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"In the world nothing seems so intolerable as obedience ; for men esteem all laws to be fetters and their superiors are their enemies, and when a command is given we turn into all shapes of excuse to escape from the imposition. Thus every man thinks that authority is an encroachment upon his birthright, and never considers that Christ took upon him our nature that he might teach us obedience, and in that also make us become like unto God.Jeremy Taylor, 1661.

“ Obedience will be accepted whether the conscious determination is present or not. If obedience springs from habit, it may not be lovable, but it is useful, and it is always good. But, you say, 'I often do not think when I do a thing in the course of daily duty.” My friend,' I reply, 'I am glad you do not; for it is possible to do right without thinking ; it is the perfection of being.' George Dawson.

“ Obedience to law is liberty.” This fine motto, suggested by Senator Hoar, is engraved on the front of the court-house in Worcester, Mass. Obedience to the laws of music gives glorious liberty to the musician. Obedience to the laws of physics gives the aviator liberty to range over the whole heavens. Obedience to law never means loss or restriction ; it means infinite gain.

LESSON XI. -- June 13.

A SHEPHERD BOY CHOSEN KING. – 1 Samuel 16:1-13.

PRINT 1 Sam. 16:4-13.

GOLDEN TEXT.forward.1 SAM. 16:13.

The Spirit of Jehovah came mightily upon David from that day

Devotional Reading : John 10 : 11-18.
Additional Material for Teachers : Psalm 2.
Primary Topic : THE STORY OF A SHEPHERD Boy.

Lesson Material : I Sam. 16 : 4-13.
Memory Verse : Even a child maketh himself known by his doings.

Prov. 20:11.
Junior Topic : A KINGLY SHEPHERD Boy.

Lesson Material : i Sam. 16 :4-13.

Memory Verse : 1 Sam. 16 : 7.
Intermediate and Senior Topic : THE ROAD TO PROMOTION.
Topic for Young People and Adults : The PossibILITIES OF YOUTH.

Additional Material : I Sam. 16 : 17-23 ; Eccl. 11:9-12 : 1; Phil. 3 : 12–

14 ; 1 Tim. 4:12; 1 John 2 : 13, 14.

THE TEACHER AND HIS CLASS. literature, and so on. They are prepar

ing themselves now for large places or The Younger Classes always take small ones. much pleasure in the stirring and beau- The Older Classes need to see in this tiful story of the shepherd boy who was fine example of appreciation of a boy promoted to be a king's personal attend something of the splendid possibilities ant. Help them to see in the story an that are wrapped up in the children evidence that faithfulness in the doing around them, their own younger brothers of small things always leads to larger and sisters, their own children, their own things.

pupils. Urge the necessity of more work The Intermediate Classes will be and better work with and for the chilaroused by the story of the choice of dren, if this country is to become what the future king, and the teacher will should be. apply the narrative to their lives by telling them that right now the kings THE LESSON IN ITS SETTING. and queens of the coming world are being chosen among the boys and girls Time. Professor Beecher's conjecof to-day - the kings of religious work, tural date for the anointing of David is of business, of commerce, of the law, of B.C. 1077 ; and for David's first appear



at Saul's court with his harp, THE LESSON IN ART. B.C. 1074 Place. Bethlehem, five miles south

Statues of David by Donatello of Jerusalem. Saul's court at (Florence), Ciuffagni (Florence), MichelGibeah (Geba), his home town in Ben- angelo (Florence). Paintings by Fra jamin, about six miles north of Jeru- Angelico (Orvieto), Baldovinetti (Florsalem.

ence), Raphael (Loggia in the Vatican).

David Playing to Saul, by Rembrandt THE ROUND TABLE,

(Frankfort and the Hague), by Ernest

Normand (English).
Famous anointings in the Bible.
Shepherds in the Bible.
A study of Bible children.

THE LESSON IN LITERATURE. “The last shall be first.' The nature of Saul's malady.

“ The Call of David," a poem by Musical instruments of Old Testament times.

John Henry Newman. Browning's

famous and beautiful poem,“ Saul,” is THE PLAN OF THE LESSON. a masterly, picture of David playing

before the insane king. “ Saul and the SUBJECT : The Beginning of a Great Shepherd Minstrel,” by Mrs. Sigourney, Career.

Poems on the same subject by Richard I. A FATE-FILLED ERRAND, 1 Sam. Wilton, George Wither, and R. S. 16:1-5.

Jehovah's new resource.
An old hero's timidity.
Bethlehem's fear,

Making ready a better future.
II. JEHOVAH'S CHOICE, 1 Sam. 16:6–

Volumes on David by William M. 13.

Taylor, F. B. Meyer, Rev. W. J. Knox The natural human choice.

Little. Sermons on the lesson in SerJehovah looks on the heart.

mons, Vol. I., by Rev. John McNeill ; This is he."

Twenty Sermons, by Phillips Brooks ; How God selects his leaders.

The Knowledge of God, by William III. David, PRINCE OF Song, 1 Sam. Walsham, Bishop of Wakefield ; Ser

mons for Children, by Dean Stanley ; Saul's evil spirit.

Daily Strength for Daily Living, by Dr.
David's training.
David wins his way.

John Clifford. Five Young Men, by
Qualities that succeed in life.

Rev. Charles R. Brown, D.D.

16 : 14-23.

I. A FATE-FILLED ERRAND, 1 Sam. 16:1-5. Saul had proved a terrible disappointment to Samuel. He loved the brave and modest man, he saw the possibilities in him, and hoped great things for him. It was not his fault that the people rejected the more direct rule of Jehovah and insisted upon having a king. But Saul's wilfulness and deceitfulness had destroyed Samuel's hopes. The aged prophet, who had given his life so unselfishly to his people, was thrown into the depths of despair. Would that more men had the grace to mourn over national sins and public perils!

1. Jehovah said unto Samuel. By an audible voice or by an equally direct impression upon his mind. How long wilt thou mourn for Saul ? We need to examine carefully the grounds of our mourning, for excessive grief or ill-founded sorrow is needlessly weakening. There is much

over which we have a right to grieve, but to mourn too long is to question God's wisdom and get out of touch with his on-moving providence. Seeing I have rejected him. Samuel's grief, though entirely natural, implied in its long continuance a criticism of God's judgment. He should have acquiesced in it cheerfully, and asked God what was next to be done. Fill thy horn with oil. A plain direction, as Samuel would understand it, that he was to proceed to the solemn anointing and consecrating of the new king. I will send thee. Action is the best remedy for grief. If you have a great sorrow in your life, get an errand from God, and a plenty are to be had for the asking. The harder the errand, the surer the cure for your sorrow. To Jesse the Bethlehemite. Jesse was the grandson of Ruth the Moabitess and of Boaz (Ruth 4 : 18-22), and so belonged to the tribe of Judah. He doubtless carried on the farm of his grandfather. I have provided me a

4. And Samuel did that which the LORD spake, and came to Beth-lehem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou peaceably?

5. And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.

king among his sons. God has ample resources. If one leader fails him, he has another in reserve. God is not a workman with only one tool in his chest, a hunter with only one arrow in his quiver.

2. If Saul hear it, he will kill me. Samuel is growing timid in his old age. He had not hesitated before to cross the will of Saul to his face, and declare his rejection from being king. This, however, was a more direct step in opposition, and Saul would regard it as treason. Take a heifer with thee. Samuel was evidently wont to visit different places and offer sacrifices there for the people. He was to make such an errand to Bethlehem. That would not be a deceit, for it would be a real errand, and he would be doing a still more necessary and important errand at the

same time. We are not to lie, but neither are we to put it in the power of wicked men to thwart God's plans by disclosing them prematurely.

3. I will show thee what thou shalt do. Samuel, like Enoch,“ walked with God.” What a comfort it must have been to find all his course laid out before him! That comfort is open to every child of God to-day.

4. Samuel came to Bethlehem. This famous town, formerly called Ephrath

(Gen. 48 : 7), was the place near which Rachel died, the scene of

Ruth's marriage to Market Place - Bethlehem.

Boaz. Besides being

the birthplace of David, it became later a most sacred spot because our Lord was born there. It was at Bethlehem that St. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. The name means “ the House of Bread fit name for the birthplace of the Bread of Life. The town surmounts a hill a little way east of the road leading from Jerusalem, five miles to the north, down to Hebron. The elders of the city, the heads of the Bethlehem families, city officers, came to meet him trembling. Perhaps Samuel's visits were often made with the view of rebuking sin and correcting abuses, and hence their alarm ; or the breach between him and Saul may have made the elders afraid of incurring the royal displeasure by welcoming him.” Cambridge Bible.

5. After declaring that his errand was a peaceful one, and that they need not fear, the prophet bade the elders sanctify themselves, that is, go through the customary ceremonial washings of body and clothing, and abstain from whatever might render them ceremonially unclean, according to the provisions of the law of Moses (Gen. 19 : 10, 14, 15). Jesse was perhaps so prominent among the elders that it was natural for Samuel to honor him by superintending personally the purification of his family, thus getting a chance to meet the members of the family in private.

MAKING READY A BETTER FUTURE. “In some wise way when the door of opportunity opens upon a trying situation there comes forth a man of sufficient size to perform the task. When the time is ripe for the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther is ready and walks in. When the day arrives for Napoleon Bonaparte to be sent to St. Helena and the peace of Europe restored, the Duke of Wellington, repre

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6. And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and said, Surely the LORD's anointed is before him.

7. But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance,

but the LORD looketh on the heart.

8. Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.

9. Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, Neither hath the LORD chosen this.

10. Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.

II. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

senting British tenacity, is ready. When the hour has struck for American slavery to be destroyed by words and law and grapeshot, William Lloyd Garrison and Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant are ready. Back of every emergency God waits. He has his great right hand full of men and when the fulness of time is come he brings upon the scene his own appointed man.”. Rev. Charles R. Brown, D.D.

II. JEHOVAH'S CHOICE, 1 Sam. 16 : 6-13. It must have been with much hesitation that Samuel entered upon his review of Jesse's sons. His first choice had turned out poorly ; could he expect better results from this second choice ? The old man's heart still yearned for Saul ; could he love as well, the young man who was to take Saul's place? It was a hard day for Samuel.

6. Surely Jehovah's anointed is before him. Eliab (probably the same as Elihu whom King David made ruler of Judah, I Chron. 27:18) was a tall fellow with a fine face, every inch a king, a good match for Saul. So thought Samuel, but “ the day was gone when kings were chosen because they were head and shoulders taller than the rest.". Dean Stanley.

7. Jehovah seeth not as man seeth. The words in italics are supplied from the Greek translation, the Septuagint, having been lost by accident from the Hebrew text. Saul had been a king of fine appearance such as the people would like, for they did not look deeper than the surface ; but this time God, who looketh on the heart, was intending to select a king to please himself, a king whose heart was right. For the thought of this noble verse compare i Chron. 28:9 ; Ps. 139 ; Jer. II : 20 ; 17:10; 20: 12 ; Luke 16 : 15 ; Acts 1 : 24, etc.

Suppose that for one whole day we were all of us enabled by miraculous power, and compelled as well as enabled, to look (as God looks) not on the outward appearance but on the heart of every one we saw, what a dreadful what an intolerably dreadful day that would be ! How it would startle one with all manner of horrible discoveries !” The Bishop of Wakefield. We should so live that such a day would find us ready and glad.

10. Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. Of the seven only Eliab, Abinadab, and Shammah are named. Of Shammah we know that he had two sons, Jonadab the wise (2 Sam. 13 : 3) and Jonathan the brave (2 Sam. 21:21). The Lord hath not chosen these. God appoints some to great tasks and others to small ones, to each his task ; and if Eliab does his lesser work as well as David does his greater work, he has equal honor with God.

11. There remaineth yet the youngest. So young and unconsidered that it had not been thought worth while to call him from the field ; and yet he would prove to be the greatest Israelite for a thousand years! Thus we often look down on the little ones of a home or a church, forgetting that among them is likely to be at least one, perhaps more, whom men will be proud to honor some day. He is keeping the sheep. God is most likely to call us to some great task if we are zealously engaged

12. And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.

13. Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.

in the little tasks which he has appointed. Thus Saul was hunting his father's asses when he was chosen king; thus Elisha was ploughing when he was chosen to succeed Elijah ; thus Peter and John, James and Andrew, were fishing when Jesus called them to become his apostles. Tending sheep was a monotonous and lonely task, but it was one of the best possible schools for David. It put beauty into his soul and strength into his body. It made him resourceful. It made him thoughtful. It made him patient. It filled him with reverence. It gave him in great abundance the best qualities of Saul and many necessary qualities which Saul lamentably lacked. David was pursuing the occupation usually allotted in Eastern countries to the slaves, the females or the despised of the family: He carried a switch or wand in his hand, such as would be used for his dogs, and a scrip or wallet around his neck,

to carry anything that was needed for his shepherd's life, and a sling to ward off beasts or birds of prey.". Dean Stanley We will not sit down, around the table for the meal which always followed the sacrifice.

12. Now he was ruddy. Fair-skinned and light-haired (with gracious gold hair," as Browning says in his poem, “ Saul ”).

These are regarded as great beauties in southern countries, where the hair is usually black and the skin dark. Esau is the only other person of whom the Bible uses this adjective (Gen. 25 : 25). Of a beautiful countenance. Literally, “ with beautiful eyes.” Goodly to look

upon. As it is not said that he was tall, From Statue of David by Michelangelo. we may suppose that David was of ordi

nary stature ; but the lovely and noble

thoughts he habitually cherished must have given him a very beautiful face, while his active, outdoor life made his bearing alert and graceful. Instantly Samuel had the divine instructions, Anoint him ; for this is he.

13. Then Samuel anointed him, by pouring on his head the sacred oil, in the midst of his brethren, the entire family looking on. But as the later story shows that David's brothers had no idea of the royal rank reserved for him, the meaning of Samuel's act was doubtless hidden from them. Perhaps they thought that the prophet was by this rite selecting David as a member of one of his “ schools of the prophets,” and the character of the lad would lend color to this supposition. “Josephus tells us that the prophet whispered in David's ear the meaning of the sacred symbol. Did the aged lips approach the young head, and, as the trembling hand pushed back the clustering locks, did they whisper in the lad's ear the thrilling words, “Thou shalt be king'?" - F. B. Meyer. The spirit of Jehovah came mightily upon David from that day forward. We have here the first mention of David's name, a name borne by no other Old Testament person, and meaning “ Darling or “ Beloved,” given him perhaps because he was the youngest of the family; or it may be a contraction for the fuller form signifying.“ Jehovah is beloved.” As Saul's anointing brought him a special inflow of the Spirit of Jehovah (1 Sam. 10 : 1, 6, 10), so David's anointing was the beginning of his special supernatural preparation for his great task. “Why should not this day witness a similar transformation for you? The divine anointing awaits all who will separate themselves to God, and receive it for his glory." F. B. Meyer.

Head of David.


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