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fices. There were so many privileges, and exemptions from civil jurisdiction, which at that time began to be attached to the spiritualty, that men were eager to receive orders, merely that they might enjoy its privileges.

A title, also, conveyed with it the customary stipend, sufficient to provide the usual and proper necessaries of life. Otherwise, the Church would have been overrun not only with idle, but with indigent clergy. This is a point already touched upon in one of the canons just quoted : and so also the Pupilla oculi: “Inquirant etiam examinatores de titulo ordinandi, et si habeat patrimonium proprium unde poterit sustentari competenter :-quia si ordinetur sine titulo tenetur episcopus seu præsentator ei necessaria providere.” 73 And John de Athon justly says,

that

any arrangement with a bishop, or patron, not to press or insist upon

this claim, would be of the nature of simony: Ordo namque sacer sine titulo, i: e: beneficio dare non debet. etc.---Nec tamen potest ordinandus repromittere ordinanti, vel præsentanti, de non inquietando eos in forma, absque specie simoniæ ex utraque parte.' The title also, must not be a feigned one. i: e: non ficto, alias ordinans talem, se obligat. Sed nunquid sufficiat ad excusationem ordinantis quod ordinandus hujusmodi suo titulo oblato asserat se contentum? quia volenti non fit injuria. etc. Tu dic contra, cum ibi hoc præcavendum sit indecentiæ clericali.

66 Et vero.

73 Pars. vij. cap. 3. H. Some Jedge, but upon

his successor. See go so far as to say that a person

Bonacina. Disp. viij. Tom. 1. p. so ordained, has a like claim, in 229. Hostiensis does not think case of death, not only upon a bi- the successor is liable. cit. ibid. shop's heirs, which all acknow

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Item hujusmodi remissio expressa simoniam induceret, ergo tacite non censetur subintelligi. Et intelligo, quod de hujusmodi titulo certo ordinandus debet facere fidem per aliqua sufficientia documenta, sc. per testes. etc.'

Upon the much disputed question of the propriety of conferring orders, whether two or more, at one time, I must content myself with extracting one constitution only, a long one, of archbishop Peckham, at Lambeth, a. D. 1281. “ Cum secundum doctores catholicos militia clericalis septem muniatur ordinibus singulorum characteribus in anima consignatis, per singulos etiam augmentum recipiens gratiæ, nisi ordinati ficte ordinem suscipiant crimine irretiti, expedit plurimum ipsos ordines minime recipere inculcatos, quoniam inculcatio reverentiam minuit, et gratiam per consequens, quæ per irreverentiam repercutitur ab ingratis. Contra dignitatem igitur tam reverentissimi esse dignoscitur sacramenti, quinque simul ordines, scilicet ordines non sacros cum uno sacro, alicui uni homini exhibere ; unde in nonnullis aliis provinciis quatuor minores ordines non simul faciliter conferuntur, ut ascendentes clerici ad Christi ministeria quasi graduum canticum continentia, cum probati extiterint in minoribus officiis, gradatim demum procedant ad majora. Quia igitur ex singulis ecclesiis, quæ pia, quæ religiosa, quæque honesta sunt, tenemur eligere, et ea tanquam fasciculum in Anglorum mentibus colligare; præcipimus, ut episcopi in his sequantur canonicas sanctiones; minores etiam ordines, quando id potest fieri, bono modo, pro sacramenti reverentia seu necessitate dentur saltem aliquoties combinati, et recipientes eos, seu simul, seu sigillatim, in vulgari lingua publice instruantur de distinctione ordinum, officiorum et characterum, ac de profectu gratiæ, quæ in singulis ordinibus continetur, et digne accedentibus augmentatur.”75

74 In constit. Othonis. De scrutinio ordinand. Verb. titulo et 75 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. 2. p. opiniones. — Mihi videtur, quod 53. Lyndwood says, upon the opinio Hostiensis intelligi potest words Canonicas sanctiones : vera, ut scilicet in generali cele“ Hic aut quæris de solis minori- bratione ordinum prima tonsura bus ordinibus conferendis, aut de non detur cum aliis quatuor in conferendis solis majoribus, aut aperto: potest tamen eodem die de conferendis tam minoribus ante inchoationem missæ celebraquam majoribus. Et scias, quod tionis ordinum private conferri. diversis et separatis personis sin- Sed nunquid cum uno de minorigulariter possunt singuli ordines bus ordinibus possit eidem persoeodem die conferri. Sed quæstio næ eodem die conferri ordo sutnostra procedit, an plures ordines diaconatus ? Hostiensis dicit plane possunt simul eodem dic conferri quod non : et videtur hoc satis uni personæ ? et quantum ad ma- decisum in capit. Cum H. ubi jores ordines dic breviter, quod delictum talis patet ex tribus. non licet omnes, nec etiam duos Primo, quia recipienti ordinem simul eodem die conferre. An subdiaconatus cum minore ordine autem omnes minores ordines pos- eodem die imputatur temeritas. sunt simul uni personæ conferri, Secundo, quia ejus excessus magdicunt doctores, quod quatuor pos- nus et multus esse judicatur. Tersunt simul conferri, si talis sit tio, quia ab executione ordinis sus. consuetudo patriæ.-Sed an prima cepti suspenditur, ut ibi patet." tonsura possit cum aliis quatuor Lib. 5. Tit. 11. simul eodem die conferri, sunt

I have placed in the note below, some important observations of Lyndwood, bearing upon the same point. And to the like purpose is the following from the Pupilla. “ Potest quis omnes minores ordines recipere eodem die nisi consuetudo esset repugnans, cujus contrarium forte scandalum generaret. Sed unus ordo sacer cum minoribus vel duo sacri nullo modo uni eodem die conferantur. Et qui contra hanc formam furtive ordines receperit debet deponi.” 16

From these, and other testimonies, if it was necessary to appeal to them, not omitting that of the office below, p. 157, it is quite clear, that long before the reformation, the minor orders, whatever the theory may have been, had, in fact and practice, fallen into disuse, in the church of England, as now they also have in the church of Rome. The names were retained, and the clergy required to pass through them,” before the reception of the diaconate or priesthood: but as the names and titles were all which had survived the long lapse of time, it was a wise course to remove so unserviceable a remnant from the revised ordinal of our church. These minor orders, and I now include the subdiaconate, were not of divine institution ; 78 claiming, (and truly, it is not to be de

cap. 1. F.

76 Pars. vij. cap. 3. B. titur; acolythos, etc: quos anti77 See the Pupilla: Pars. vij. quissimos esse, et ab apostolis,

An superior ordo vel ab immediatis eorum succes. possit recipi inferiore non recepto? soribus institutos doctores schoIsti perfecti ordines secundum in- lastici asserunt, sed non probant." stitutionem ecclesiæ recipi debeant Rerum liturg. lib. 1. cap. 25. 17. secundum quendam ordinem inci- Peter Lombard also, speaking of piendo." And it is decided that if the higher orders, acknowledges : this rule had not been followed, “ Hos solos primitiva ecclesia lethe person so transgressing would gitur habuisse, et de his solis præ-. require a dispensation. It would ceptum apostoli habemus. Subappear also, that if a priest had

diaconos vero et acolythos, pronot received the diaconate (for cedente tempore, ecclesia sibi conexample), he was to receive or- stituit.” Sent. lib. iv. Dist. 24. dination to it, but without itera- And once more, before his time, tion of the priesthood.

Amalarius : “ Notandum est, eos 78 Cardinal Bona confesses this: ordines, qui potissimum necessarii « Tertia classis ministrantium cle- sunt in ecclesia, apostolum Pauricos minorum ordinum complec- lun denominasse et eorum mores

nied) a very high antiquity, they nevertheless fell short of the apostolical age. Scripture is silent about them : nor do I remember that either S. Clement, or S. Ignatius, in his genuine epistles, or S. Polycarp, or S. Justin, or S. Irenæus alludes to, or mentions them in any way, and far less therefore do they insist on them. When they were at last adopted, various countries differed as to the number, and the offices, and the dignity of the several minor orders. Nor can there be refused to any branch of the Catholic Church, the same right and power to lay aside these orders, as to receive and institute them. If again, the necessities of any time should call for it, there can be no just reason why one or more of them should not be resumed, with newly defined duties, not merely nominal, but to be actually performed. This would be a real and not an idle following of the practice of antiquity, by an acknowledgment of the peculiar wants and requirements of the age, and an energetic endeavour to meet and supply them. It is not reasonable to suppose that always the same divinely instituted

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depinxisse, sine quibus non potest Compare the statements laid down rite immolatio altaris celebrari, in the “ Necessary Doctrine ; scilicet, sine sacerdote et diacono. art. Of Orders, “ To these" of Ut sine retractatione sacerdos vi- priests and deacons “ the primigilet circa hostias, necessarius est tiue churche dyd adde and condiaconus ad ministrandum ea, quæ joyne certaine other inferiour and necessaria sunt sacerdoti: cæteri lower degrees, etc.fol. xxxvj. ordines his adjecti sunt. Cres- So also, in its corresponding place, cente ecclesia, crevit officium ec- “ The Institution.” Bishop Bonclesiasticum: ut multitudini ec- ner, in his “ Necessary Doctrine," clesiæ subveniri posset, adjiciuntur does not in his exposition upon inferiores in adjutorio præposito- “the sacrament of orders,” notice rum.” De off. eccl. Lib. 2. cap. 6. the minor orders. Bibl. Patr. Auct tom. 1. p. 380.

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