35 Lib. 1. tit. 4.

* Pars vij.cap. 2. F. The same chapter specifies various other restrictions upon


of conferring orders.

A remarkable mandate is extant, of a bishop of Bath and Wells, which deserves our attention. “Radulphus, episcopus Bath. et Well. archidiacono nostro Well. salutem, gratiam, et benedictionem. Abusionibus quorundam episcopos se dicentium-qui licet non missi officium episcopale in nostra diæc. viz. primam tonsuram et minores ordines conferendo, calices et superaltaria consecrando, vestimenta ecclesiastica benedicendo,-ut lucrum extorqueant temporale, in nostrum opprobrium, et contemptum, et aliorum perniciosum ex

emplum, absque auctoritate seu licentia aliqua exercere præsumunt, occurrere cupientes, vobis -sub pæna excommunicationismandamus, quatenus nullum episcopum, præterquam fratrem Johannem de Langebrugge Buduen. episcopum, suffraganeum nostrum ad hujusmodi speciale officium exercend. sine nostris literis vobis ostensis-admittatis. Inhibeatis insuper-omnibus rectoribus, vicariis, et capellanis-ne tales episcopos recipiant-Citetis insuper,

citari faciatis peremptorie quemcunque hujusmodi episcopum prætensum, quod compareat coram nobis vel nostro commissario receptur. quod justitia suadebit. Dat. xvi. Jul. 1362.” Wilkins. Conc. tom. 3. p. 49.


offenders. About the year 1173, a canon of Richard, archbishop of Canterbury: “ Amodo officium suum non exerceant, qui in alienis episcopatibus furtive ordines susceperunt.” Again, a synodal statute of the diocese of Chichester in 1246 thus concludes : “ Si quis vero furtive vel simoniace fuerit ordinatus, vel alias contra canonicas sanctiones, non exequatur officium, quousque cum ipso fuerit dispensatum.” And once more, the synod of Exeter, in 1287, bearing upon several points before noticed; “ Quoniam quidam extranei se oriundos de nostra diæcesi, ac servi se liberos multotiens mentiuntur, ad quod probandum conductitios testes et falsos producunt; nos tam ipsos, quam testes eorum, pro hujusmodi fraudis commento excommunicationis vinculo innodamus." 37

37 Wilkins. Conc. tom. 1. p. sit on the right hand of the arch475. 689. Tom. 2. p. 137. Cf. bishop of Canterbury, the bishop Tom. 1.


581. 658. 706. 717. of London on the left, and WinWe find very early in the coun- chester next to York. If the cils of the English Church, orders archbishop of York was not preas to the precedence of bishops ; sent, then the bishop of London to be ruled by the dates of their took his place.

Concil. tom. 1. consecrations. Thus in the above p. 363. Thus Gervase in his cited council at Hertford, in the chronicle, speaking of a council seventh century;

“ Octavum, ut held under Henry II.- says; “Ad nullus episcoporum se præferat dextram primatis sedit episcopus alteri per ambitionem, sed omnes Londoniensis, quia inter episcopos agnoscant tempus, et ordinem con- Cant. ecclesiæ suffraganeos decasecrationis suæ." But before the natus præminet dignitate. Ad Conquest, privileges had been sinistram sedit episcopus Wintogranted to some sees; for in a niensis, quia cantoris officio præcouncil under Lanfranc, A.D. 1075, cellit. Cæteri tam episcopi quam we find it decreed, after examina- abbates secundum primogenita tion, that according to ancient consecrationis suæ consederunt.” rule the archbishop of York should Script. X. tom. 1. p. 1430. Com

I am not aware that if, in contradiction to these canons, a bishop ventured heedlessly or criminally to confer orders, he would incur the following penalty; but I mention it, as being worth notice, and having reference also to the solemnity with which, at his consecration, the proper vestments were put on by the newly elected bishop, and regarded in some degree as conveying a distinctive character. The two cases to which reference is made, are, neglect of consecrating churches, and of punishing criminous clerks : in the first, from the time that he has refused to perform it, being properly required, and not lawfully hindered, “ a dalmaticæ, tunicæ, et sandaliorum usu, donec eam duxerit consecrandam, noverit se suspensum : quæ in

pare the “ Ymagines historiarum"

ensem cancellarium, Lincolnienof Ralph de Diceto, ibid. p. 671. sem vicecancellarium, Sarisburi. And Gervase again, for an ex- ensem præcentorem, Wigornienample, when the archbishop of sem capellanum, Roffensem cruYork was present, and occupied ciferarium.” Lib. 5. Tit. 15. his proper position in a proces- Eternæ. verb. tanquam. And it sion. Ibid. p. 1587 : and he adds ; appears that a dispute did arise “ Roffensis vero qui Cantuariensis about this matter, between the archiepiscopi capellanus est, prope bishops of London and Rochester, archiepiscopum subsequetur a ter- in the time of Richard I. See

The statement of the chro- Chron. Gervas. Script. X. tom. nicler as to the office of the bishop 1. p. 1586. and Abp. Parker. p. of Rochester, and above, as to the 226. office of the bishop of Winchester, I had made some collections is contrary to the rule laid down respecting the disputes between by Lyndwood, (and followed by the archbishops of Canterbury and archbishop Parker, De Ant. Brit. York, which so frequently are Ece. p. 32, and later authorities,) mentioned in the old chronicles, " Habet archiepiscopus Cant. in and the councils. But the subject collegio episcoporum episcopos, is so extensive, that I have been Londinensem decanum, Wintoni- obliged to pass it over altogether. VOL. III.



ipso consecrationis actu illico reassumat:" and the other is to the same effect. Both these are in the legatine constitutions of Otho. 38

There was a facility which persons anciently might avail themselves of, surreptitiously to obtain orders, which has long been checked : this arose from the great number of persons who were ordained. I have unfortunately mislaid a reference to one of the Cotton manuscripts in the British Museum, in which I saw some long contemporary lists of ordinations, with names and other particulars, in the fourteenth century. But this is a point upon which easily ample information might be obtained, I doubt not, from existing records in the episcopal registers of the various dioceses: and I shall extract the following only from the Archæologia. “In the episcopate of bishop Brantyngham, at an ordination celebrated in Tiverton church by William Courtenay, bishop of Hereford, on the 8th June, 1370, there were ordained three hundred and seventy-four persons; of whom, one hundred and sixty-three received the first tonsure; one hundred and twenty were ordained acolyths ; thirty, subdeacons; thirty-one, deacons; and thirty, priests."

38 Tit. 3. and 8. There is nothing of importance in John de Athon's gloss upon these passages.

39 Vol. 18. p. 414. Compare

some remarks in the dissertation on service books, as to the number of churches in this country, before the reformation. vol. 1. p. clxviij. note. 83,

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