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PUG-PUGILISM.

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hair;

bill gives to the birds of this genus a very extra- and good-natured, bearing without resentment the ordinary appearance. They have short legs, very roughest handling to which children can subject short tail

, and short wings; their legs are placed them. They are all of small size. The common Engfar back, and they sit very erect, like auks and lish Pug is usually yellowish with a black snout, the penguins, resting not merely on the foot, but on the tail firmly curled over the back. New breeds have tarsus. Notwithstanding their shortness of wing, they fly rapidly, although they seem incapable of long-sustained flights. They swim and dive admir. ably. The best known and most widely distri. buted species is the COMMON P. (F. arctica), a native of the arctic and northern temperate regions, breeding not only in high northern latitudes, but as far south as the coasts of England, and migrating from the colder regions in winter, when it is to be found even on the coasts of Spain and of Georgia. The P. is a little larger than a pigeon; the forehead, crown, back of the head, a collar round the neck, the back, wings, and tail are black, the other parts of the plumage white. The P. lays only a single egg, sometimes in a rabbit burrow, but more frequently in a burrow of its own, which often extends three feet, and is not unfrequently curved; Chinese Pug, (Looty), found in the Summer Palace at

Pekin. Presented to Her Majesty. sometimes in deep fissures or crevices of cliffs. Great numbers congregate together, and their chosen breeding-places are crowded with them. of late been introduced from China and Japan, These are mostly on unfrequented islands and interesting from their peculiar appearance, gentleheadlands, where there is some depth of soil. ness, and docility, with extremely short puggish In some of them, the ground is covered by muzzle; the Chinese breed very small, with smooth puffins, old and young, in thousands. The eggs

the Japanese rather larger, with an exuberance are sought after by fowlers, and also the young of long soft hair and a very bushy tail. birds, the flesh of which is used for food. The PU'GET SOUND, a collection of inlets on the Scilly Isles were held in the 14th c., under the north-western border of Washington Territory, king as Earl of Cornwall

, by Ranulph de Blanc- U.S., forming the southern termination of Admiminster

, for an annual payment of 65. 8d., or 300 ralty Inlet, which communicates with the Pacific paffing at Michaelmas. Puffins are not readily by the Strait of St Juan de Fuca, south-east of

Vancouver's Island. It forms a sheltered bay and harbour of about 15 square miles, surrounded by a fertile well-timbered country.

PU'GGING, a coarse kind of plaster laid on deafening-boards between the joists of floors, to prevent sound.

PU'GILISM, or BOXING, is the art of defending one's self or attacking others with the weapons which nature has bestowed-viz., fists and arms. The origin of boxing, or the use of the fists, is likely as old as man himself. We find numerous allusions to it in the classic authors. Pollux,, the twin-brother of Castor in the heathen mythology, was reckoned the first who obtained distinction by the use of his fists, conquering all who opposed him, and obtaining, with Hercules, a place among the gods for his sparring talents. The ancients were not, however, satisfied with the use of the weapons of nature, but increased their power by the addition of the Cestus (q. v.). With the ancients,

pugilism was considered an essential part in the Common Puffin (Fratercula arctica).

education of youth, and formed part of the course of training practised in their gymnasia; it was

valued as a means of strengthening the body alarmed by the approach of man, and many are and banishing fear; but it was practised in public taken by means of a noose at the end of a rod. rather with a view to the exhibition of the power Their food consists of small crustaceans and fishes.of endurance than for mere skilful self-defence. --Other species are found in different parts of the The earliest account we have of systematic British world; one in Kamtchatka, the Kurile Islands, &c., boxing is in 1740, when public exhibitions of prowith two silky tufts of long feathers on its head. fessors of the art attracted general attention. Up

- The name P. is given in France to the Shearwaters to this period, the science of self-defence had made (q. V.), or Pufin Petrels, the genus Puffinus of some but little progress, and strength and endurance ornithologists.

constituted the only recommendations of the pracPUG, or PUG-DOG, a kind of dog much like titioners at Smithfield, Moorfield, and Southwark the bull-dog in form, and in particular, in its much fair, which had long had booths and rings for the abbreviated muzzle. The nose is often a little display of boxing. Broughton, who occupied the tarned up. The disposition is, however, extremely position of champion of England," built a theatre unlike that of the bull-dog, being characterised by in Hanway Street, Oxford Street, in 1740, for the great timidity and gentleness. Pug-dogs are only display of boxing; advertisements were issued ankept as pets. They are often very affectionate nouncing a succession of battles between first-rate

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pugilists, who never quitted the stage till one or most influential backers. The more distinguished other was defeated, the reward of each man being patrons of the ring gradually seceded; the · Pugi. dependent upon, and proportioned to, the receipts. listic Club,' which had been established in 1814, Broughton was for 18 years champion of England, and which included all the aristocratic patrons of and with him commences the first scientific era the ring, was broken up. The magistracy of the of pugilism. He propounded some rules for country set their faces against the lawless assemthe regulation of the ring, and these remained in blies of roughs' and pick pockets who latterly authority till 1838, when they were materially formed the greater part of the spectators at prizealtered. Rule 1 is, That a square of a yard be fights. The electric telegraph, and the establishchalked in the middle of a stage, and that in every ment of an efficient rural police, have given the fresh set-to after a fall, the seconds are to bring finishing touches to an already expiring profession. their men to the side of the square, and to place Matches can now only be got up by stealth, and them opposite each other, and until this is done, it the place of meeting is kept a profound secret to is not lawful for one to strike the other. Rule 2, the last moment, for fear of interruption. A few That if either of the combatants is unable to be years ago, however, the international combat brought up to the square within 30 seconds after a between Tom Sayers the Englishman, and John fall and the close of a round, he shall be deemed Heenan the American, revived for a moment public a beaten man. No man is permitted to hit his interest in the art; but apart from exceptional adversary when he is down, or to seize him by the matches, the popular feeling is that prize-fighting breeches, or below the waist, and a man on his knees should not be countenanced, and we may look for is to be reckoned down. These rules laid the foun- its gradual extinction. The art of boxing, as an dation of fair play, and robbed boxing of half its active and healthy exercise, is likely to be mainhorrors. To Broughton also is due the introduction tained; and the display of science between two of gloves for 'sparring-matches,' where lessons accomplished boxers is very interesting, while it could be taken without injury. The greatest pro- is deprived of all the horrors of the prize-ring; fessor of the art was Jackson, who was champion in the rapidity of the blows, the facility with which 1795. He was not only the most scientific boxer of they are mostly guarded or avoided by moving his day, but he gave his art such a prestige and the head and arms; the trial of skill and maneuvre popularity that half the men of rank and fashion of to gain a trifling advantage in position, all give a the period were proud to call themselves his pupils. wonderful interest to the spectator, who can watch He opened rooms for the practice of boxing in Bond the perfection of the art devoid of the brutalities Street, and for years these were crowded by men of of the ring... The pugilists of the present day are note. His ‘principles of pugilism' were, that con- mostly publicans ; their friends and the patrons tempt of danger and confidence in one's self were of the fancy' meet at their houses for convivial the first and best qualities of a pugilist; that in evenings, sparring-matches, ratting, and the like. hitting, you must judge well your distances, for a It has constantly been urged in defence of pugiblow delivered at all out of range, was like a spent lism, that were it abolished, the use of the knife shot, and valueless ; that men should fight with their would increase, and Englishmen would lose their legs, using all possible agility, as well as with their present manly system of self-defence. This may be hands; and that all stiffness of style and position true, if the use of the fist in self-defence depended was wrong. Jackson is still regarded as the best on the mercenary exhibition of pugilistic encounters, theorist on the 'noble art,' and since his time, it which, however, is mere assumption.— The best has received no essential improvement. Shaw, the authority on the subject of pugilism is Fistiana, Life Guardsman, who immortalised himself at 24th ed. 1863, office of Bell's Life. Waterloo, was a pupil of his, and the prowess which PULCI, LUIGI, an Italian poet of distinguished he so brilliantly displayed on that occasion, was family, was born at Florence, 31 December 1431, owing as much to his scientific training as to his and devoted his life to study and to literary comgreat strength. At this period, pugilism was position. He was one of the most intimate friends actively supported by many persons of high rank of Lorenzo de' Medici and of Poliziano, from the -the Dukes of York and Clarence, the Earls of latter of whom he derived no little assistance in the Albemarle, Sefton, &c., Lords Byron, Craven, Pom composition of his poem 11 Morgante Maggiore (Morfret. In 1814, when the allied sovereigns were in gante the Giant). This celebrated work, a burlesque England, among other entertainments, a “sparring' epic (in 28 cantos), of which Roland is the hero, is display was provided under Jackson's management; a vivacious parody of the romances of Carlovingian and the distinguished foreigners expressed the chivalry, which had become (as P. thought) undegreat gratification they had experienced from the servedly popular in Italy. His mocking imagination exhibition of so much science and fine physical took a pleasure in turning into ridicule the combats development. Besides Jackson, Belcher, Gulley, with giants, the feats of magicians, and all the and Cribb were noted champions at this period. incredible adventures that form the material basis George IV. was a staunch patron of boxing in of the medieval epic; and he manages to do it with his youth, and although he discontinued by his a wonderfully pleasant and original naiveté. But presence to give countenance to the sport, fre- although the poem is essentially heroico-comic, it quent indications were observable of his desire occasionally contains passages of the finest pathos, for its promotion. At the time of the coronation, in which P. fortunately seems to forget his design when the popular feelings were much enlisted on of travestying the inventions of the trouvères, and behalf of Queen Caroline, who was excluded from comes out undisguisedly as a real poet. Moreover, the throne, a body of pugilists were employed to in the midst of the most extravagant buffooneries, preserve order; and so well did these men perform we come upon the truest and most natural pictures their duties, that the king presented each man with of manners—the vanity and inconstancy of women, a gold medal, to commemorate the event, and to the avarice and ambition of men. P. died in 1487. shew his satisfaction. This period may be termed The Morgante Maggiore is one of the most valuable the 'palmy days of the ring;' and from various sources for acquiring a knowledge of the early causes, its decline has since then been uninterrupted. Tuscan dialect, the niceties and idioms of which Among other causes, several cases occurred of prize. have been employed by P. with great skill. The fighters who were tempted to lose fights on which first edition appeared at Florence in 1488, and has large sums had been staked, and to deceive their since been frequently reprinted. Other works of

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P. are a series of sonnets (often grossly indecent), the block of the next pulley, with the exception of La Beca du Dicomano (a parody of a pastoral poem the last cord, which passes round a fixed pulley by Lorenzo de' Medici); Confessione a la San Ver. above, and is attached to the counterpoise P. The gine, a novel; and some letters.-BERNARDO PULCI, tension of a string being the same in all its parts, elder brother of Luigi, wrote an elegy on the death the tension of every part of the string marked (1) of Simonetta, mistress of Julian de' Medici; and a in fig. 3 is that which is poem on the passion of Christ, and also executed produced by the weight of P, the first translation of the Eclogues of Virgil.— consequently, as the last movLuca PULCI, another brother, achieved some literary able 'pulley is supported on reputation too by his Giostra di Lorenzo de' Medici, both sides by a string hava poem in honour of the success won by Lorenzo ing a tension P, the tension in a tournament; Il Ciriffo Calvaneo, à metrical applied in its support is 2P. romance of chivalry; Driadeo d'Ancore, a pastoral The tension of the string poem; and Epistole Eroide.

marked (2) is therefore 2P, PU'LEX. See FLEA.

and the second movable PULKO'VA, a village of Russia, in the govern equal to 4P. It may similarly

pulley is supported by a force ment of St Petersburg, about 9 miles south of be shewn that the force the capital, contains a population of 600. It applied by the strings marked stands on a ridge called the Pulkova Hills, (4) in which command à splendid view of St Peters- pulley (which is attached to

pport of the last burg, and is noted for its magnificent observatory, | W), is $P. Hence we see, that built by the Czar Nicholas, and placed under the according to this arrange

Fig. 3. direction of M. Friedrich Struve. For an interest ment, 1 lb. can support 4 lbs., if two movable pulleys ing description of the observatory, see Professor C. are used ; 8 lbs., if there are 3 movable pulleys ; 16 Piazzi Smyth's Three Cities in Russia (2 vols., Ibs., if there are 4 movable pulleys; and if there are Lond. 1862).

ne movable pulleys, 1 lb. can support 21 lbs. It PUʻLLEY, one of the Mechanical Powers (q. v.), must be noticed,' hewever, that consists of a wheel, with a groove cut all round its in practice, the weight of the circumference, and movable on an axis; the wheel, cords, and of the pulleys, and the which is commonly called a sheave, is often placed friction of the cord on the pulleys, inside a hollow oblong mass of wood called a block, must be allowed for; and the fact, and to the sides of this block the extremities of the that in this system all of these

sheave's axle are fixed for sup- resist the action of the power P,
port; the cord which passes over and that to a large extent, has
the circumference of the sheave rendered it of little use in practice.
is called the tackle. Pulleys may - The second system is much in.
be used either singly or in com- ferior in producing a mechanical
bination; in the former case, advantage, but it is found to be
they are either fixed or movable. much more convenient in practice,
The fixed pulley (fig. 1) gives no and is modified according to the

mechanical advantage ; it merely purpose for which it is to be used ;
Ow changes the direction in which a two prevalent forms are given in

force would naturally be applied figs. 4 and 5. In this system, ono Fig. 1.

to one more convenient-thus, string passes round all the pulleys,

W can be raised without lifting and as the tension in every part it directly by merely pulling P down. The single of it is that produced by the weight movable pulley, with parallel cords, gives a of P, the whole force applied to Fig. 4. mechanical advantage = 2 (fig. 2), for a little con- elevate the lower block with its sideration will shew that as the weight, w, is attached weight, w, is the weight P multiplied

supported by two strings, the by the number of strings attached to the lower
strain on each string is 4 W, and block ; in fig. 4, W = 4Ď, and in fig. 5, W = 6P,
the strain on the one being sup- the pulleys in the upper block
ported by the hook A, the being only of use in changing the
power, P, requires merely to direction of the pulling force. This
support the strain on the other system is the one in common use
string, which passes round C. in architecture, in dockyards, and
The fixed pulley, C, is only of on board ship, and various modi-
service in changing the natu- fications of it—such as White's
rally upward direction of the pulley, Smeaton's pulley, &c., have
power into a downward one. been introduced; but the simpler
If the strings in the single mov- forms shewn above have been

able pulley are not parallel, found to answer best. The third
Fig. 2. there is a diminution of mecha- system (fig. 6) is merely the first
nical advantage—i. e., P must be system inverted, and it is a little

P more than half of W to produce an exact coun. more powerful, besides having the terpoise; if the angle made by the strings is 120°, weight of the pulleys to support P must be equal to W; and if the angle be greater the power, instead of acting in than this, there is a mechanical disadvantage, or opposition to it, as in the former P must be greater than W. The following are case. By this time, it will have examples of different combinations of pulleys, gener. been evident to the reader that

Fig. 5. ally known as the first, second, and third systems the mechanical advantage is not of pulleys. In the first system, one end of each cord produced by the pulleys, but by the strings, and is fastened to a fixed support above; each cord that the pulleys are merely useful in keeping the descends, passes round a pulley (to the lowest of strings in a certain position, changing with as little

and which the weight, W, is fastened), and is fastened to friction as possible the direction of the pull

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PULMONATA-PULSE

affording a convenient means of attaching the subjects. . The pulpit (in Arabic, mimber) forms weight. Theoretically, the larger the number of

movable pulleys in one combin.
ation, the greater is the mecha-

nical advantage afforded; but
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the enormous friction produced,
and the want of perfect flexi-
bility in the ropes, prevent any
great increase in the number of
pulleys.

PULMONATA, an order of
gasteropodous molluscs, having,
for the purpose of respiration, a
vascular air-sac or lung, which
opens by a hole under the mar-

gin of the mantle, capable of a

being contracted or dilated at 1

pleasure. Some are terrestrial,

some aquatic. Slugs and snails PS

are familiar examples of the

former; water-snails, or pond. W

snails (Limnæa, Planorbis, &c.),

of the latter. Most of the P. Fig. 6.

are protected by a shell ; in

some, as slugs, the shell is internal and rudimental.

PULNEYS, a range of hills in the Madura district of the Madras Presidency of India. The average height of this range is about 7500 feet above the level of the sea. It possesses pecu. liar advantages for the establishment of sanitarium. The climate is one of the most equable anywhere to be found, the variation of the thermometer during twelve months in a closed room without a fire being observed to be Pulpit (Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, 1440 A. D.L no greater than between 58o and 62o. At present,

(From Parker's Glossary.) there are only a few European residences built on these hills.

one of the scanty appliances of Mohammedan

worship PU'LO-PENANG. See PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND.

PULQUE, a favourite beverage of the Mexicans

and of the inhabitants of Central America, and PULP, a term employed to describe those very some parts of South America ; made from the juice soft and succulent parts of plants, almost exclu- of different species of Agave (q.v.), which is col. sively of fruits, which consist of cellular tissue lected by cutting out the flowering-stem from the with much juice. The pulp of a fruit is sometimes midst of the leaves in the beginning of its growth, found in one part of it, sometimes in another; and scooping a hole for the juice. From this cavity, thus, in the peach, plum, and other drupes, it is large quantities of juice are removed daily for the mesocarp; in the grape and gooseberry, it is months. The juice is an agreeable drink when developed from the placentas, and the seeds are fresh, but is more generally used after fermentation, embedded in it.

when it has a very pleasant taste, but a putrid

smell, disgusting to those unaccustomed to it. PU'LPIT (Lat. pulpitum), an elevated tribune or Pulque is retailed in Mexico in open sheds called desk, from which sermons, lectures, and other solemn Pulquerias, which also serve for dancing-rooms. religious addresses are delivered. In great churches, When mixed with water and sugar, and allowed to the pulpit is commonly placed against the wall, or ferment for a few hours, it forms a beverage called in juxtaposition with a pillar or buttress. Originally Tepache. A kind of spirit is also prepared from it. it would appear to have been used chiefly for the singing, chanting, or recitation which form part of

PULSE (Lat. puls), a name for the edible seeds the public service, and was a kind of stage suffi- of leguminous plants, as corn is the name for the ciently large to accommodate two or even more

edible seeds of grasses. Peas and beans are the most chanters. For the convenience of the hearers, this common and important of all kinds of pulse; next to stage began to be used by the bishop, priest, or

them may be ranked kidney-beans, lentils, chick. deacon, for the delivery of the homily; and thus by peas, pigeon-peas, &c. Legumine (q. V.), a very degrees a tribune expressly suited to the latter use

nitrogenous principle, abounds in all kinds of pulse. alone came to be introduced. In some of the older Legumine forms a thick coagulum with salts of churches, the ambo or pulpitum is still used for the lime, wherefore all kinds of pulse remain hard if chanting of the Gospel and Epistles. In Catholic boiled in spring-water containing lime. The best churches, the pulpit is generally distinguished by kinds of pulse are very nutritious,

but not easy of some religious emblems, especially by the crucifix; digestion, and very apt to produce flatulence. and the pulpits of the ow Countries and of PULSE (Lat. pulsus, a pushing or beating). The Germany are often masterpieces of wood-carving, phenomenon known as the arterial pulse or arterial the preaching place in some of them forming part pulsation is due to the distention of the arteries con. of a great artistic group, as of the Conversion of sequent upon the

intermittent injection of blood into St Paul, the Vocation of Peter and Andrew, the their trunks, and the subsequent contraction which Temptation of Adam and Eve, and other similar results from the elasticity of their walls. It is

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PULTOWA-PULU.

perceptible to the touch in all excepting very minute importance of ascertaining the various meanings of arteries, and in exposed positions, is visible to the eye. this symptom. This pulsation,' says Dr Carpenter, 'involves an The pulse is said to be full when the volume of augmentation of the capacity of that portion of the the pulsation is greater than usual, and it is called artery in which it is observed ; and it would seem small or contracted under the opposite condition. to the touch as if this were chiefly effected by an A full pulse may depend upon general plethora, on increase of diameter. It seems fully proved, how- prolonged and forcible contraction of the left venever, that the increased capacity is chiefly given by tricle of the heart, and possibly, to a certain extent, the elongation of the artery, which is lifted from on relaxation of the arterial coats; while a small its bed at each pulsation, and when previously pulse results from general deficiency of blood, straight, becomes curved; the impression made upon from feeble action of the heart, from congestion of the finger by such displacement not being distin. the venous system, or from exposure to the action guishable from that which would result from the of cold. When very small, it is termed thread-like. dilatation of the tube in diameter. A very obvious The tension of the pulse is the property by which example of this upheaval is seen in the prominent it resists compression, and may be regarded as temporal artery of an old person.'—Principles of synonymous with hardness. A hard pulse can Human Physiology, 4th ed., p. 492. The number of scarcely. be stopped by any degree of pressure of pulsations is usually counted at the radial artery the finger. It occurs in many forms of inflammaat the wrist, the advantages of that position being tion, and its presence is commonly regarded as one that the artery is very superficial at that spot, and of the best; indications of the necessity of venethat it is easily compressed against the bone. In section. A soft or compressible pulse is indicative some cases, it is preferable to count the number of of general weakness. contractions of the heart itself.

The strength of the pulse depends chiefly on the The qualities which are chiefly attended to in the force with which the blood is driven from the heart, pulse are its frequency, its regularity, its fulness, its but partly also upon the tonicity of the artery itself tension, and its force.

and the volume of the blood. A strong pulse is The frequency of the pulse varies greatly with the correctly regarded as a sign of a vigorous state of age. In the fætus in utero, the pulsations vary the system; it may, however, arise from hyperfrom 140 to 150 in the minute; in the newly-born trophy of the left ventricle of the heart, and remain infant, from 130 to 140; in the 2d year, from 100 as a persistent symptom even when the general to 115; from the 7th to the 14th year, from 80 to powers are failing. As strength of the pulse usually 90; from the 14th to the 21st year, from 75 to 85; indicates vigour, so weakness of the pulse indicates and from the 21st to the 60th year, 70 to 75. After debility. There may, however, be cases in which this period, the pulse is generally supposed to fall weakness of the pulse may occur in association with in frequency, but the most opposite assertions have undiminished energy of the system at large. For been made on this subject. There are many excep- example, active congestion of the lungs may so far tions to the preceding statement; young persons impede the passage of the blood through these being often met with having a pulse below 60, and organs that it cannot reach the heart in due quan. cases not unfrequently occurring in which the pulse tity; the necessary result is a weak and feeble habitually reached 100, or did not exceed 40 in the pulse, which will rapidly increase in strength if minute, without apparent disease. The numbers the congestion is relieved by free blood-lettings. which have been given are taken from an equal Various expressive adjectives have been attached number of males and females, and the pulsations to special conditions of the pulse, into the consi. taken in the sitting position. The influence of sex deration of which our space will not permit us to is very considerable, especially in adult age, the enter. Thus, we read of the jerking pulse, the pulse of the adult female exceeding in frequency hobbling pulse, the corded pulse, the wiry pulse, that of the male of the same age by from 10 to 14 the thrilling pulse, the rebounding pulse, &c. beats in the minute. The effect of muscular exertion

PULTOWA. See POLTAVA. in raising the pulse is well known; and it has been found by Dr Guy that posture materially influences

PU'LTUSK, a town of Poland, in the govern. the number of pulsations. Thus, in healthy males ment of Plock, is situated in a thickly-wooded of the mean age of 27 years, the average frequency

district on the Narew, 35 miles north-north-east of of the pulse was, when standing, 81, when sitting, Warsaw. It contains numerous churches and a 71, and when lying, 66, per minute ; while in very large bishop's palace. Pop. 4772. Here, on healthy females of the same age the averages were

December 26, 1806, was fought one of the battles standing, 91 ; sitting, 84; and lying, 79. During of the campaign of Eylau, between the Russians sleep, the pulse is usually considerably slower than and the French. The field was most obstinately in the waking state. In disease (acute hydro- contested, but the victory, which, however, was cephalus, for example), the pulse

may reach 150 or claimed by both armies, inclined in favour of the even 200 beats ; or, on the other hand (as in

French. apoplexy and in certain organic affections of the PU'LU, a beautiful substance, resembling fine heart), it may be as slow as between 30 and 20. silk, of a rich brown colour and satin lustre, used

Irregularity of the pulse is another condition largely as a styptic by the medical practitioners of requiring notice. There are two varieties of irre. Holland, and lately introduced into this country gular pulse : in one, the motions of the artery are for the same purpose. It consists of the fine hairs unequal in number and force, a few beats being from the stipes of one or more species of tree-fern, from time to time more rapid and feeble than the referrible, without doubt, to the genus Cibotium. rest; in the other variety, a pulsation is from time It was first imported into this country in 1844 to time entirely left out, constituting intermission from Owhyhee under the name of Pulu, or vegeof the pulse. These varieties often concur in the table silk, and was proposed as a substitute for same person, but they may exist independently of silk in the manufacture of hats, but could not be each other. Irregularity of the pulse is natural applied. In 1856, it was again imported from to some persons; in others, it is the mere result Singapore under the Malay names of Penghaof debility; but it may be caused by the most war Djambi and Pakoe Kidang, and was said to serious disorders, as by disease of the brain, or by have been used in Dutch pharmacy for a long period organic disease of the heart; and hence the practical as a styptic. Several importations have since taken

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