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social, and in his clerical conduct, exemplary and devout; but notwithstanding this, a writer of that period, Dr. Gilbert Stuart, attempted, by a system of ceaseless persecution, to destroy his character and reputation. In this attempt, however, he was so far from succeeding that Henry realized the large sum of three thousand three hundred pounds from his work, and also obtained an annual pension of one hundred pounds more. The history closes with the reign of Henry the Eighth.
DR. STUART, to whom we have just alluded, was a native of Edinburgh, and was born in 1742. He was the author of various historical works, among which may be mentioned a History of Scotland, a Dissertation on the British Constitution, and a History of the Reformation. The style in which these works are written, is florid and high-sounding, not wanting in elegance; but the rancorous malignity of the unprincipled author is spread over every page of his works. Stuart died in 1786.
To these historical writers we here add the names of Ferguson, Orme, Watson, Dalrymple, Whittaker, Russell, and Lord Lyttelton.
ADAM FERGUSON, the son of the minister of Logierait, in Perthshire, was born in 1724. After having pursued preparatory studies in the school at Perth, he entered the university of St. Andrews, where he remained until he had taken his degrees, and then removed to Edinburgh to prepare for the ministry. In 1744, when in the twenty-first year of his age, he entered the forty-second regiment, as chaplain, and continued in that situation till 1757, when he resigned it, and became tutor in the family of Lord Bute. In 1759, he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the university of Edinburgh ; but that chair he soon after resigned for the professorship of moral science. In 1767, he published his Essay on Civil Society, which was so well received that the author was immediately honored with the degree of doctor of laws.
In 1778, Dr. Ferguson accompanied the commissioners, as their secretary, who were sent to America to negotiate with the colonies; and on his return he resumed the duties of his professorship. His latter days were passed in ease and affluence at St. Andrews, where he died, on the twenty-second of February, 1816, at the patriarchal age of ninety-three. Sir Walter Scott, who was personally acquainted with Dr. Ferguson, supplies some interesting information as to the latter years of this venerable professor, whom he considered the most striking example of the stoic philosopher that could be seen in modern days. He had a shock of paralysis in the sixtieth year of his age, from which period he became a strict Pythagorian in his diet, eating nothing but vegetables, and drinking only water or milk.
Besides the History of the Civil Society,' Ferguson was the author of Institutes of Moral Philosophy; A Reply to Dr. Price on Civil and Religious Liberty; The History of the Progress and Termination of the
Roman Republic; and Principles of Moral and Political Science. Of his . History of Civil Society,' Gray the poet remarks-- There are uncommon strains of eloquence in it; and I was surprised to find not one single idiom of his country in the whole work. His application to the heart is frequent, and often successful. His love of Montesquieu and Tacitus has led him into a manner of writing too short-winded and sententious, which those great men, had they lived in better times, and under a better government, would have avoided. This remark is applicable to all Ferguson's writings; his style is too succinct and compressed. His Roman History, however, is a valuable compendium, illustrated by many important philosophical views and reflections.
ROBERT ORME was the son of an East Indian surgeon, and was born at Bombay, in 1728. He was early sent to England, and was educated at Harrow school, after which he returned to India, where he passed most of his life. In 1755, Orme was made fourth member of the Madras council, and commissary-general; but returned to Europe in 1759, and was some time after appointed to the honorable post of historiographer to the East India company, with an annual salary of three hundred pounds. He died, in comparatively poor circumstances, in 1801, in the seventy-fourth year of
Orme's principal literary performance is, a History of the British Transactions in Hindostan—a clear and truthful exposition of the events of which it treats. He also left some valuable Historical Fragments of the Mogul Power, during the reign of Aurengzebe.
RODERT Watson was a native of St. Andrews, and was born about 1726. He pursued his early studies in his native town, and afterwards passed to the university of Glasgow, and thence to that of Edinburgh, where the degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon him. He was soon after appointed professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and Belles Lettres at St. Andrews, and then principal of the college, in which office he remained until his death, which occurred in 1780, in his fifty-seventh year.
Dr. Watson's only important publication is, a History of Philip II. of Spain, which was intended as a continuation to Robertson's "Charles V?; and he also left, unfinished, a History of Philip III., which was afterwards completed by Dr. William Thompson, and published three years after Watson's death.
DAVID DALRYMPLE, afterwards Lord Hailes, another eminent scholar and writer of this period, was the son of Sir James Dalrymple, and was born in Edinburgh, in 1726. He was educated at Eton, and Utrecht; and in 1748, was admitted to the Scottish bar, where he so remarkably distinguished himself, that, in 1766, he was appointed one of the judges of the Court of Sessions. After a life of great usefulness, passed in intimate friendship with
many of the most eminent men of the age, this learned jurist died in 1792, aged sixty-six years.
Lord Hailes published, in 1776, The Annals of Scotland, from the reign of Malcolm the Third, to that of Robert the First; and three years after he produced a continuation, to the accession of the House of Stuart. These works were invaluable at the time of their publication, and still form an excellent
for the historian. He was, also, the author of many other productions besides his. Annals'; among which are the Remains of Christian Antiquity, chiefly translated from the fathers, and An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes, assigned by Gibbon for the rapid growth of Christianity.
John WHITTAKER, the author of a Review of Celtic and Roman Antiquities, was born at Manchester, in 1735. He was educated at the freeschool of his native place, and afterwards studied at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He passed many years as rector of Langhorn, in Cornwall, where he died, in 1808.
In addition to his ' Antiquities,' Whittaker wrote a History of Manchester, and Vindication of Mary Queen of Scots. The former is a valuable work, but the latter is so violent and prejudiced, that little dependence can be placed upon it.
WILLIAM RUSSELL, the author of a History of Modern Europe, was a native of Selkirkshire, in Scotland, and was born in 1741. His early advantages of education were very limited; but amid many difficulties, he fought his own way to learning and distinction. Apprenticed to a bookseller and printer, he embraced the peculiar opportunities that his situation afforded, to cultivate his mind by application to study; and on the termination of his apprenticeship he removed to London, and became a writer for the press. The popularity of historical writing, at this period, soon attracted Russell's attention, and the result was the publication, in 1779, of the first two volumes of the work to which we have already alluded. This was followed, in 1784, by three other volumes, bringing the history down to the year 1763. The publication was attended with eminent success, and the work has since been continued by Dr. Carte and others. It is now the standard authority on the subject embraced within its range. The reputation which this great work brought upon the author, induced the university of Edinburgh to confer upon him the degree of doctor of laws. Russell died in 1793, before he had reached his fifty-fourth year.
Dr. Russell wrote, besides his History of Modern Europe,' a History of America from its Discovery by Columbus to the Conclusion of the War of the Revolution, and also a Series of Letters on the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. These were both, in their day, popular works, but they are now of comparatively little value.
LORD GEORGE LYTTELTON, remarkable for his fostering patronage of lit
erature, rather than for any distinguished literary excellence, was born at Hagley, Worcestershire, in 1709. He was the son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, and after distinguishing himself at Eton school and at Christ's Church College, Oxford, he went abroad, and passed some time in France and Italy. On his return home he obtained a seat in Parliament, and became a popular opponent of Sir Robert Walpole. In 1737, he was made secretary to the Prince of Wales, who now extended his patronage to the opposition, and acquired popularity, by protecting Thomson, Mallet, and other men of literary eminence.
In 1741 Lord Lyttelton married Lucy Fortescue, of Devonshire, who, dying five years afterwards, afforded a theme for his muse, of no unusual interest. The following lines, which he on this occasion produced, are considered by many the most successful of his poetical efforts :
O'er all the well-known ground,
Where oft we used to walk,
Where oft in tender talk
Nor by yon fountain's side,
Nor where its waters glide
Nor more my mournful eye
Can aught of her espy,
Sweet babes, who, like the little playful fawns,
Who now your infant steps shall guide ?
O loss beyond repair !
O wretched father, left alone
And drooping o'er thy Lucy's grave,
Now she, alas ! is gone,
When Walpole and the Whigs were vanquished, Lyttelton was made one of the lords of the treasury. He was afterwards a privy counsellor and chancellor of the exchequer, and was eventually elevated to the peerage. He died on the twenty-second of August, 1773, in his sixty-fifth year.
Lord Lyttelton's poetical compositions were a mere pastime. He was a
warm friend of men of genius, and deeply sympathized in every thing that concerned them. Thomson, his particular friend, died before his tragedy of Coriolanus could be brought upon the stage. The tragedy was, however, acted immediately after the death of the author, for the benefit of his relations; and to increase its effectiveness, Lyttelton wrote the following prologue, which was delivered by Quin, one of the most celebrated tragic actors of the day.
PROLOGUE TO THOMSON'S TRAGEDY OF CORIOLANUS.
I come not here your candour to implore
When Quin spoke the lines
He loved his friends-forgive the gushing tear:
many of the audience wept audibly.