« הקודםהמשך »
or so artful, that they become her; and those affectations which in another woman would be odious, serye but to make her more agreeable. I'll tell thee, Fainall, she once us'd me with that insolence, that in revenge I took her to pieces, fifted her, and separated her failings; I study'd 'em, and got 'em by rote. The catalogue was so large, that I was not without hopes, one day or other, to hate her heartily: to which end I so us’d myself to think of 'em, that at length, contrary to my design and expectation, they gave me every hour less and less disturbance; till in a few days, it became habitual to me to remember 'em without being displeased. They are now grown as familiar to me as my own frailties ; and in all probability, in a little time longer, I shall like 'em as well.
The way of the world, AEt 1. Sc. 3.
Awalk upon the quarter-deck, though intolerably confined, becomes however so agreeable by cus tom, that a sailor in his walk on shore, confines himself commonly within the same bounds. I knew a man who had relinquished the sea for a country life: in the corner of his garden he reared an artificial mount with a level summit, resembling most accurately a quarter-deck, not only in shape but in size ; and here he generally walked. In Minorca Governor Kane made an excellent road the whole length of the island; and yet the inhabitants adhere to the old road, though not only longer but extremely bad *. Сс2
* Custom is a second nature. Formerly, the merchants of Bristol had no place for meeting but the street, open
Play or gaming, at first barely amusing by the occapation it affords, becomes in time extremely agreeable; and is frequently profecuted with avidity, as if it were the chief business of life. The same observation is applicable to the pleafures of the internal senses, those of knowledge and virtue in particular : children have scarce any sense of these pleasures; and men very little who are in the state of nature without culture : our taste for virtue and knowledge ,improves slowly; but is capable of growing stronger than any other appetite in human nature.
To introduce an active habit, frequency of acts is not sufficient without length of time: the quickest succession of acts in a short time, is not sufficient; nor a slow succession in the longest time. The effect must be produced by a moderate soft action, and a long series of easy touches, removed from each other by short intervals. Nor are these fufficient without regularity in the time, place, and other circumstances of the action : the more uniform any operation is, the sooner it becomes habitual. And this holds equally in a passive habit; variety in any remarkable degree, prevents the effect : thus any para ticular food will scarce ever become habitual,
to every variety of weather. An exchange was erected for them with convenient piazzas. But so rivetted were they to their accustomed place, that in order to dislodge them, the magistrates were forced to break up the pavement, and to render the place a heap of rough stones.
where the manner of dressing is varied. The circumstances then requisite to augment a moderate pleasure, and at the long run to form a habit, are weak uniform acts, reiterated during a long course of time without any considerable interruption : every agreeable cause that ope. rates in this manner, will grow habitual.
Affection and averfion, as distinguished from passion on the one hand, and on the other from original disposition, are in reality habits respecting particular objects, acquired in the manner above set forth. The pleasure of social intercourse with any person, must originally be faint, and frequently reiterated, in order to establish the habit of affection. Affection thus generated, whether it be friendship or love, seldom swells into any tumultuous or vigorous paflion ; but is however the strongest cement that can bind together two individuals of the human species. In like manner, a flight degree of disgust often reiterated with regularity, grows into the habit of aversion, which commonly subfifts for life.
Objects of taste that are delicious, far from tending to become habitual, are apt, by indulgence, to produce satiety and disgust: no man contracts a habit of sugar, honey, or sweetmeats, as he doth of tobacco : Dulcia non ferimus ; fucco renovamur amaro.
Ovid. art. amand. 1. 3:
Aminta di Tasso
Tzele vicleat delights have violent ends,
Romeo and Juliet, da 11. Sc. 6. Thesame cbservation holds with respect to allobjects that being extremely agreeable raise violent pailions : such passions are incompatible with a habit of any sort; and in particular they never produce anedion nor aversion : a man who at first fight falls violently in love, has a strong defire of enjoyment, but no affection for the woman*: a
• Violeor love without aifeaion is finely exemplified in the following story. When Constantinople was taken by the Turks, Irene, a young Greek of an illustrious family, fell into the hands of Mabomet II, who was at that time in the prime of youth and glory. His lavage heart be. ing subdued by her charms, he but himself up with her, denying access eren to his ministers: Love obtained fucb afceаdant, as to make him frequently abandon the army, and fy to his Irene. War relased, for victory was no longer the monarch's favourite passion. The soldiers, accutomed to booty, began to murmur; and the infectien spread even among the commanders. The Batha Mustapha, confalting the fidelity he owed his master, was the firit who durft acquaint him of the discourses held publicly to the prejudice of his glory.
The Sultan, after a gloomy tileoce, formed his resolu. tion. He ordered Muftapha to asemble the troops next
man who is surprised with an unexpected favour, burns for an opportunity to exert his gratitude, without having any affection for his benefactor : neither does delire of vengeance for an atrocious injury, involve aversion.
It is perhaps not easy to say why moderate pleasures gather strength by custom : but two causes concur to prevent that effect in the more intense pleasures. These, by an original law in our nature, increase quickly to their full growth, and decay with no less precipitation *; and cusCc4
morning; and then with precipitation retired to Irene's apartment. Never before did that princess appear so charming ; never before did the prince bestow so many warm careiles. To give a new luftre to her beauty, he exhorted her women, next morning, to bestow their utmost art and care on her dress. He took her by the hand, led her into the middle of the army, and pulling off her vail, demanded of the Bashas with a fierce look, whether they had ever beheld such a beauty? After an awful pause, Mahomet, with one hand laying hold of the young Greek by her beautiful locks, and with the other pulling out his scimitar, severed the head from the body at one stroke. Then turning to his grandees, with eyes wild and furious, “ This sword,” said he, “ when it is my will, “ knows to cut the bands of love." However strange it may appear, we learn from experience, that desire of enjoyment, may consist with the most brutal aversion, directed both to the same woman. Of this we have a no. ted example in the first book of Sully's Memoirs; to which I choose to refer the reader; for it is too gross to be transcribed.
* See Chap. 2. Part 3,