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And oft they interpose improving talk,
To seeming imperfections, to vain wants, Divu!ging each to other knowledge rare,
Or real exigencies ; passions swift Sparks, from experience that sometimes arise; Forerunning reason; strong contrarious bents, Till night weighs down the sense, or morning's The steps of men dispersing wide abroad Ronses to labour, man to labour börn. (dawn O'er realms and seas. There in the solemn scene, Then the sleek brightening lock, from hand to Infinite wonders glare before their eyes, hand,
Humiliating the mind enlarg'd; for they Renews its circling course : this feels the card ; The clearest sense of Deity receive, That, in the comb, admires its growing length; Who view the widest prospect of his works, This, blanch'd, emerges from the oily wave; Ranging the globe with Trade through various climes: And that, the amber tint, or ruby, drinks.
Who see the signatures of boundless love, For it suffices not, in flowery vales,
Nor less the judgments of Almighty Power, Only to tend the flock, and shear soft wool : That warn the wicked and the wretch who 'scapes Gums must be stor'd of Guinea's arid coast; From human justice: who, astonish’d, view Mexican woods, and India's brightening salts ; Etna's loud thunders and tempestuous fires; Fruits, herbage, sulphurs, minerals to stain The dust of Carthage ; desert shores of Nile; The fleece prepard, which oil-imbibing earth Or Tyre's abandon'd summit, crown'd of old Of Wooburn blanches, and keen alumn-waves With stately towers; whose merchants, from their Intenerate. With curious eye observe,
isles, In what variety the tribe of salts,
And radiant thrones, assembled in her marts; Gums, ores, and liquors, eye-delighting hues Whicher Arabia, whither Kedar brought Proddace, abstersive or restringent ; how
Their shaggy goats, their flocks and bleating lambs; Steel casts the sable; how pale pewter, fus'd Where rich Darnascus pil'd his fleeces white, In fluid spiritous, the scarlet dye;
Prepard, and thirsty for the double tint, And how each tint is made, or mix'd, or chang'd, And flowering shuttle. While th' admiring world By mediums colourless: why is the fune
Crowded her streets; ah! then the hand of Pride of sulphur kind to white and azure hues,
Sow'd imperceptible his poisonous weed, Pernicious else: why no materials yield
Which crept destructive up her lofty demes,
Of some tall oak. Her lofty domes no more,
Not e'en the dust they sunk in; by the breath But what repe: toil by mixture gives.
Of the Omnipotent, offended, hurld
Her ancient site ; a monument to those,
Introduction. Recoinmendation of labour. The The wounded murex strike a purple stain,
several methods of spinning. Description of the The purple stain on fleecy woofs he spread,
loom, and of weaving. Variety of looms. The Which lur'd the eye, adorning many a nymph, fulling-mill described, and the progress of the And drew the pomp of trade to rising Tyre.
manufacture. Dyeing of cloth, and the excelOur valleys yield not, or but sparing yield, lence of the French in that art. Frequent negThe dyer's gay materials. Only weld,
ligence of our artificers. The ill consequences Or root of madder, here or purple woad,
of idleness. Country-workbouses proposed; with By which our naked ancestors obscurd
a description of one. Good effects of industry Their hardy limbs, inwrought with mystic forms, exemplified in the prospect of Burstal and Leeds; Like Egypt's obelisks. The powerful Sun
and the cloth-market there described. PreHot India's zone with gaudy pencil paints,
ference of the labours of the loom to other ma. And drops delicious tiuts o'er hill and dale,
nufactures, illustrated by some comparisons. Which trade to us conveys. Not tints alone,
History of the art of weaving; its removal from Trade to the good physician gives his balms; the Netherlands, and settlement in several parts Gives cheering cordials to th' aflicted heart;
of England. Censure of those who would reject Gives, to the wealthy, delicacies bigh;
the persecuted and the stranger. Our trade and Gives, to the curious, works of Nature rare;
prosperity owing to them. Of the manufacture And when the priest displays, in just discourse, of tapestry, taught us by the Saracens Tapestries Hiin, the all-wise Creator, and declares
of Blenheim described. Different arts, procurHis presence, power, and goodness, unconfin'd, ing wealth to different countries. Numerous in. T is Trade, attentive voyager, who fills
habitants, and their industry, the surest source His lips with argument. To censure Trade,
of it. Hence a wish, that our country were open Or hold her busy people in contempt,
to all men. View of the roads and rivers, Let done presume. The dignity, and grace,
through which our manufactures are conveyed. And weal, of human life, their fountains one
Our navigations not far from the seats of our
manufactures : other countries less happy. The The more compact, and some the looser wreath;
To th' ancient distaff, at the bosom fix'd,
At home, or in the sheepfold, or the mart,
It yields their airy stuffs an apter thread.
A golden distaff gave that beauteous nymph,
Too-beauteous Helen: no uncourtly gift
Sagacious, has a spiral engine 34 form'd,
Which, on an bundred spoles, a hundred threads, When plains and sheepfolds were the Muse's haunts. With one huge wheel, by lapse of water twines,
So thou, the friend of every virtuous deed Few bands requiring; easy-tended work, And aim, though feeble, shalt these rural lays That copiously supplies the greedy loom. Approve, O Heathcote, whose benevolence
Nor bence, ye nymphs, let anger cloud your brows: Visits our valleys; where the pasture spreads, The more is wrought, the more is still requir'd: And where the bramble; and would justly act Blithe o'er your toils, with wonted song, proceed : True charity, by teaching idle Want
Fear not surcharge; your hands will ever find
Ample employment. In the strife of trade,
Which, ever-gliding, feed the flowery lawn.
Nor, should the careful state, severely kind,
In every province, to the house of toil
Teach their unwilling hands, nor yet complain.
Ever, while o'er the lawns, and airy downs,
Quavers the choicest of his sumets, wari'd (And Nature does her part) are only rude
By growing traffic, friend to wedded love. Materials, cumbers on the thorny ground; (fleece The amorous youth, with various hopes inflam'd, 'Tis toil that makes them wealth; that makes the Now on the busy stage see him step forth, (Yet useless, rising in unshapen heaps)
With beating breast : high-honour'd he beholds Anon, in curious woofs of beauteous hue,
Rich Industry. First he bespeaks a loom : A vesture usefully succinct snd warm,
From some thick wood the carpenter selects
A slender oak, or beech of glossy trunk,
The posts, and treadles; and the frame combines
And graver's knife, the hollow shuttle add.
Come, village nymphs, ye matrons, and ye maids, The curious engine, work of subtle skill;
Howe'er, in vulgar use around the globe
T'ost over ocean to remotest shores,
33 The Iceni were the inhabitants of Suffolk. Asks from your glowing fingers: some require 34 Paul's engine for cotton and fine wool.
The wheel-mov'd waggon, and the discipline These shall the prince with purple robes adorn; Of strong-yok'd steers. What needful art is new? And those the warrior mark, and those the priest.
Next, the industrious youth employs his care Few are the primal colours of the art; To store soft yarn; and now he strains the warp Five only ; black, and yellow, blue, brown, red; Along the garden-walk, or highway-side,
Yet hence innumerable hues arise. Smoothing each thread; now lits it to the loom, 'That stain alone is good, which bears unchang'd And sits before the work : from hand to hand Dissolving water's, and calcining sun's, The thready shuttle glides along the lines,
And thieving air's attacks. How great the need, Which open to the woof, and shut altern:
With utmost caution to prepare the woof, And ever and anon, to firm the work,
To seek the best-adapted dyes, and salts, Against the web is driven the noisy frame,
And purest gums! since your whole skill consists That o'er the level rushes, like a surge,
In opening well the tibres of the woof, Which, often dashing on the sandy beach,
For the reception of the beauteous dye, Compacis the traveller's road : from hand to hand And wedging every grain in every pore, Again, across the lines oft opening, glides
Firm as a diamond in rich gold enchas'd. The thready shuttle, while the web apace
But what the powers, which lock them in the web; Increases, as the light of eastern skies,
Whether incrusting salts, or weight of air, Spread by the rosy fingers of the Morn;
Or fountain-water's cold contracting wave, And all the fair expanse with beauty glows.
Or all combin'd, it well befits to know. Or, if the broader mantle be the task,
Ah! wherefore have we lost our old repute ? He chooses some companion to his toil.
And who inquires the cause, why Gallia's sons From side to side, with amicable aim,
In depth and brilliancy of hues excel? Each to the other darts the nimble bolt,
Yet yield not, Britons; grasp in every art While friendly converse, prompted by the work,
The foremost name. Let others tamely view, Kindles improvement in the opening mind. On crowded Smyrna's and Byzantium's stand,
What need we name the several kinds of looms? The haughty Turk despise their proffer'd bales. Those delicate, to whose fair-colour'd threads Now sec, o'er vales, and peopled mountain-tops, Hang figurd weights, whose various numbers guide The welcome traders, gathering every web; The artist's hand: he, unseen flowers, and trees, Industrious, every web too few. Alas! And vales, and azure bills, unerring works. Successless oft their industry, when cease Or that, whose numerous needles, glittering bright, The loom and shuttle in the troubled streets; Weave the warm hose to corer tender limbs: Their motion stopt by wild Intemperance, Modern invention : modern is the want.
Toil's scoffing foe, who lures the giddy rout Next, from the slacken'd beam the woof unrollid, To scorn their task-work, and to vagrant life Near some clear-sliding river, Aire or Stroud, Turns their rude steps; while Misery, among Is by the noisy fulling-mill receiv'd;
The cries of infants, haunts their mouldering huts. Where tumbling waters turn enormous wheels, O when, through every province, shall be rais'd And hammers, rising and descending, learn Houses of labour, seats of kind constraint, To imitate the industry of man.
For those who now delight in fruitless sports, Oft the wet web is steep'd, and often rais'd, More than in cheerful works of virtuous trade, Fast-dripping, to the river's grassy bank; Which honest wealth would yield, and portion due And sinewy arms of men, with full-strain’d strength, Of public welfare ? Ho, ye poor, who seek, Wring out the latent water: then, up-bung Among the dwellings of the diligent, On rugged tenters, to the fervid Sun
For sustenance unearn'd; who stroll abroad Its level surface, reeking, it expands;
Prom house to house, with mischievous intent, Still brightening in each rigid discipline,
Feigning misfortune : Ho, ye lame, ye blind; And gathering worth ; as human life, in pains, Ye languid limbs, with real want oppress'd, Conficts, and troubles. Soon the clothier's shears. Who tread the rough highways, and mountains And burler's thistle, skim the surface sheen.
wild, The round of work goes on, from day to day, Through storms, and rains, and bitterness of heart; Season to season. So the husbandman
Ye children of affliction, be compellid Pursues his cares; his plongh divides the glebe; To happiness: the long-wisb'd day-light dawns, The seed is sown; rough rattle o'er the clods When charitable Rigour shall detain The harrow's teeth; quick weeds his hoe subdues; | Your step-bruis'd feet. E'en now the sons of Trade, The sickle labours, and the slow team strains; Where'er their cultivated hamlets smile, Till grateful harvest-home rewards his toils. Erect the mansion 35: here soft fleeces shine ;
Th*ingenious artist, learn'd in drugs, bestows The card awaits you, and the comb, and wheel : The last improvement; for th' unlabour'd fleece Here shroud you from the thunder of the storm; Rare'is permitted to imbibe the dyè.
No rain shall wet your pillow : here abounds In penetrating waves of boiling vats
Pure beverage; here your viands are prepar'd; The snowy web is steep'd, with grain of weld, To heal each sickness the physician waits, Fustic, or logwood, mixed, or cochineal,
And priest entreats to give your Maker praise. Or the dark purple pulp of Pictish woad,
Bebold, in Calder's 36 vale, where wide around Of stain tenacious, deep as summer skies, Unnumber'd villas creep the shrubby hills, Like those that canopy the bowers of Stowe A spacious dome for this fair purpose rise. After soft rains, when birds their notes attune, Ere the melodious nightingale begins.
35 This alludes to the workhouses at Bristol, From yon broad vase behold the saffron woofs Birmingham, &c. Beauteous emerge: from these the azure rise ; 36 A river in Yorkshire, which runs below Halifax, This glows with crimson ; that the auburn holds ; and passes by Wakefield.
Jligh o'er the gates, with gracious air,
The stroke of ax and hammer; scaffolds rise, Eliza's image stands. By gentle steps
And growing editices; heaps of stone, Up-rais’d, from room to room we slowly walk, Beneath the chisel, beauteous shapes assume And view with wonder, and with silent joy,
Of frieze and column. Some, with even line, The sprightly scene; where many a busy hand, New streets are marking in the neighbouring Where spoles, cards, wheels, and looms, with motion
And sacred domes of worship. Industry, And ever-murmuring sound, th' unwonted sense Which dignifies the artist, lifts the swain, Wrap in surprise. To see them all employ'd, And the straw cottage to a palace turns, All blithe, it gives the spreading heart delight, Over the work presides. Such was the scene As neither meats, nor drinks, nor aught of joy Of hurrying Carthage, when the Trojan chief Corporeal, can bestow. Nor less they gain First view'd her growing turrets.
So appear Viriue than wealth, while, on their useful works Th’increasing walls of busy Manchester, From day to day intent, in their ful minds Sheffield, and Birmingham, whose reddening Evilno place can find. With equal scale
fields Some deal abroad the well-assorted fleece;
Rise and enlarge their suburbs. Lo, in throngs, These card the short, those comb the longer flake; For every realm, the careful factors meet, Others the harsh and clotted lock receive,
Whispering each other. In long ranks the bales, Yet sever and refine with patient toil,
Like War's bright files, beyond the sight extend. And bring to proper use.
Flax too, and hemp, Straight, ere the sounding bell the signal strikes, Excite their diligence. The younger bauds Which ends the hour of traffic, they conclude Ply at the easy work of winding yaru
The speedy compact; and, well-pleas'd, transfer, On swiftly-circling engines, and their notes With mutual benefit, superior wealth Warble together, as a choir of larks;
To many a kingdom's rent, or tyrant's hoard. Such joy arises in the mind employ'd.
Whate'er is excellent in art proceeds Another scene displays the more robust,
From labour and endurance: deep the oak Rasping or grinding tongh Brasilian woods,
Must sink in stubborn earth its roots obscure, And what Campeachy's disputable shore
That hopes to lift its branches to the skies : Copious afiords to tinge the thirsty web;
Gold cannot gold appear, until man's toil And the Caribbee isles, whose dulcet canes
Discloses wide the mountain's hidden ribs, Equal the honeycomb. We next are shown And digs the dusky ore, and breaks and grinds A circular machine 37, of new design,
Its gritty parts, and laves in limpid streams, In conic shape: it draws and spins a thread With oft repeated toil, and oft in fire Without the tedious toil of needless hands. The metal purifies : with the fatigue, A wheel, invisible, beneath the floor,
And tedious process of its painful works, To every member of th' harinonious frame
The lusty sicken, and the feeble die. Gives necessary motion. One, intent
But cheerful are the labours of the loom, O’erlooks tbe work: the carded wool, he says, By health and ease accompany'd: they bring Is smoothly lapp'd around those cylinders,
Superior treasures speedier to the state, Which, gently turning, yield it to yon cirque Than those of deep Peruvian mines, where slaves Of upright spivdles, which, with rapid whirl, (Wretched requital) drink, with trembling hand, Spiu out, in long extent, an even twine.
Pale Palsy's baneful cup. Our happy swains From this delightful mansion (if we seek
Behold arising, in their fattening flocks, Still more to view the gifts which honest toil A double wealth; more rich than Belgium's boast, Distributes) take we now our eastward course, Who tends the culture of the flaxen reed; To the rich fields of Burstal. Wide around, Or the Cathayan's, whose ignobler care Hillock and valley, farm and village, smile : Nurses the silk-worm; or of India's sons, And ruddy roofs, and chimney-tops appear, Who plant the cotton-grove by Ganges' stream, Of busy Leeds, up-wafting to the clouds
Nor do their toils and products furnish more, The incense of thanksgiving: all is joy ;
Than gauds and dresses, of fantastic web, And trade and business guide the living scene, To the luxurious: but our kinder toils Roll the full cars, adown the winding Aire
Give clothing to necessity; keep warm Load the slow-sailing barges, pile the pack Th’ unhappy wanderer, on the mountain wild On the long tinkling train of slow-pac'd steeds. Benighted, while the tempest beats around. As, when a sunny day invites abroad
No, ye soft sons of Ganges, and of Ind, The sedulous ants, they issue from their cells Ye feebly delicate, life little needs In bands unnumber'd, eager for their work; Your feminine toys, nor asks your nerveless arm O'er high, o'er low, they lift, they draw, they haste To cast the strong-flung shuttle, or the spear, With warm affection to each other's aid;
Can ye defend your country from the storm Repeat their virtuous efforts, and succeed. Of strong invasion ? Can ye want endure Thus all is here in motion, all is life:
In the besieged fort, with courage firm? The creaking wain brings copious store of corn ; Can ye the weather-beaten vessel steer, The grazier's sleeky kie obstruct the roads: Climb the tall mast, direct the stubborn helm, The neat-dress'd housewives, for the festal board Mid wild discordant waves, with steady course? Crown'd with full baskets, in the field-way paths Can ye lead out, to distant colonies, Come tripping on; the echoing hills repeat Th'o'erflowings of a people, or your wrong'd
Brethren, by impious persecution driven, 37 A most curious machine, invented by Mr. Paul. And arm their breasts with fortitude to try It is at present contrived to spin cotton; but it may New regions ; climes, though barren, yet bevond be made to spin line carded wool.
The bancful power of tyrants? These are deeds
To which their hardy labours well prepare They, from their isle, as from some ark secure, 'The sinew y arm of Albion's sous. Pursue, Careless, unpitying, view the fiery bolts Ye sons of Albion, with a yielding heart,
Of Superstition, and tyrannic rage, Your hardy labours : let the sounding loom And all the fury of the rolling storm, Mix with the melody of every rale;
Which fierce pursues the suilerers in their fight.
Wherever they inhabit: this our isle
Of either hemisphere where commerce Bows: Lead Day and Night o'er realms. Our day arose Th’ important truth is stampt on every bale; When Alva's tyranny the weaving arts
Each glossy cloth, and drape of mantle warm, Drove from the fertile valleys of the Scheld. Receives th'impression; every airy woof, With speedy wing, and scatter'd course, they fled, Cheyney, and bayse, and serge, and alepine, Like a community of bees, disturb’d
Tammy, and crape, and the long countless list By some relentless swain's rapacious hand; Of woollen webs; and every work of steel; While good Eliza to the fugitives
And that crystalline metal, blown or fus’d, Gave gracious welcome; as wise Egypt erst Limpid as water dropping from the clefts To troubled Nilus, whose nutritious flood
Of mossy marble: not to naine the aids With annual gratitude enrich'd her meads. Their wit has given the fleece, now taught to link Then, from fair Antwerp, an industrions train With flax, or cotton, or the silkworm's thread, Cross'd the smooth channel of our smiling seas; And gain the graces of variety : And in the vales of Cantium, on the banks
Whether to forin the matron's decent robe, Of Stour alighted, and the naval ware
Or the thin-shading trail for Agra's 38 nymphs; Of spacious Medway: some on gentle Yare, Or solemn curtains, whose long gloomy folds And fertile Waveney, pitch'd; and made their seats Surround the soft pavilions of the rich. Pleasant Norvicum, and Colcestria's towers:
They too the many-colourd arras taught Some wr, the Darent sped their happy way:
To mimic Nature, and the airy shapes Berghem, and Sluys, and elder Bruges, chose Of sportive Fancy: such as oft appear Antona's chalky plains, and stretch'd their tents In old Mosaic parements, when the plough Down to Clausentum, and that hay supine
['p-turns the crumbling glebe of Weldon field; Beneath the shade of Vecta's cliffy isle.
Or that, o'ershaded erst by Woodstock's bower, Soon o'er the hospitable realm they spread, Now grac'd by Blenheim, in whose stately rooms With cheer reviv'd; and in Sabrina's food, Rise glowing tapestries, that lure the eye And the Silurian Tame, their textures blanch'd : With Marlborough's wars: here Schellenbergh Not undelighted with Vigornia's spires,
exults, Nor those, by Vaga's stream, from ruins rais'd Behind surrounding hills of ramparts steep Of ancient Ariconium ; nor less plcas'd
And vales of trenches dark; each hideous pass With Salop's various scenes; and that soft tract Armies defend; yet on the hero leads Of Cambria, deep-embay'd Dimetian land,
His Britons, like a torrent, o'er the mounds. By green hills fened, by ocean's murmur lullid; Another scene is Blenheim's glorious field, Nurse of the rustic bard, who now resounds
And the red Danube. Here, the rescued states The fortunes of the fleece; whose ancestors Crowding beneath his shield: there, Ranillies' Were fugitives from Superstition's rage,
Important battle: next, the tenfold chain And erst, from Devon, thither brought the loom; Of Arleux burst, and th' adamantine gates Where irv'd walls of old Kidwelly's towers, Of Gaul Aung open to the tyrant's throne. Nolding, still on their gloomy brows project A shade obscures the rest--Ah, then, what power Lanastria's arms, emboss'd in mouldering stone. Invidious from the lifted sickle snatch'd
Thus, then, on Albion's coast, the exil'd band, The harvest of the plain? So lively glows
In the beholding, and the glories share
While she assay'd, with rage of holy war,
To desolate their fields: but old the skill: Of the Brigantes; where, with happier care Long were the Phrygians' picturing looms renown'd; Inspiritel, their art improves the tecee,
Tyre also, wealthy seat of arts, excell'd, Which occupation erst, and wealth immense, And elder Sidun, in th' historic web. Gave Brabant's swarming habitants, what time Far-distant Tibet in her gloomy woods We were their shepherds only; from which state, Rears the gay tent, of blended wool unwoven, With friendly arm, they rais'd us: nathless some And glutinous materials; the Chinese Among our old and stubborn swains misteen'd, Their porcelain, Japan its varnish boasts. And envy'd, who enrich'd them; envy'd those, Wose virtues taught the varletry of towns
38 There is woven at Manchester, for the East To assoful toil to turn the pilfering hand.
Indies, a very thin stuff, of thread and cotton; And still, when Bigotry's black clouds arise, which is cooler than the manufactures of that (Tor ofi they suddca rise in papal realms),
country, where the material is only cotton.