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Consecratio electi in Episcopum.

ROVIDEAT electus cum suis, quod mane diei dominica, parata sint et in promptu omnia sibi necessaria in consecratione, vide

licet, caliga, sandalia, amictus, alba, cingulum, stola, manipulus, tunicella, dalmatica, planeta, et pluviale albi coloris, chirothecæ, annulus pontificalis, et alius annulus parvus, mitra, baculus pastoralis, duo bacilia, tobalia

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manibus tergendis, tobalia ad ponendum coram consecratore, tobalia et pecten ad pectinandum,micæ panis ad tergendum manus et caput, duo brachia tela de cortinaad circumligandum caput in unctione, duo magni panes involuti duobus tobaliis, duæ magna phiala plenæ vino, et duo magna torticia ad offerendum, libri missalis et pontificalis, fuldistorium et

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Ducange says: “ Pecten, in- So in the old inventories we ter ministeria sacra recensetur, find them mentioned; thus, in quo scilicet sacerdotes ac clerici that of S. Paul's, A. D. 1295 : antequam in ecclesiam procede- “ Tres pectines eburnei, spissi et rent, crines pecterent.” And he magni, et tres tenues et usuales cites several examples, proving de ebore. Item, unum pecten that a comb was among the ordi- eburneum pulchrum. Item, duo nary furniture of chapels. In the pectines eburnei sufficientes." earlier pontificals there is no ex- Dugdale. S. Paul's, p. 206. press mention of it, although it is clear that in Durand's time, the 2 “Brachium, mensuræ species, use of it was general; Rationale, cubitus.” “ Cortina, panni vel lib. 4. cap. 3: and Ducange quotes serici species, sic dicta, ut pallium, a will of a bishop in the 10th cen- pro pallii materia.” Ducange. tury, who, among other effects, Glossarium. specifies, “ Pectinem eburneam unam.” VOL. 111.

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tapetum, quissini et bassini. Sacerdotes in superpellicüs, qui serviant electo de libro.

Incipit' consecratio electi in episcopum, quæ est agenda die dominica, et non in alia festivitate,* antequam missa celebretur.'

3 After the “ Decretum,” the commencement, is similar to that Winchester and Bangor MSS. of the Bangor Use: but it begins pass on to the order of consecra- thus : tion, omitting the rubric in the

Consecratio episcoporum text, as to the necessaries to be semper agenda est die dominica, provided. The first rubric of those et examinatio et professio eorum books is as follows:

ante missarum solemnia. ElecIncipit examinatio ordinan- tus vero sacerdotalibus, etc.” ut di episcopi, quæ est agenda die supra. dominica, antequam missa cele- 4 This limitation of the old bretur.” Pontif. Winton. English rubric, was in strict ac

Incipit examinatio ordinan- cordance with the custom of predi episcopi, que est agenda die ceding ages. Thomassin says: dominica, antequam celebretur. “ Concilium Tolet. iv. C. 18. præ[sic] Ipse electus sacerdotali- cipit ut metropolitanus in civitate bus vestibus induatur præter ca- metropolitana ordinetur: – diez sulam, et pro casula induatur autem dominica tantum ab eodem capa. Et sic comprovinciales concilio præscribitur.—Abdicaepiscopi deducant eum per ma- tionis pænam videtur Leo M. innus coram metropolitano exami- tentare Ep. 89. c. 3. si quo alio nandum : ipso metropolitano se. tempore ordinentur episcopi, prædente in loco examinationis, dorso terquam vesperascente sabbato, verso ad majus altare. Sedilia aut dilucescente dom. die.” De vero episcoporum coram metro- benef. Part. 2. lib. 2. c. xij. ( Tom. politano in modum corona, a 5. p. 63.) So, in later years, this dextris et a sinistris electi. Tunc was a rule generally agreed upon. dicat metropolitanus :

Alcuin, in stating the fact, ex“Antiqua sanctorum, etc." Pon- plains the reason. "Episcopi vero tif. Bangor.

consecratio, qui est vicarius aposAs before stated, the Exeter tolorum, immo et Christi, fit in MS. does not contain the “de- Dominica, quia in eodem die per cretum," nor has it the rubric re. donum Spiritus Sancti dignatus garding the necessary prepara

est illustrare corda apostolorum." tions: its first rubric, after the De div. off. Hittorpius. p. 69.

Ipse vero electus sacerdotalibus vestibus induatur, præter casulam, et pro casula induatur capa, et sic duo

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And Hugo S. Victor : “ Presby- cum candelabris et cereis, septem teri et diaconi sabbato consecrandi subdiaconi cum evangeliorum liepiscopo præsentantur ; benedic- bris, septem diaconi cum suis relitiones vero pontificum diebus tan- quiis, duodecim presbyteri induti tum dominicis celebrandas esse, planetis, acolythus indutus podere sacri canones sanxerunt." De cum vasculo aureo chrismatis. sacr. lib. 2. ij. 20.

“ Tertia pulsetur temporanee, “ But the rubric now of the et interim præparet se domnus Roman pontifical is this : “ Sta- archiepiscopus, sandaliis et cætetuta die consecrationis, quæ de- ris omnibus usque ad dalmaticam. bet esse dominica, vel natalitium Tunc indutus cappa, et tenens apostolorum, vel etiam festiva, si baculum pastoralem in manu, prosummus pontifex hoc specialiter cedit e sacrario. Similiter omnes indulserit.

episcopi exeant induti. Ipse au5 Mabillon has printed in his tem electus necdum induatur sanAnalecta, from a manuscript of daliis, sed tantum alba, et stola, et the 17th century, a

“ ritus ordi- cappa; nec ferat baculum, sed nandi episcopi,” which was ob- ponatur super altare cum anulo, served anciently in the church of usque dum consecratus accipiat de Rouen. On account not only of manu archiepiscopi. this Order throwing much light on “ Venientes autem in ecclesia many of the particulars which will ponantur sedes ita. Domnus mefollow in the text, but of the fre- tropolitanus sedebit verso dorso quent intercourse in that age kept ad altare. Sedilia vero cæterorum between the churches of Nor- episcoporum ponantur ante oculos mandy and England, I shall tran- metropolitani. Sedes autem ipsius scribe the first rubric of that MS. electi ponatur in medio, non tamen

“ In die ordinationis episcopi ad majus altare. Comprovinciales manissime pulsetur, et cantetur autem episcopi offerant electum prima, postquam eatur ad capitu- domno metropolitano his verbis : lum; ibique a decano, archidia- " " Reverende pater, postulat cono, cantore et cancellario ordi- etc.'Vetera Analecta. p. 228. nentur qui debent præcedere mi- The “poderis” in the above nistri, sicut in majoribus mos est extract was a vestment, of much festivitatibus : hoc est, duo aco- the same kind as the “ camisia ;" lythi cum thuribulis, duo subdia- (see above, p. 19. note 29.) Duconi cum crucibus, septem acolythicange in his glossary cites Euche

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comprovinciales episcopi deducant eum per manus coram metropolitano examinandum, ipso metropolitano sedente in loco examinationis, dorso verso ad majus altare, sedilia vero episcoporum coram metropolitano, in modum corone, a dextris et a sinistris electi. Et dum ista eraminatio dicitur vel legitur, archiepiscopus et cæteri episcopi consecrantes mitras debent habere in capite, sed consecrandus nequaquam. Tunc dicat metropolitanus :

Antiqua sanctorum patrum institutio docet et præcipit, ut is qui ad ordinem episcopatus eligitur, antea

rius Lugdunensis : “ Poderis, sa- pontifical of the Church of Rome: cerdotalis linea corpori penitus ad- but as Martene has observed, it stricta, eademque talaris, unde et was anciently peculiar to the poderis appellata, hæc et subucula churches of France: to which we dicitur.” Compare also Ivo Car- may add, of England also. It was notensis, de reb. eccles. Serm. 3. probably introduced into this counand Innocent III. de Myst. try about the eleventh century, as Missæ. Cap. 10. 16.

we do not find it in the urlier The “poderis” can only in a pontificals of Egbert and Dunvery wide and improper sense be stan: nor before that time, I may explained to be a sacerdotal vest- remark, is it found in the Office ment, as it was common to the in- of the French Church ; so that ferior orders : and in fact, there there is no evidence by which we seems to be but little doubt that may conjecture to which first it it was what was afterwards called

was added. the albe: and that its more ancient The principle of such an exname lingered only in remote amination, before consecration, countries. Thus Alcuin (de dir. was however both primitive and off.) expressly says; “ Poderis universal : grounded upon the advulgo alba dicta, perseverantiam monitions of S. Paul to Timothy. significat."

And so Durand; In after years, it was made the “ Quia vero usque ad talos de especial subject of conciliar descendit, perseverentiam designat.” crees: thus, the first canon of the Rationale div. off. Lib. 3. Cap.3. fourth council of Carthage in the

year 398, is directed to this point. 6 The whole of this part of the “ Qui episcopus ordinandus est, Office is now inserted into the antea examinetur, si natura sit

diligentissime examinetur cum omni caritate, de fide Sanctæ Trinitatis, et interrogetur de diversis causis vel moribus, quæ huic regimini congruunt, et necessaria sunt retineri, secundum apostoli dietum, manus cito nemini imposueris ; et ut etiam is qui ordinandus

prudens, si docibilis, si moribus thus, we have one, to name no temperatus, si vita castus, si so- more, of the eleventh council of brius, si semper suis negotiis ca- Toledo, in the preceding century, vens, si humilis, affabilis, mise- A. D. 675.

“ Placuit huic sancto ricors, si literatus, si in lege Do- concilio, ut unusquisque qui ad mini instructus, si in scripturarum ecclesiasticos gradus est accessusensibus cautus, si in dogmatibus rus, non ante honoris consecratioecclesiasticis exercitatus : et ante nem accipiat, quam placiti sui inomnia, si fidei documenta verbis nodatione promittat, ut fidem casimplicibus asserat : id est Patrem tholicam sincera cordis devotione et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum, custodiens, juste et pie vivere deetc.And then follows an exact beat.” Ibid. Tom. xi. col. 143. examination, grounded on the It is very probable that the parApostles' creed. Again, in the 8th ticular interrogations regarding the century, the second Nicene coun- change of the Bread and Wine in cil, in its second canon,

which the Eucharist, were in consequence Martene appeals to, ordered, “ — of the teaching of Berengarius, decernimus quemlibet, qui ad and inserted into the English ponepiscopalem gradum est provehen- tificals by the influence of Archdus, - a metropolitano bene ex- bishop Lanfranc, his great oppo. aminari, an ad sacros canones di- nent. In which case, the Winligenter, ac cum perscrutatione, chester MS. is possibly as early prompto sit animo, et sacrum etiam as any manuscript in which they evangelium, et librum divini apos- are to be found : being nearly toli, omnemque divinam Scriptu- contemporary with that archram, et in divinis præceptis ver- bishop. The student will observe sari, et populum suum docere." presently, that those particular Mansi. Tom. xiij. col. 748. questions are not in the pontificals

But, remembering the ill re- of Bangor and Exeter. With reception which the decrees of this spect to the first, this is very recouncil met with in the West, I markable, and much more so with would rather attribute the inser. regard to the other, a manuscript tion of this examination to canons of the latter part of the 14th cenof other synods in Gaul or Spain: tury, in the time of Bishop Lacy.

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