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Among them were the following. Illegitimacy: as specified by the Winchester canons, in 1308 : “ De matrimonio :—ejus quanta sit virtus in Dei ecclesia, per hoc facile cernitur, quod sola proles, quæ in fide thori gignitur, ad dignitates ecclesiasticas admittitur ; et aliter genita, sine dispensatione canonica, ab hujusmodi, reprobatur.” And by a provincial canon of archbishop Edmund, in the preceding century: upon which I quote Lyndwood. “Tales, [i: e: qui de non legitimo matrimonio nati sunt,] ordinari non debent. Dicitur enim communiter per doctores, quod illegitime nati non possunt ordinari ad sacros ordines sine dispensatione Papæ, nisi ingrediantur religionem, quo casu possunt ad omnes sacros ordines promoveri etiam sine dispensatione. Possunt tamen illegitime nati

"64

Antig. Book. 2. Chap. xxij. I power and jurisdiction are exerquote also this from the Manipu- cised by women : for the nature lus Curatorum : « Et si forte in of the ecclesiastical ministry, inaliquo capitulo mulier inveniatur stituted by our Blessed Lord, is vocari diaconissa vel presbytera, in fact so different, that the two intelligendum est quod illa voca- cases are not analogous. Sometur diaconissa, supra quam fun- times the example of abbesses is dabatur aliqua benedictio: pres- appealed to, but the decision upon bytera autem vocatur, quia secun- this point of the canonists is unadum morem primitivæ ecclesiæ nimous: “illarum potestatem non erat uxor presbyteri : vel forte esse veræ jurisdictionis, quæ vialiqua vidua de rebus ecclesiæ delicet ex auctoritate clavium decuram habens ad instar matrisfa

scendat ecclesiæ concessa, sed eamilias vocabatur presbytera. Et

rum munus ad vigilantiam referri, ita exponenda sunt omnia capitula ad curam quandam domesticam, quæ loquuntur de ista materia.”

maternam et economicam." Lib. 5. cap. v. Compare also Upon the whole question comGuillermus Parisiensis: de vij sa- pare the decision of Lyndwood. cramentis. fol. xiij.

Lib. 1. Tit. 7. Sacerdotes. verb. It is not necessary

to dwell

upon Masculi. the analogy sometimes insisted on, 64 Wilkins, Conc. Tom. 2. p. from the circumstance that civil 295.

» 66

promoveri ad ordines minores ex dispensatione episcopi.” 65

The children of serfs or villeins: of which we have frequent examples in the earlier centuries. The 16th of the famous articles of Clarendon decides, “ Filii rusticorum non debent ordinari absque assensu domini, de cujus terra nati esse dignoscuntur.” In the next century, 1256 ; a canon of the diocese of Chichester: “ Ut nullus se nobis offerat ordinandus, nisi liberæ conditionis existens; de legitimo matrimonio natus, et examinatione canonica examinatus, et approbatus.' From an allusion in a canon of the Exeter synod of 1287, we learn, that in spite of all precautions, such persons, by pretending that they were free, and suborning witnesses, obtained ordination; to which falsehood the penalty of excommunication was attached: and some years before this time, it was ordered by another council, that such persons should be suspended : " Præcipimus itaque, quod sacerdotes, qui se noverint filios servorum, et præter conscientiam dominorum suorum ordinatos—non exequantur sacerdotis officium, donec nostrum super hoc ab eis fuerit consilium requisitum.” 67 I shall only add further upon this head, the 82nd of the apostolical canons, upon which probably, or at least upon similar reasons, the apparently harsh

65 Lib. 1. Tit. 4. Eos qui. verb. the Concilia. tom. 2. p. 434. 436: non legitimo. Compare J. de the first of which excepts those Athon. cap. Sacer ordo. verb. il- illegitimates who were born of legitimos. Bulls are extant, con- adultery or incest. ferring power upon bishops to

66 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. I. p. grant dispensations, even to re

436. 689. ceive the higher orders: as, for example, two to the archbishop of 67 Ibid. Tom. 2. p. 137. Tom. Canterbury, in the year 1313; in 1. p. 658. VOL. II.

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regulation was originally founded. « Servos in clerum provehi sine venia dominorum non permittimus ad possessorum molestiam. Domorum enim eversionem illud efficit.” 68

But, that we may not delay to particularize all these disqualifications separately, I shall cite two authorities in which they are joined and named together. One of these, of a very early date: from the dialogue of archbishop Egbert: the xvth interrogation.

" Pro quibus criminibus nullus sacerdos potest fieri, vel pro quibus jampridem ordinatus deponitur ? Responsio. Hujusmodi tunc ordinatio episcopi, presbyteri, vel diaconi, rata esse dicitur: si nullo gravi facinore probatur infectus, si secundam non habuit (uxorem) nec a marito relictam ; si pænitentiam publicam non gessit, nec ulla corporis parte vitiatus apparet; si servilis aut ex origine non est conditionis obnoxius ; si curiæ probatur nexibus absolutus ; si adsecutus est literas ; hunc elegimus ad sacerdotium promoveri. Pro his vero criminibus nullum licet ordinari, sed promotos quosque dicimus deponendos; idola scilicet adorantes; per aruspices incantatores captivos se diabolo tradentes;

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68 I cannot refrain from quoting same purpose : “ Fideles decet ea Balsamon upon

this :

“ Hic autem fugere, quæ scandala generent alicanon nolens nostris fratribus ali- quibus. Alienum vero quid a nobis offendiculi afferri, contra domini sententiam clericum non permittit ut alienus servus in fieri, causa est scandali, atque moclerum promoveatur, etiamsi sit lestiæ.—Quod si servus gradu saprudentissimus et dignus ;-ad cro dignus existimetur, episcopum exemplum autem scriptum est et de eo negotio cum domino comquod factum est in Onesimo.- municare oportet." Bevereg. Quare nec libertas, nec sacerdo- Pandect. Tom. 1. p. 54. The tium, nec aliquid aliud dominum canon itself, I should observe, reignorantem a servi sui dominio fers to the case of Onesimus; abalienant.” And Zonaras to the noster quoque

Onesimus."

fidem suam falso testimonio expugnantes; homicidiis vel fornicationibus contaminatos; furta perpetrantes ; sacrum veritatis nomen perjurii temeritate violantes.” 69 The other, a canon of the provincial council under Stephen Langton: “ Minores clerici ad inferiores gradus non admittantur, nisi idoneos habeant procuratores, et per testimonium eorundem admittantur. Nullus simoniacus, homicida, excommunicatus, aut suspensus,

, furarius, sacrilegus, incendiarius, aut falsarius, aut aliter hujusmodi canonicum impedimentum ad quoscunque ordines præsumat accedere.” 70

I believe that it may be asserted, that at no time after Christianity became fixed, and spreading, among the Anglo-saxons, was the necessity overlooked of a title," that is, of a nomination to some post of duty, previously to the actual reception of Holy Orders. The council of Calcuith, in the eighth century, decreed, that all priests and deacons“ in illo titulo perseverent, , ad quem consecrati sunt.” And before this, the excerpts of Egbert, (citing a Chalcedonian canon) say ; “ Ut nullus absolute ordinetur, et sine pronunciatione loci, ad quem ordinandus est.”

ordinandus est.” The term absolute is

Thorpe. Ancient Laws. Vol. oculi," cap. De ætate et qualitate 2. p. 93.

ordinandorum.

71 “ Nota, quod titulus, in jure 70 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. I. p.

diversimode sumitur. Est enim 595. See Lyndwood, Lib. 1. Tit. titulus quandoque idem quod de5; upon the similar constitution tentatio. Et quandoque ponitur of Walter Reynold: and the com- pro causa qua dominium transmentary, already mentioned, of fertur. Quandoque titulus diciJohn de Athon, on Otho's con- tur signum, alias ipsum beneficistitution, De scrutinio ordinan- um, alias ipse ordo ecclesiasticus, dorum. A very long and detailed vel quælibet dignitas, vel prælatio. account of the canonical impedi- etc." Lyndwood. lib. 1. tit. 8. ments is given in the “ Pupilla Cum a jure. verb. ullo titulo.

explained by its use in the following canon from the council of London, 1126. “ Nullus in presbyterum, nullus in diaconum, nisi ad certum titulum ordinetur ; qui vero absolute fuerit ordinatus, sumpta careat dignitate.” This is not to be so interpreted as to mean, that his orders, so received, were invalid ; but that he was not to enjoy the dignities and privileges attached to his degree. Again, the sixth of the council of London, in 1200; “ Firmiter observari præcipimus, ut si episcopus aliquem sine titulo certo in diaconum, vel presbyterum ordinaverit, tamdiu ei subministret, donec ei in aliqua ecclesia convenientia stipendia militiæ clericali assignet, nisi forte talis, qui ordinatur, extiterit, qui de sua vel paterna hæreditate subsidia vitæ possit habere. Item in subdiaconi ordinatione statuimus ; adjungentes, ut si archidiaconus citra speciale mandatum episcopi sui aliquem prædictorum ordinationi præsentaverit, et is ad ejus præsentationem ordinatus fuerit, prædictæ pænæ subjaceat.” Once more: the synod of Exeter, in 1287: “Caveant ad sacros ordines promovendi, ut titulum habeant sufficientem, sine quo omnibus ad sacros ordines accedere interdicimus facultatem." 72

The possession of a title, by every candidate for orders, as insisted on so universally, sprung not only (as before said) from the desire that he should have some immediate field or scope for his labours, but also to check the encrease, which was becoming excessive about the seventh and following centuries, of unemployed clergy. Unemployed, because they either would not seek for, or could not obtain, cures or bene

Tom. 2. p.

72 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. I. p. 147. 104. 408. 506.

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