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parted from Jerusalem, and first travelled through Cappadocia, Galatia, and Bithynia, instructing the inhabi. tants in the faith of CHRIST, and continued his journey along the Euxine sea into the solitudes of Scythia.
St. Andrew afterwards arrived at Sinope, a city situated on the same sea, and famous both for the birth and burial of king Mithridates : here he met with his bro. ther Peter, and staid with him a considerable time at this place. The inhabitants of Sinope were mostly Jews, who partly from a zeal for their religion, and partly from their barbarous manner, were exasperated against St. Andrew, and entered into a confederacy to burn the house in which he lodged: but being disappointed in this design, they treated him with the most savage cruelty, throwing him on the ground, stamping upon him with their feet, pulling and dragging him from place to place: some beating him with clubs, some pelting him with stones, and others to satisfy their brutal revenge, biting off his flesh with their teeth; till apprehending they had entirely deprived him of life, they cast him out into the fields : but he miraculously recovered, and returned publicly into the city ; by which and other miracles he wrought among them, he converted many from the error of their ways, and induced them to become disciples of the Son of God.
After departing from Sinope, he returned to Amynsus, passed from thence through Trapezius, and Neocæsarea to Samosata, where he silenced the accutest and wisest philosophers of that country; and, having spent some time there in preaching the glad tidings of the gospel
, he returned to Jerusalem : but he did not continue long in his native country, returning again to the province allotted him for the exercise of his ministry, travelling first into the country of the Abasgi, and had great success in the gospel to the inhabitants of the city of Sebastople, situated on the eastern shore of the Euxine sea, between the rivers Phasis, and Absarus; from thence he removed into the country of the Zecchi, and
the Bosphoroni ; but finding the people remarkably barbarous aud intractable, he did not stay long amongst them, except at Cherson, a large and populous city within the Bosphorus, where he had great success in his ministry ; and therefore continued some time with the new converts to instruct and confirm them in the faith. From this city he passed to Sinope, the royal seat of Mithridates to encourage and confirm the churches he had planted in those parts; and here he ordained Philologos, formerly one of St. Paul's disciples, bishop thereof.
St. Andrew, after leaving Sinope, came to Byzantiumí, since called Constantinople, where he instructed the inhabitants in the Christian religion, founded a church for divine worship, and ordained Stachys, first bishop of that place: but being banished from the city, he fled to 'Argyropolis, where he preacheủ the gospel for two years together with remarkable success, converting great numbers to the Christian faith. He next travelled over Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Achaia, and Epirus, preaching the gospel, propagating Christianity, and confirming the doctrine he had taught with signs and miracles. At last he came to Petrea, a city of Achaia, where he gave his last and greatest testimony to the gospel of his divine Master; we mean he scaled it with his blood, and received the crown of martyrdom by the following means.
Ægeas, who was proconsul of Achaia, came at this time to Patrea where observing that multitudes had abandoned the heathen religion, and embraced Christianity he had recourse to every method both of favour and cruelty, to reduce the people to their old idolatry. The apostle, whom no difficulties or dangers could de. ter from performing tlre duties of his ministry, addressed the proconsul, and calmly put him in mind, that being only a judge of men, he ought to revere him who was the supreme and impartial Judge of all, pay him the divine honours due to his exalted Majesty, and
abandon the impieties of his idolatrous worship. The proconsul, instead of assenting to these arguments of the apostle, ridiculed him as an innovator in religion, and a propagator of that superstition, whose author the Jews had put to the infamous death on the cross. On his mentioning the cross, our apostle took the opportunity of representing to him the infinite love and kindness of our great Redeemer; who came down from heaven to purchase the salvation of mankind; and to obtain it, did not disdain to die upon the cross.
. consul answered, that he might hope to persuade the credulous multitude of the truth of what he said ; but, for his part, he would not listen to'such a legendary tale; and if he did not comply with him in doing sacrifice to the gods, he would cause him to suffer upon that cross he so highly magnified. St. Andrew replied, that he sacrificed every day to God, the only true and omniptent being, not with fumes and bloody offering, but, in the sacrifice of the immaculate Lamb of God. This answer provoked the proconsul, and he committed the apostle to prison; which so exasperated the people, that a mutiny would have ensued, had not St. Andrew appeased them, persuading them to imitate the mild. ness and patience of the meek and humble Jesus, and not hinder him from receiving the crown of martyrdom, which he was now going to receive.
He was brought again the next day before the proconsul, who persuaded him not foolishly to throw away his life, but preserve it, and enjoy the pleasures of the world. The apostle told him, that if he would renounce his idolatries and heartily embrace the Christian faith, he should, with him and the members who had believed in the Son of God receive eternal happiness in the Messiah's kingdom. The proconsui answered, that he himself should never embrace the religion he mentioned; and that the only reason why he was so earnest with him to sacrifice to the gods, was that those whom he had every where seduced, might, by his example, be brought back to the ancient religion they had forsaker
To which the apostle replied, that he saw it was in vain to endeavour to persuade a person incapable of sober counsels, and hardened in his own blindness and folly; that with regard to himself, he might act as he pleased, and if he had any torment greater than another, he might heap that upon him; as the greater constancy he shewed in his sufferings for Christ, the more acceptable he should be to his Lord and Master. Ægeas, upon this, immediately passed sentence of death upon him, not being able to restrain his rage any longer.
The proconsul first ordered St. Andrew to be scourgs ed, seven lictors successively whipping his naked body; and, seeing his invincible patience and constancy, commanded him to be crucified; but to be fastened to the cross with cords instead of nails, that his death might be more lingering and tedious. As he was led to the place of execution, walking with a cheerful and composed mind, the people cried out that a good and innocent man was unjustly condemned to die. On his coming near the cross, he saluted it in the following manner: I have long desired and expected this happy hour. The cross has been consecrated by the body of Christ hanging on it, and adorned with his members as with so many inestimable jewels: I therefore come joyfully and triumphing to it, that it may receive ine as a disciple and follower of him who once hung upon it, and be the means of carrying me safe to my Master, being the instrument on which he redeemed me and all his people from everlasting misery."
Having offered up his prayers to the throne of grace, and exhorted the people to constancy and perseverance in the religion he had delivered to them, he was fastened to the cross, on which he hung two whole days, teaching and instructing the people. In the mean time, great interest was made to the proconsul to spare his life; but the apostle earnestly begged of the Almighty, that he might now depart, and seal the
truth of his religion with his blood. His prayers were heard, and he immediately expired on the last day of November, but in what year is not recorded by historians.
The cross on which he suffered, appears to have something peculiar in the form of it, and is commonly thought to have been a cross decussate, or two pieces of timber crossing each other in the form of the letter X, hence usually known by the name of St. Andrew's cross; though some affirm that he suffered death on an Olive-tree, and not on a cross.
After his body was taken from the cross, it was decently and honourably interred by Maxamilla, a lady of great quality and estate, and who, Nicephorus tells us, was wife to the proconsul. Constantine the Great afterwards removed his body to Constantinople, and buried it in the great church he had built to the honour of the apostles: but this structure being taken down some hundred of years after, in order to rebuild it, by Justinian the emperor, the body of St. Andrew was found in a wooden coffin, and again deposited in the place where it was at first interred.
We have the following encomiastic character of St. Andrew, from Hesychius, Presbyter of Jerusalem, with which we shall conclude this account of his life. “ St. Andrew was the first-born of the apostolic choir, the principal and first pillar of the church, a rock, before the rock, the foundation of that foundation, the first fruits of the beginning, a caller before he was called himself; he preached that gospel which was not vet revealed or entertained; he revealed and made known that life to his brother, which he had not yet perfectly learned himself: so great treasures did that one question bring him, Master, where droellest thou? which he soon perceived by the answer, Come and see. How art thou become a prophet? whence thus divinely skilful? what is it that thou soundest in Peter's ears.