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47. And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give you into our hands.
48. And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet he Philistine.
49. And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
18:5. And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
6. And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
7. And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
true to custom, answered in kind ; but he also said for the battle is the Lord's, and he will give you into our hands.
Then, as the Philistine advanced upon David, David hasted, and ran ... to meet him. And as he ran he took a stone from his bag, put it into his sling, and sent it against his foe. The stone smote the Philistine in his forehead, . and he fell upon his face to the earth, a statement that proves that Goliath was running, and bending forward.
There is a legend among the Jews that when Goliath cast his eyes upon David, the sight seemed so ridiculous, so amusing, that he threw back his head, and laughed out aloud. But this action threw his brazen helmet away from his temples, and just then the smooth stone from David's sling struck him upon his forehead. It is quite possible that his contempt for his opponent made him careless of his armor.
Professor Beecher suggests that “the giant attempted to seize the javelin that was ' between his shoulders' (v. 6), that he might hurl it at David, and in so doing lifted his face and exposed his forehead beneath the rim of the helmet. At that instant the sling-stone came, and David's victory was won.”
When the Philistines saw their champion fall, from an unseen cause, they fled in dismay. The Israelites, aroused and inspired by what God had done through David, their faith kindled anew into flame, arose and shouted and pursued the Philistines, even to their own walled cities.
David ran, and standing on the prostrate giant drew out his great sword, and cut off his head, which was afterwards preserved at Jerusalem, while the young warrior preserved the armor in his tent. The sword was later put into the tabernacle, perhaps as a votary offering (1 Sam. 21:9).
'V. SOME RESULTS OF THE CON QUEST, 1 Sam. 17 : 55-18:9; 19: 1-17. 1. Jonathan loved him as his own soul, and with him made a covenant of friendship which lasted until Jonathan fell on the battle field (18:1-4). (For further discussion of this point see the next lesson.)
2. David became an important part of Saul's army (18 : 2, 5).
3. David became a hero and darling of the people (18 : 6-9). Either after the defeat of Goliath, or at a later time after a conquest of the Philistines (note marginal reading of “ Philistines” in v. 6), the women came out of the cities and villages as the army passed through, to meet the conquerors and to express their joy at the national triumph. “ This is a characteristic trait of Oriental manners. On the return of friends long absent, and particularly on the return of a victorious army, bands of women and children issue from the towns and villages, to form a triumphal procession to celebrate the victory, and as they go along, gratify the soldiers with dancing, instrumental music, and extempore songs, in honor of the generals who have earned the highest distinction.' Jamieson. , Compare the triumphal pro
8. And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands : and what can he have more but the kingdom?
9. And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
cession of Miriam and the other women after the passage of the Red Sea (Ex. 15 : 20), the song of Deborah (Judg. 5:1), and the story of Jephthah's daughter (Judg. 11: 34).
4. David became an object of bitter jealousy to King Saul (1 Sam. 18 : 8, 9 ; 19 : 1-17). Naturally Saul was very wroth to have a stripling, an unknown, placed higher than himself in the songs of the people ; and all the more because he knew in his heart that it was right that it should be so. But beginning at this time Saul's almost insane jealousy of David grew until he actually quarrelled with his son Jonathan who was taking David's part ; and David was forced to leave the court in order to save his life from the frenzied Saul. (See later lessons for David's fugitive life.)
VI. MODERN GIANTS AND HOW TO CONQUER THEM. The combat between David and Goliath has many points which illustrate and symbolize the conflict between good and evil in the world ; a conflict into which every one, old and young, should enter. There is a personal conflict with evil as when Christ fought the battle with temptation in the wilderness. There is a broader conflict with the wrongs and principles of evil that pervade humanity, into which every Christian enters for the redemption of the world, even as Christ the Son of God came into the world to save it from sin.
“ John Bunyan has mentioned some of our modern giants : Giant Despair and Giant Grim ; Giant Pope and Giant Pagan. Perhaps we could think of a few more who have come nearer yet to our own experience. There is Giant Pride, and Giant Profanity ; Giant Untruth, Giant Envy, Giant Appetite ; all of these confront us, and with some of them we have had fights." — Č. S. Robinson, D.D.“ We may likewise think of the various forms of sin as so many giants to-day, including Laziness, Sulkiness, Selfishness, Falsehood, Alcohol, and many more. Indeed, everything may be regarded as a giant which is connected with the conflict of might against right.” W. H. Griffith Thomas. See Gal. 5:19–21 ; Eph. 6:12, etc.
David's preparation for his great victory came through a faithful use of his daily duties. There is no better way to-day for the young man or woman. Do your very best wherever you are, in whatever circumstances you are placed and God will lead you to your larger work. The story of a great majority of Christian workers is an illustration of this truth.
The Weapons of our Warfare. “No good ever comes of fighting Goliath with weapons fashioned after the pattern of his. We have those which Christ has given us, the sling and the staff. The more closely we keep ourselves to these, the better for us and for the cause entrusted to us. . Love unfeigned, the word of truth, the power of God, these are the true armor of righteousness. In this sign shalt thou conquer.' The world has to be won to Christ by the means by which he overcame it ; and his soldiers have to fight the good fight with the same arms and armor as he wore and wielded.” - Alexander Maclaren.
True Courage. " The greater part of the courage that is needed in the world is not of an heroic kind. Courage may be displayed in everyday life as well as on historic fields of action. The common need is for courage to be honest, courage to resist temptation, courage to speak the truth, courage to be what we really are, and not pretend to be what we are not, courage to live honestly within our means, and not dishonestly upon the means of others." Selected.
The Battle is Jehovah's. " It is reported that once when an officer pointed out to Wellington that such and such orders could not be carried out, his only reply was, See that it is down in the order book.' Our Order Book leaves no loophole for failure. 'I would undertake to govern half a dozen worlds,' said a minister, if God called me to do it ; but if He didn't call me to do it, I wouldn't undertake to govern half a dozen sheep.” — Record of Christian Work.
Some few years ago, in the south of England, three men who were travelling were interested in the entrance of a stranger just as the train was starting. His bag and sword-case indicated that he was a military man, and after a moment he said, ' That
was a close shave ; I've come from Gibraltar, and specially wanted connection. Said one of the other men, 'I am glad you have joined us been warmly discussing the comparative merits of Napoleon and Wellir, military man, we should like your opinion as to which of these was the gre strategically. We are of opinion that Wellington was the greater.' Wi able skill and graciousness the stranger proved that strategically Napoleo first place. 'Ah! then who won Waterloo ? ' was the rejoinder. In quiet and reverent voice the stranger said, ‘God won Waterloo.' The speaker was General Sir John French.” · From the British Weekly, quoted in S. S. Times.
LESSON II (15). — July 11.
PRINT 1 Sam. 20 : 32-42.
A friend loveth at all times ;
Devotional Reading : John 15: 9-15.
Lesson Material : 1 Sam. 20.
Memory Verse : A friend loveth at all times. Prov. 17:17. Junior Topic : DAVID AND His Friend.
Lesson Material : 1 Sam. 20.
Memory Verse : 1 John 3 : 18.
THE TEACHER AND HIS CLASS.
the ideal Friend of each one of his
followers. A lesson story of a perfect friendship; The Young People and Adults can one which becomes an ideal and type of spend a very profitable hour on the disinterested love; the love of the question of friendship in modern life. Crown Prince of Israel to the shepherd The friendships in the trenches, in boy.
society, in the church. What is friendThe Primary and Junior grades must ship ? and what influence has it had on of course become familiar with the story the world ? of David and Jonathan and their wonderful friendship, with some emphasis placed THE LESSON IN ITS SETTING, upon what Jonathan was giving up in his love for David. Call attention to Time. The events recorded in their own friendships ; what makes them 1 Samuel 20 are placed by Beecher at friends and how they show it ; would about B.C. 1068. David's exile life, they be ready to give up very much for this lesson and the next, was from their friends ? Lead them to see the 1068–1063 B.C. (Beecher). The conquest great Friend every child has in Jesus, of Goliath, our last lesson, was some and what He gave up to serve them as five years earlier than the events of this. their Friend.
Place. Saul's palace was at Gibeah, The Intermediate and Senior grades 2} miles north of Jerusalem. should discuss the real value of friendship, what makes it worth while, and what sort of friends should each make.
THE LESSON IN ART. Is true friendship shown in getting or in giving ? What do we get from our Three pictures by Doré on this period friends ? They too should see in Jesus are very good.
THE ROUND TABLE.
Friendship, by Amos R. Wells.
ship bulks largely in the works of Plato, FOR RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION. Aristotle, Epictetus, Cicero." MonThe Crown Prince Jonathan, and his character.
taigne's Essay on Friendship. Stories David's character at this time.
of classic friendships, as Damon and What attracted them to each other?
Pythias, Achilles and Patroclus, in stories
from Greek and Roman mythology.
THE PLAN OF THE LESSON.
SUBJECT : A Study of Friendship. THE TEACHER'S LIBRARY.
I. A TYPICAL FRIENDSHIP. On the history of the times and of Jonathan the Crown Prince. David, the books referred to in our last David the Shepherd, Poet, and Warrior. lesson, and Commentaries on I Samuel II. How THIS FRIENDSHIP WAS ExMatheson's Representative Men of the
PRESSED, 1 Sam. 18:1-4; 19: Bible, second series, ' Jonathan the
1-7 ; 20:1-42. Generous.” Tuck's Revelation by Char- III. THE ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS acter, Friendly Jonathan.
TRUE FRIENDSHIP. Whyte's Bible Characters, “ Jonathan.” IV. FRIENDSHIPS THAT ARE WORTH On Friendship : Hugh Black's Friend
WHILE. ship. Friendship the Master Passion, by V. THE GREAT VALUE AND POWER OF H. C. Trumbull. The Arithmetic of
FRIENDSHIP WITH JESUS.
I. A TYPICAL FRIENDSHIP. “ The idea, so common in the ancient writers, is not all a poetic conceit, that the soul of a man is only a fragment of a larger whole, which goes out in search of other souls in which we will find its true completion. We walk among worlds unrealized until we have learned the secret of love.
“ The classic instance of David and Jonathan represents the typical friendship. They met, and at the meeting knew each other to be nearer than kindred. By subtle elective affinity they felt that they belonged to each other. Out of all the chaos of the time and the disorder of their lives, there arose for these two souls a new and beautiful world, where there reigned peace and love, and sweet content. Jonathan's princely soul had no room for envy or jealousy. David's frank nature rose to meet the magnanimity of his friend." Il ugh Black, M.A.
Jonathan, the Crown Prince. “ But for his father's great and disastrous transgressions, Jonathan would soon have been the second king of Israel ; second in succession to Saul, but second to no king that ever sat on a throne in those great qualities of mind and heart and character that give stability to a throne and add lustre to a
- Whyte. “ It is a curious commentary upon the doctrine of heredity that Saul, whose most conspicuous defect was a lack, apparently, of the very capacity for loyalty, should have a son whose most conspicuous trait was deep-rooted and unselfish loyalty to everybody with whiom he was in any way related. The secret of Jonathan's character was his loyalty to God, which gave balance, steadiness, and nobility to all the relations of his life." -- The Bible Record.
Jonathan was a brave and noble soldier, and had accomplished some very daring feats of arms (1 Sam. 14:1-15). His good judgment is shown in 1 Sam. 14 : 27-30 ; his faith in God in i Sam. 14 : 6, 12; 19:5; 20: 13, 42.
He was “the Golden Rule exemplified.” He was a model son, devoted to his unfortunate father. “ To him, if to anyone, the frenzy of the king was a menable " (1 Sam. 19 :6). He was older than David, and had been brought up under very different conditions, and was more mature and self-restrained ; but his was a great soul, a mighty heart, with a most wonderful capacity for loving.
David, the Shepherd, Poet, and Warrior. He was attractive in his person ; accomplished in music and song ; courageous even to heroism ; large hearted and generous; and, above all, he had “ a sublime faith, a perfect, childlike trust in the glorious arm of the Lord.” At the same time Jonathan excelled him in supreme devotion and self-sacrifice. Between these two arose an almost ideal friendship. “ The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David.” Their souls were interwoven together into a complete texture of friendship; one could not be weakened without the other suffering. “And Jonathan loved him as his own soul.” This love in its highest perfection, mother love, and bridal love, is the finest type and illustration of the love of God to his children, as often expressed in the Scriptures.
II. HOW THIS FRIENDSHIP WAS EXPRESSED, 1 Sam. 18:1-4 ; 19:1-7; 20 : 1-42. Jonathan, the prince, took off his royal soldier garments, and gave them to David, together with his sword and “his famous bow, which was his special weapon (2 Sam. 1 : 22), and his princely girdle. “ It has been suggested that the reason for this gift was to enable his friend David, then poorly clad, to appear at his father's court in a fitting dress; but this kind of present was usual among friends in those remote ages. Glaucus and Diomed, for instance, exchanged armor of very different value.
“Now change we arms, and prove to either host
We guard the friendship of the line we boast.
- Ellicott. It is not at all impossible that the young men confirmed their friendship by the very ancient rite of “the blood-covenant " of which there are historic traces from time immemorial. See The Blood Covenant, by Dr. Henry C. Trumbull, for the account of the manner of this covenant.
The Jealousy of Saul. We saw in the last lesson how Saul became insanely jealous of David when he found that he had become a greater hero to the people than the king himself (1 Sam. 18:6–9). He asked himself, “ What can he have more but the kingdom ?" and he “ eyed David from that day.”
Twice at least, as recorded in 1 Sam. 18:11, did Saul try to kill David with his javelin in his own palace. He was afraid of David, perhaps superstitiously so after his escapes, and therefore he made him a
captain over a thousand,” hoping that he might be slain in battle.
David behaved himself wisely in all his ways : and the Lord was with him.” Saul feared him yet more, and made still stronger attempts to bring about his death in a natural way (1 Sam. 18 : 17–27), but David was preserved through all the dangers.
Jonathan now pleads for David, and through his influence over his father wins for him the promise, “ As the Lord liveth, he shall not be slain ” (1 Sam. 19 : 6), and David returned to the palace, and mingled with the courtiers and with Saul and Jonathan, " as in time past."
David's Final Departure from the Palace, 1 Sam. 20. The reconciliation with Saul seems only to have lasted while there was quiet in the land, and David could remain somewhat in retirement in the peaceful court. But before long “ there was war again," and as colonel of one of Saul's fine regiments David went to battle with them, and conquered with them. Perhaps the incident of the singing women was repeated.
David's Escape from Saul. But not long after, in one of Saul's frenzies he again sought to kill David with his own hand, and failing, sent men to David's house to kill him as he went out in the morning. But Michal the daughter of Saul,