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THE measure is English heroic verse without rhyme,
as that of Homer in Greek, and of Virgil in Latin; rhyme being no necessary adjunct or true ornament of poem or good verse, in longer works especially, but the invention of a barbarous age, to set off wretched matter and lame metre; grac'd indeed since by the use of some famous modern poets, carried away by custom, but much to their own vexation, hindrance, and constraint to express many things otherwise, and for the most part, worse than else they would have expressid them. Not without cause, therefore, some both Italian and Spanish poets of prime note have rejected thyme both in longer and shorter works, as have also long since our best English tragedies, as a thing of itself, to all judicious ears, trivial, and of no true musical delight; which consists only in apt numbers, fit quantity of syllables, and the sense variously drawn out from one verse into another, not in the jingling sound of like endings, a fault avoided by the learned Ancients both in poetry and all good oratory. This neglect then, of rhyme, so little is to be taken for a defect, though it may seem so perhaps to vulgar readers,
that it rather is to be esteemed an example set, the first in English, of ancient liberty recovered to heroic poem, from the troublesome and modern bondage of rhyming.
lake, ... Chaos
This First Book proposes, first in brief, the whole subject, Man's disobedience, and the loss thereupon of Paradise wherein he was plac'd: then touches the prime cause of his fall, the serpent, or rather Satan in the serpent; who revolting from God, and drawing to his side many legions of angels, was by the command of God driven out of Heaven with all his crew into the great Deep. Which action pass'd over, the Poem hastes into the midst of things, prescoting Satan with his angels now falling into Hell, describ'd here, not in the center (for Heaven and earth may be supposed as yet not made, certainly not yet accursed) but in a place of utter darkness, fitliest called Chaos: here Satan with his angels lying on the burning lake, thunderStruck and astonish'd, after a certain space recovers as from confusion, calls up him who next in order and dignity lay by bim; they confer of their miserable fall. Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the same manner confounded: they rise, their nuinbers, array of battel, their chief leaders nam'd, according to the idols known afterwards in Canaan and the countries adjoining. To these Satan directs his speech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining Heaven, 'but tells them, lastly, of a new world and new kind of creature to be created, according to an ancient prophecy or report in Heaven: for that angels were long before this visible, creation was the opinion of many ancient Fathers. To find out the truth of this prophecy, and what to determine thereon, he refers to a full council. What his associates thence attempt. Pandemoniuin the palace of Satan rises, suddenly built out of the Deep: the infernal Peers there sit in council.
20 lay tinheir misest in
OF Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Sing heav'nly Muse! that on the secret top
25 And justify the ways of God to men.
Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view,
The Mother of mankind, what time his prido