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Love and jealousy connected by a common object, occupy the mind alternately: when the object is considered as beautiful, love prevails ; when considered as poflibly unfaithful, jealousy prevails. A situation of that kind affords great scope for fluctuation of passion; which is painted to the life by several masterly hands in words as well as in colours. Shakespeare handles the same subject, but in a manner uncommon, and peculiar to himself: in Othello's soliloquy before putting his wife to death, love and jealousy are represented, each exerting its whole force, but without any struggle: Othello was naturally infexible; and the tenderest love could not divert him from a purpose he approved as right, not even for a moment: but every thing consistent with such a character is done to reconcile the two opposite passions; he is resolved to put her to death, but he will not shed her blood, nor so much as ruffle her skin:
Othello. It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul ;-
[Lays down the sword.
Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature,
A&t. v. Sc.6.
In Otway's Orphan, we have an illustrious example of the address employed to gratify oppo. site passions directed to the same object. Caftalio and Polydore, brothers and rivals, had sworn mutual confidence : Castalio broke his faith by a private marriage ; which unwarily betrayed Polydore into a dismal deed, that of polluting his brother's bed. Thus he had injured his brother, and was injured by him: justice prompted him to make full atonement by his own death; resentment against his brother, required a full atonement to be made to himself. In coexistent passions so contradictory, one of them commonly prevails after a struggle : but here happily an expedient occurred to Polydore for gratifying both; which was, that he should proK 3
voke his brother to put him to death. Polydore's crime, in his own opinion, merited that punishment; and justice was satisfied when he fell by the hand of the man he had injured: he wanted at the same time to punish his brother for breach of faith ; and he could not punish more effectually than by betraying his brother to be his executioner.
' If difference of aim prevent the union of two passions, though having the same object; much more will it prevent their union, when their objects are also different: in both cases there is a fluctuation ; but in the latter the fluctuation is flower than in the former. A beautiful situation of that kind is exhibited in the Cid of Corneille. Don Diegue, an old soldier worn out with age, having received a mortal affront from the Count, father to Chimene, employs his son Don Rodrigue, Chimene's lover, to demand satisfaction. This situation occasions in the breast of Don Rodrigue a cruel struggle between love and honour, one of which must be sacrificed. The scene is finely conducted, chiefly by making love in some degree take part with honour, Don Rodrigue reflecting, that if he lost his honour he could not def rve his mistress : honour triumphs; and the Count provoked to a single combat, falls by the hand of Don Ro. drigue.
This produceth another beautiful situation respecting Chimene, which making part of the
fame story, is placed here, though it properly belongs to the foregoing head. It became the duty of that lady to demand justice against her lover, for whose preservation, in other circumstances, she chearfully would have sacrificed her own life. The struggle between these opposite passions directed to the same object is finely expressed in the third scene of the third act :
Elvire. Il vous prive d'un pére, et vous l'aimez
encore ! Chimene. C'st peu de dire aimer, Elvire, je l'adore ; Ma passion s'oppose à mon resentiment, Dedans mon ennemi je trouve mon amant, Et je sens qu'en depit de toute ma colere, Rodrigue dans mon cæur combat encore mon pére. Il l'attaque, il le preffe, il céde, il se défend, Tantôt fort, tantôt foible, et tantôt triomphant ; Mais en ce dur combat de colére et de flame, Il déchire mon cæur sans partager mon ame, Et quoique mon amour ait sur inoi de pouvoir, Je ne consulte point pour suivre mon devoir. Je cours sans balancer où mon honneur m'oblige; Rodrigue m'est bien cher, son interêt m’afflige, Mon cæur prend son parti; mais malgré son effort, Je fai que je suis, et que mon pére est mort.
Not less when the objects are different than when the same, are means sometimes afforded to gra, tify both passions; and such means are greedily embraced. In Tasso's Gerusalemme, Edward and Gildippe, husband and wife, are introduced fighting gallantly against the Saracens : Gildippe reK 4
ceives ceives a mortal wound by the hand of Soliman : Edward inflamed with revenge, as well as concern for Gildippe, is agitated between the two different objects. The poet * describes him endeavouring to gratify both at once, applying his right hand against Soliman, the object of his resentment, and his left hand to support his wife, the object of his love.
INFLUENCE OF PASSION WITH RESPECT TO OUR
PERCEPTIONS, OPINIONS, AND BELIEF.
C ONSIDERING how intimately our percep
utions, passions, and actions are mutually connected, it would be wonderful if they should have no mutual influence. That our actions are too much influenced by passion, is a known truth; but it is not less certain, though not so well known, that passion hath also an influence upon our perceptions, opinions, and belief, For example, the opinions we form of men and things, are generally directed by affection : an advice given by a man of figure, hath great weight; the same advice from one in a low condition is despised or neglected :' a man of cou
* Canto 20. It. 97.