תמונות בעמוד

ness, excellency, nor grace, will needs be so called to satisfy their ambitious and ostentatious minds, which is a manifest token of their hypocrisy.

Fifthly, as to that title · Majesty,' usually ascribed to princes, we do not find it given to any such in the Holy Scripture, but that it is specially and peculiarly ascribed unto God. We find in the Scripture the proud king Nebuchadnezzar assuming this title to himself, who, at that time, received a sufficient reproof, by a sudden judgment which came upon him. Therefore, in all the compellations used to princes in the Old Testament, it is not to be found, nor yet in the New. Paul was very civil to Agrippa, yet he gives him no such title. Neither was this title used awong Christians in the primitive times.

WILLIAM Penn, the son of Admiral Sir William Penn, and founder of the colony of Pennsylvania, was born in London on the fourteenth of October, 1644. He was educated at the school of Chigwell

, in Essex, 'where, at the age of eleven,' says Wood, ' being retired in a chamber alone, he was so suddenly surprised with an inward comfort, and an external glory in the room, that he has many times said, how from that time he had the seal of divinity and immortality; that there was also a God, and that the soul of man was capable of enjoying his divine communications. He afterwards went to a private school on Tower-Hill, and likewise enjoyed the advantages of a private tutor. In 1660, he entered Christ's Church College, Oxford, where, for two years, he devoted himself closely to his studies ; but being at length influenced by the preaching of Thomas Loe, a Quaker, he and some other students withdrew from the form of worship of the established church, and held private meetings, where they prayed and preached among themselves. This conduct giving great offence to the officers of the university, Penn was first fined for nonconformity, but still persisting in these exercises, he was finally expelled from his college.

The principles which Penn thus early adopted gave such offence to his father, that he banished him from his house; but, at length, when it appeared evident that his son's opinions were unalterably fixed, a reconciliation took place between them. In 1668, he became a preacher amongst the Quakers, and, like many other members of that society, suffered much persecution, and was repeatedly thrown into prison. During one of his confinements in the Tower of London, he wrote the most celebrated of his works, entitled, No Cross, no Crown, in which the views of the Quakers are powerfully maintained, and which continues to be highly esteemed among persons of that denomination, even at the present day. After his liberation, he spent much time in defending his principles against various opponents, amongst whom was the celebrated Richard Baxter. In 1681, Penn obtained, from Charles the Second, in consideration of some unliquidated claims of the deceased Admiral Penn upon the crown, the grant of the district in America which was named Pennsylvania by the king, and of which Penn was constituted sole proprietor and governor. He immediately took measures for the settlement of the province, and drew up articles of government, among which the following is the most remarkable :

That all persons in this province, who confess and acknowledge the one

almighty and eternal God to be the creator, upholder, and ruler of the world, and that hold themselves obliged in conscience to live peaceably and justly in society, shall in no ways be molested or prejudiced for their religious per suasion, or practice in matters of faith and worship; nor shall they be compelled, at any time, to frequent, or maintain any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever.

In 1682, Penn came out to his colony, and immediately proceeded to purehase land from the natives, with whom he entered into a treaty of peace and friendship, which was carefully observed as long as the power of the Quakers predominated in the colony, and which, for many years after his death, caused his memory to be affectionately cherished by the Indians. He then fixed upon the site of his capital, Philadelphia, the building of which was immediately commenced. After spending, at this time, two years in the colony, Penn returned to England, and thenceforth, until his death, which occurred in London, on the thirtieth of July, 1718, he passed his time alternately in the two countries.

Besides the work already mentioned, Penn was the author of various other productions, amongst which are, Reflections and Maxims relating to the Conduct of Life, and A Key to discern the Difference between the Religion professed by the Quakers, and the Misrepresentations of their Adversaries. He also prefixed to Fox's Journal, A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers. The following extract we select from his ‘Reflections and Maxims relating to the Conduct of Life,' as it forms a fair specimen of his style :

ADVICE TO HIS CHILDREN. Next, betake yourself to some honest, industrious course of life, and that not of sordid coveteousness, but for example, and to avoid idleness. And if you change your condition and marry, choose with the knowledge and consent of your mother, if living, or of guardians, or those that have the charge of you. Mind neither beauty nor riches, but the fear of the Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition, such as you can love above all this world, and that may make your habitations pleasant and desirable to you.

And being married, be tender, affectionate, patient, and meek, Live in the fear of the Lord, and he will bless you and your offspring. Be sure to live within compass ; borrow not, neither be beholden to any. Ruin not yourselves by kindness to others ; for that exceeds the due bounds of friendship, neither will a true friend expect it. Small matters I heed not. Let your industry and parsimony go no further than for a sufficiency for life, and to make a provision for your children, and that in moderation, if the Lord gives you any. I charge you help the poor and needy; let the Lord have a voluntary share of your income, for the good of the poor, both in our society and others; for we are all his creatures, remembering that 'he that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord.'

Know well your incomings, and your outgoings may be better regulated. Love not money nor the world; use them only, and they will serve you; but if you love them you serve them, which will debase your spirits as well as offend the Lord.

Pity the distressed, and hold out a hand of help to them; it may be your case, and as you mete to others, God will mete to you again.

Be humble and gentle in your conversation; of few words I charge you, but

always pertinent when you speak, hearing out before you attempt to answer, and then speaking as if you would persuade, not impose.

Affront none, neither revenge the affronts that are done to you; but forgive, and you shall be forgiven of your heavenly Father.

In making friends, consider well first; and when you are fixed, be true, not wavering by reports, nor deserting in affliction, for that becomes not the good and virtuous.

Watch against anger, neither speak nor act in it; for, like drunkenness, it makes a man a beast, and throws people into desperate inconveniences.

Avoid flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise; their praise is costly, designing to get by those they bespeak; they are the worst of creatures; they lie to flatter, and flatter to cheat; and, which is worse, if you believe them, you cheat yourselves most dangerously. But the virtuous, though poor, love, cherish, and prefer. Remember David, who, asking the Lord, 'Who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell upon thy holy hill ? answers, " He that walketh uprightly, worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart; in whose eyes the vile person is contemned, but honoureth them who fear the Lord.'

Next, my children, be temperate in all things : in your diet, for that is physic H; prevention; it keeps, nay, it makes people healthy, and their generation sound. This is exclusive of the spiritual advantage it brings. Be also plain in your apparel; keep out that lust which reigns too much over some; let your virtues be your ornaments, remembering life is more than food and the body than raiment. Let your furniture be simple and cheap. Avoid pride, avarice, and luxury. Read my 'No Cross, no Crown.' There is instruction. Make your conversation with the most eminent for wisdom and piety, and shun all wicked men as you hope for the blessing of God and the comfort of your father's living and dying prayers. Be sure you speak no evil of any, no, not of the meanest; much less of your superiors, as magistrates, guardians, tutors, teachers, and elders in Christ.

Be no busybodies ; meddle not with other folk's matters, but when in conscience and duty pressed, for it procures trouble, and is ill-manners, and very unseemly to wise men.

In your families remember Abraham, Moses, and Joshua, their integrity to the Lord, and do as you have them for your examples.

Let the fear and service of the living God be encouraged in your houses, and that plainness, sobriety, and moderation in all things, as becometh God's chosen people; and as I advise you, my beloved children, do you counsel yours, if God should give you any. Yea, I counsel and command them as my posterity, that they love and serve the Lord God with an upright heart, that he may bless you and yours from generation to generation.

And as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsylvania and my parts of East Jersey, especially the first, I do charge you before the Lord God and his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender, fearing God, loving the people, and hating covetousness. Let justice have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though to your loss, protect no man against it; for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives yourselves you would have the people live, and then you have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep upon the square, for God sees you: therefore, do your duty, and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers, cherish no informers for gain or revenge, use no tricks, fly to no devices to support or cover injustice, but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant.

Thomas Ellwood, the last writer among the Quakers, whom we shall, at present, mention, was born in 1639. He was naturally endowed with

more than ordinary talents, and the virtues of benevolence, perseverance, and integrity, were remarkably displayed by him, in common with many other of the early members of the society to which he belonged. His conversion to the principles of Quakerism gave deep offence to his father, who soinetimes beat him with great severity, particularly when the son persisted in remaining covered in his presence. Another cause of offence was, that, whenever he had occasion to speak to his father, instead of saying 'you,' he would say “thou' or 'thee,' as the occasion required. 'At one time,' says Ellwoud, when he had beaten me in that manner, he commanded me to go to my chamber, which I did, and he followed me to the bottom of the stairs. Being come thither he gave me a parting blow, and in a very angry tone said, “Sirrah, if ever I hear you say thou or thee to me again, I'll strike your teeth down your throat.' I was greatly grieved to hear him say so, and feeling a word rise in my heart unto him, I turned again, and calmly said unto him, "Should it not be just if God should serve thee so, when thou sayest 'thou' or 'thee' to him. Though his hand was up, I saw it sink, and his countenance fall, and he turned away, and left me standing there. But I, notwithstanding, went up into my chamber and cried unto the Lord, earnestly beseeching him that he would be pleased to open my father's eyes, that he might see whom he fought against, and for what; and that he would turn his heart.' But the circumstance which has given peculiar interest to Ellwood is, that he was a pupil and a friend of Milton, and one of those who read to the poet after the loss of his sight. The object that Ellwood had in view in offering his services as a reader was, that he might obtain, in return, from Milton, some assistance in his own studies. Of the connection thus formed, he gives, in his autobiography, a very interesting account. Ellwood, after a life of great activity, died in 1713, in the seventy-third year of his age.

In the autobiography already alluded to, Elwood furnishes some interesting particulars concerning the London prisons, in which he and many of his brother Quakers were confined, and the manner in which they were treated both there and out of doors. He also wrote many controversial treatises, the most prominent of which is The Foundation of Tithes Shaken. Of all his works, however, his Sacred Histories of the Old and New Testaments are regarded as his most important productions. The following account of his relation to Milton will close this brief notice :

INTERVIEW WITH MILTON. He received me courteously, as well for the sake of Dr. Paget, who introduced me, as of Isaac Pennington, who recommended me, to both of whom he bore a good respect; and having inquired divers things of me with respect to my former progressions in learning, he dismissed me, to provide myself of such accommodations as might be most suitable to my future studies.

I went, therefore, and took myself a lodging as near to his house (which was then In Jewin-street) as conveniently I could; and, from thenceforward, went every day, m the afternoon (except on the first days of the week), and sitting by him in his

dining-room, read to him such books, in the Latin tongue, as he pleased to hear me read.

At my first sitting to read to him, observing that I used the English pronunciation, he told me if I would have the benefit of the Latin tongue (not only to read and understand Latin authors, but to converse with foreigners, either abroad or at home), I must learn the foreign pronunciation. To this I consenting, he instructed me how to sound the vowels, so different from the common pronunciation used by the English (who speak Anglice their Latin) that (with some few other variations in sounding some consonants, in particular cases, as C, before E, or I, like Ch; Se, before I, like Sh, &c.) the Latin thus spoken seemed as different from that which was delivered as the English generally speak it, as if it was another language.

I had, before, during my retired life at my father's, by unwearied diligence and industry, so far recovered the rules of grammar (in which I had once been very ready), that I could both read a Latin author, and, after a sort hammer out his meaning. But this change of pronunciation proved a new difficulty to me. It was now harder to me to read than it was before to understand when read. But

" Labor omnia vincit
Incessant pains,

The end obtains. And so did I, which made my reading the more acceptable to my master. He, on the other hand, perceiving with what earnest desire I pursued learning, gave me not only all the encouragement, but all the help he could; for, having a curious ear, he understood by my tone, when I understood what I read, and when I did not; and accordingly would stop me, examine me, and open the most difficult passages to me.

Thus went I on for about six weeks' time, reading to him in the afternoons, and exercising myself, with my own books, in my chamber in the forenoons. I was sensible of an improvement.

But, alas ! I had fixed my studies in a wrong place. London and I could never agree for health. My lungs (as I suppose) were too tender to bear the sulphureous air of that city; so that I soon began to droop, and, in less than two months' time, I was fain to leave both my studies and the city, and return into the country, to preserve life; and much ado I had to get thither. * * * * [Having recovered, and gone back to London] I was very kindly received by my master, who had conceived so good an opinion of me, that my conversation (I found) was acceptable to him; and he seemed heartily glad of my recovery and return; and into our old method of study we fell again, I reading to him, and he explaining to me as occasion required.

Some little time before I went to Aylesbury prison, I was desired by my quondam master, Milton, to take a house for him in the neighbourhood where I dwelt, that he might get out of the city, for the safety of himself and family, the pestilence then growing hot in London. I took a pretty box for him in Giles Chalfont, a mile from me, of which I gave him notice, and intended to have waited on him, and seen him well-settled in it, but was prevented by that imprisonment.

But now, being released, and returned home, I soon made a visit to him, to welcome him into the country.

After some common discourses had passed between us, he called for a manuscript of his, which, being brought, he delivered to me, bidding me to take it home with me, and read it at my leisure, and, when I had so done, return it to him, with my judgment thereupon.

When I came home, and had set myself to read it, I found it was that excellent poem, which he entitled ' Paradise Lost.' After I had, with the utmost attention, read it through, I made him another visit, and returned him his book, with due ac

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