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gospel, and those types of 'the Old Testament. And as it is so plain by the Old Testament, that the ancient state of things amongst ibe Jews was all typical of the Messiah ; and the Jews themselves acknowledge it. So it is a great argument, that Jesus and his kingdom were the end and antitype of these things, because presently after he comes and sets up his kingdom, God puts a total and final end to that typical state of the Jews, and all things appertaining to it, blots out all those types at once, and wipes them clean away, and poured the utmost contempt upon them, and corered them with the most dreadful darkness, and utterly destroyed, as by one great fatal and final blow, that whole typical world, and has now continued their abolition for so many ages, much longer than he did their existence, and has followed all that reject the antitype, and will cleave to the types, with so awful and continual a curse, and all this agreeably to the prophecies of what God would do, when the Messiah, this great antitype, was come.
That typical representations were looked upon by God, as no trilling matters, but things of great IMPORTANCE, as is manifest in that it is spoken of in scripture as a matter of such importance, that Christ's body should not see corruption, before it was raised.
It was common for NAMES to be given by a spirit of prophecy. (See Owen on Heb. vii. 2, p. 112.)
We have reason to suppose, that very many things in the Old Testament are intended as types, seeing it is manisest in some instances, that so very minute circumstances were so ordered, such as the negative circumstances of the story of Melchizedeck, there being po mention made of his father or mother, of his birth or death.
That all things, even to the least circumstance, pescribed by God about the tabernacle, and its services, were types of heavenly things, appears by the Apostle's manner of arguing, (Heb. viii. 5,) from those words of God to Moses, “ See that thou make all things according to the pattern showed to thee in the Mount.” And if they were all types, they were all for our instruction, and if they were for our instruction, then we must endeavour to understand them, even those of them that are no where explained in scripture.
Heb. ix. 3–5. The Apostle there mentioning the ark, mercy seat, tables of the covenant, the golden censer, pot of manna, Aaron's rod that budded, concludes thus, “ or which I cannot now "speak particularly;" i. e, I cannot now explain particularly the design of those things, and tell you particularly what evangelical and heavenly things were represented thereby; which proves evidently, that many things in the tabernacle were typical, and intended to represent to God's people evangelical things, which signification is not explained to us in scripture.
The Jews of old seemed to look on the redemption from Egypt as a type of the redemption which should be accomplished by the Messiah. (See Pool's Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14.)
It is an evidence that legal uncleanness was a type of sin, that it is in effect called sin. (See Pool's Synopsis on Lev. xii. 8.)
That the temporal things of the Old Testament were types of the spiritual ihings of the New. (See Pool's Synopsis on 2 Sam. ii. 10.)
An OBJECTION is raised from the abuse that will be made of this doctrine of types. Answer. I do not know that the types of scripture are more abused by people that are enthusiastic and of teeming
imagination, than the visionary representations of the book of Revelation; and yet none make that an objection against all attempts to understand and interpret that book. We have as good warrant from the word of God to suppose the whole ceremonial law to be given in order to a figurative representing and signifying spiritual and evangelical things to mankind, as we have to suppose that prophetical representations are to represent and signify the events designed by them, and therefore have as good reason toʻ endeavour to interpret them.
The principles of human nature render TYPES a fit method of instruction. It tends to enlighten and illustrate, and to convey instruction with impression, conviction, and pleasure, and to help the memory. These things are confirmed by man's natural delight in the imitative arts, in painting, poetry, fables, metaphorical language, and dramatic performances. This disposition appears early in children.
This may be observed concerning types in general, that not only the things of the Old Testament are typical; for this is but one part of the typical world. The system of created beings may be divided into two parts, the typical world, and the antitypical world. The inferior and carnal, i. e. the more external and transitory part of the universe, that part of it which is inchoative, imperfect, and subservient, is typical of the superior, more spiritual, perfect, and durable part of it which is the end, and as it were the substance and consummation of the other. Thus the material and natural world is typical of the moral, spiritual, and intelligent world, or the city of God. And many things in the world of mankind, as to their external and worldly state, are typical of things pertaining to the city and kingdom of God: as many things in the state of the ancient Greeks, and Romans, &c. And those things belonging to the city of God, which belong to its more imperfect, carnal, inchoative, transient, and preparatory
state, are typical of those things which belong to its more spiritual, perfect, and durable state; as things belonging to the state of the church under the Old Testament were typical of things belonging to the church and kingdom of God under the New Testament. The external works of Christ were typical of his spiritual works. The ordinances of the external worship of the Christian church are typical of things belonging to its heavenly state.
The manner of the apostle's expressing himself in Gal. iv. 21, 22, will clearly prove that Abraham's two sons, and their mothers, and mount Sinai, and mount Sion, were intended to be types of those things he mentions; which is a great confirmation that the history of the Old Testament in general is intended to be typical of spiritual things. The apostle's manner of speaking seems to imply, that it might well be expected of God, that his people should understand such like things as representations of divine things, and receive particular instruction exhibited in them, even before they are particularly explained to them by God by a new revelation.