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degree, and entered the Middle Temple, where, by the help of his father, he became eminent for his skill in the common law, as well as in other studies. He soon rose to distinction in his profession, and in the beginning of the Long Parliament was chosen a burgess for Marlow, in Bucks. In parliament he greatly distinguished himself as the advocate of liberal principles, and the opponent of every order of oppression. In the trial of the Earl of Strafford, he appeared as one of the managers for the parliament against that misguided nobleman. In 1643, when the king, at Oxford, manifested a willingness to treat with the Parliament, he was named as one of the commissioners for that purpose, and as one of the gentlemen to sit with the assembly of divines. From this period until matters were brought to a crisis, and there seemed no other alternative than that the king must be sacrificed, Whitelocke continued to occupy high and important stations ; but when the question of his majesty's death was seriously agitated, he retired into the country, his execution being contrary to his judgment. Under the Commonwealth he was made one of the council of state, and high steward of Oxford, with charge of the king's library and medals, the sale of which he had already prevented. In 1653 he was sent ambassador to the queen of Sweden, and was treated by Christiana with the highest marks of honor and respect. On his return to England Cromwell summoned him to sit in the other house, -under the title of Bulstrode Lord Whitelocke. At the Restoration he retired into the country, and died at Chilton, in Wiltshire, on the twenty-eighth of January, 1676.
Whitelocke's principal literary performance is Memorials of English Affairs, from the beginning of the reign of Charles the First to the Restoration. As these · Memorials’ were not intended for publication, they were written wholly in the form of diary, and should be regarded, therefore, rather as a collection of historical materials than as history itself. In a posthumous volume of Essays Ecclesiastical and Civil, he strongly advocates religious toleration.
Thomas FULLER, to whom a conspicuous place in the prose liberature of this period belongs, was the son of a clergyman of the same name, and was born at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, in 1608. He was prepared for the university at home, by his father, and so great was his proficiency under paternal instruction, that he entered Queen's College, Cambridge, in the twelfth year of his age. At the university his studies were crowned with triumphant success; and on entering life as a preacher, in that city, he acquired unbounded popularity. He afterwards passed through a rapid succession of promotions, until he acquired the lectureship of the Savoy in London. On the breaking out of the civil war, Fuller attached himself to the king's party, at Oxford, and he seems to have accompanied the army in active service, for some years, as chaplain to Lord Hopton. Even in these circumstances, his active mind was employed in collecting materials for some of the works which he afterward published. His company was, at the same time, much courted, on account of the extraordinary amount of intelligence he had acquired, and a strain of lively humor that seems to have been quite irrepressible. The quaint and familiar cast of his mind disposed him to be less particular in the selection of materials, and also in the arrangement of them, than scholars generally are. He would often sit patiently for hours, listening to the prattle of old women, in order to obtain snatches of local history, traditionary anecdote, and proverbial wisdom. These, he afterward wrought up in his work, entitled The Worthies of England, which is a strange melange of topography, biography, and popular antiquities.
When the heat of the civil war was past, Fuller returned to London, and soon after became lecturer at St. Bride's Church. He was now engaged on his Church History of Britain, which was published in 1656, in one volame folio. He afterward devoted himself to the preparation of his Worthies,' which he did not complete till 1660. Meanwhile, he had passed through some other situations in the church, the last of which was that of chaplain to Charles the Second, upon which the university of Cambridge conferred upon him the degree of doctor of divinity. It was thought that the king intended to confer upon him a bishopric, but he was unfortunately attacked with a fever, on his return from a visit to his uncle, the bishop of Salisbury, of which he died, on the tenth of August, 1660.
In person, Fuller was tall and handsome, and in conversational power unrivalled. As a proof of his wonderful memory, it is said that he could repeat five hundred unconnected words after twice hearing them, and recite the whole of the signs in the principal thoroughfares of London, after once passing through it and back again.
Fuller's first literary performance was a divine poem, written while he resided at Cambridge, and published under the title of David's Heinous Sin, Hearty Repentance, and Heavy Punishment. Soon after he settled in London appeared his History of the Holy War. His only other work of importance, besides those already mentioned, are The Profane and Holy States, and A Pisgah View of Palestine. His principal work, the “Worthies,' is rather a collection of brief memoranda than a regular composition, so that it does not admit of extract for our purpose. The style of all Fuller's works is extremely quaint and jocular; and in the power of drawing humorous comparisons, he is little, if at all, inferior to Butler himself. His * Holy and Profane States,' contains admirably drawn characters, which are held forth as examples to be respectively imitated and avoided; such as the Good Father, the Good Soldier, and the Good Master. In this and the other productions of Fuller, there is a vast fund of sagacity and good sense, frequently expressed in language so pithy, that a large collection of admirable and striking maxims might easily be drawn from his pages. We have not, however, space for samples of these, but shall be satisfied with presenting the following admirably drawn character :
THE GOOD SCHOOLMASTER. There is scarce any profession in the commonwealth more necessary, which is so slightly performed. The reasons whereof I conceive to be these :-First, young scholars make this calling their refuge; yea, perchance, before they have taken any degree in the university', commence schoolmasters in the country, as if nothing else were required to set up this profession but only a rod and a ferula. Secondly, others who are able, use it only as a passage to better preferment, to patch the rents in their present fortune, till they can provide a new one, and betake themselves to some more gainful calling. Thirdly, they are disheartened from doing their best with the miserable reward which in some places they receive, being masters to their children and sláves to their parents. Fourthly, being grown rich they grow negligent, and scorn to touch the school but by the proxy of the usher. But see how well our schoolmaster behaves himself.
His genius inclines him with delight to his profession. Some men had as well be schoolboys as schoolmasters, to be tied to the school, as Cooper's Dictionary and Scapula's Lexicon are chained to the desk therein; and though great scholars, and skillful in other arts, are bunglers in this. But God, of his goodness, hath fitted several men for several callings that the necessity of church and state, in all conditions, may be provided for. So that he who beholds the fabrics thereof, may say, God hewed out the stone, and appointed it to lie in this very place, for it would fit none other so well, and here it doth most excellent. And thus God mouldeth some for a schoolmaster's life, undertaking it with desire and delight, and discharging it with dexterity and happy success.
He studieth his scholars’ natures as carefully as they their books; and ranks their dispositions into several forms. And though it may seem difficult for him in a great school to descend to all particulars, yet experienced schoolmasters may quickly make a grammar of boys' natures, and reduce them all (saving some few exceptions) to these general rules :
1. Those that are ingenious and industrious. The conjunction of two such planets in a youth presage much good unto him. To such a lad a frown may be a whipping and a whipping a death; yea, where their master whips them once, shame whips them all the week after. Such natures he useth with all gentleness.
2. Those that are ingenious and idle. These think with the hare in the fable, that running with snails (so they count the rest of their schoolfellows,) they shall come soon enough to the post, though sleeping a good while before their starting. Oh, a good rod would finely take them napping.
3. Those that are dull and diligent. Wines the stronger they be, the more lees they have when they are new. Many boys are muddy-headed till they be clarified with age, and such afterward prove the best. Bristol diamonds are both bright, and squared, and pointed by nature, and yet are soft and worthless, whereas orient ones in India are rough and rugged naturally. Hard, rugged, and dull natures of youth, acquit themselves afterward the jewels of the country, and therefore their dullness at first is to be borne with, if they be diligent. That schoolmaster deserves to be beaten himself, who beats nature in a boy for a fault. And I question whether all the whipping in the world can make their parts which are naturally sluggish, rise one minute before the hour nature hath appointed.
4. Those that are invincibly dull, and negligent also. Correction may reform the latter, not amend the former. All the whetting in the world can never set a razor's edge on that which hath no steel in it. Such boys he consigneth over to other professions. Shipwrights and boat-makers will choose those crooked pieces of timber which other carpenters refuse. Those may make excellent merchants and mechanics which will not serve for scholars.
He is able, diligent, and methodical in his teachings; not leading them rather in
a circle than forwards. He minces his precepts for children to swallow, hanging clogs on the nimbleness of his own soul, that his scholars may go along with him.
He is and will be known to be an absolute monarch in his school. If cockering mothers proffer him money to purchase their son's exemption from his rod, (to live, as it were, in a peculiar, out of their master's jurisdiction,) with disdain he refuseth it, and scorns the late custom in some places of commuting whipping into money, and ransoming boys from the rod at a set price. If he hath a stubborn youth, correction-proof, he debaseth not his authority by contesting with him, but fairly, if he can, puts him away before his obstinacy hath infected others.
He is moderate in inflicting deserved correction. Many a schoolmaster better answereth the name paidotribes then paidagogos, rather tearing his scholars' flesh with whipping than giving them good education. No wonder if his scholars hate the muses, being presented unto them in the shapes of fiends and furies.
Such an Orbilius mars more scholars than he makes. Their tyranny hath caused many tongues to stammer which spake plain by nature, and whose stuttering at first was nothing else but fears quavering on their speech at their master's presence. And whose mauling them about their heads hath dulled those who in quickness exceeded their master.
He makes his school free to him who sues to him in forma pauperi. And surely learning is the greatest alms that can be given. But he is a beast who, because the poor scholar can not pay him his wages, pays the scholar in his whipping; rather are diligent lads to be encouraged with all excitements to learning. This minds me of what I have heard concerning Mr. Bust, that worthy late schoolmaster of Eton, who would not suffer any wandering begging scholar (such as justly the statute hath ranked in the forefront of rogues), to come into his school, but would thrust him out with earnestness (however privately charitable unto him), lest his schoolboys should be disheartened from their books, by seeing some scholars, after their studying in the university; preferred to beggary.
He spoils not a good school to make whereof a bad college, therein to teach his scholars logic. For, besides that, logic may have an action of trespass against grammar, for encroaching on her liberties, syllogisms' are solecisms taught in the school and oftentimes they are forced afterward into the university to unlearn the fumbling skill they had before. Out of his school he is in no way pedantical in carriage or discourse; contenting himself to be rich in Latin, though he doth not jingle with it in every company wherein he comes.
To conclude, let this, amongst other motives, make schoolmasters careful in their place, that the eminences of their scholars have commended the memories of their schoolmasters to posterity, who, otherwise in obscurity, had altogether been forgotten. Who had ever heard of R. Bond, in Lancashire, but for the breeding of learned Ascham, his scholar ? pr of Hartgrave, in Brundly school, in the same county, but because he was the first did teach worthy Dr. Whitaker? Nor do I honour the memory of Mulcaster for any thing so much as his scholar, that gulf of learning, Bishop Andrews. This made the Athenians, the day before the great feast of Theseus, their founder, to sacrifice a ram to the memory of Conidas, his schoolmaster, that first instructed him.
EDWARD HYDE, afterwards Earl of Clarendon, and Lord High Chancellor of England, was one of the most remarkable personages of this or any other period of English literature. Descended from an ancient family in Cheshire, and born at Dinton, in Wiltshire, on the sixteenth of February, 1608, be entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, at the early age of fourteen, whence he was graduated with the degree of bachelor of arts, in 1625, not yet having attained the seventeenth year of his age. From the university, Hyde re.
moved to London, entered the Middle Temple, and there, for a number of years, pursued the study of the law with the greatest diligence and success. While thus employed, he associated much with some of the most eminent of his contemporaries, among whom were Selden, Waller, Hales, and Chillingworth. From the conversation of these and other distinguished individuals, the characters of some of whom he has admirably drawn in his works, he considered himself to have derived a great portion of his knowledge; and he declared that he never was so proud, or thought himself so good a man, as when he was the worst man in the company. In the practice of the law he made so creditable a figure as to attract the attention of the most eminent of the profession; but being in easy circumstances, and having entered parliament, in 1640, he soon afterwards quitted the bar, and devoted himself, thenceforth, to public affairs. At first he abstained from connecting himself with any political party; but eventually he joined the royalists, to whose principles he was naturally inclined, though not in a violent degree. In the struggles between Charles the First, and the people, he was much consulted by the king, who, however, sometimes gave him great offence by disregarding his advice. Many of the papers issued in the royal cause during the civil war, were the productions of Hyde's pen. Charlcs, while holding his court at Oxford, nominated him chancellor of the exchequer, and conferred upon him the honor of knighthood.
In 1644, Hyde left the king, and accompanied Prince Charles to the west, and subsequently to Jersey, where he remained two years after the prince's departure from that island, engaged in tranquil literary pursuits, and especially in writing a history of the stormy events in which he had so lately been an actor. In 1648 he joined the prince in Holland, and the next year went as one of his ambassadors to Madrid, having previously settled his family at Antwerp. In Spain, the ambassadors were coldly received; and after suffering much from poverty and neglect, they were at length, in 1651, ordered to quit the kingdom. Hyde retired to his family at Antwerp, but in the autumn of the same year, joined the exiled prince in Paris. Thenceforth he continued to be of great service in managing the embarrassed pecuniary affairs of the court, in giving counsel to the king, and in preserving -harmony among his adherents. At the same time his own poverty was such, that he remarks in one of his letters, written in 1652, 'I have neither clothes nor fire to preserve me from the sharpness of the season ;' and in the following year he says, 'I have not had a livre of my own for three months.
Hyde was a man of activity, integrity, and strict economy; and, therefore, Charles's indolent and extravagant habits greatly annoyed him. The prince, however, had the discernment to perceive the value of such a friend, and, therefore, expressed his approbation of his conduct, by raising him to the dignity of lord chancellor. The appointment by a king, without a kingdom, besides serving to testify royal favor, enabled the easy and indolent monarch to rid himself of clamorous applicants for future lucrative offices in