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that expiation for sin that consumes transgression and makes an end of sins, and brings into a state of perpetual righteousness, so as to make all further sacrifices, or attempts, and means, and representations of atonement to cease, and should abolish them as now needless, that is undoubtedly a proper atonement for sin.

Again, it is not only manifest by the Old Testament that the sacrifice of the Messiah is a true real atonement, but that it is the only true and real atonement for sin. For the Old Testament speaks of no other sorts of sacrifices of expiation for sin but those two, viz., the ancient legal sacrifices of beasts, and the sacrifice of the Messiah. What the prophecies sometimes say of sacrifices that should be offered by God's people, after the Messiah's ascension, must be understood figuratively; because it is expressly foretold, that the Messiah by his sacrifice should cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease. And besides, as I observed before, the Messiah's making expiation for sin, is prophecied of as a new thing; and as it is foretold as a new thing, or the first thing of that nature, so it is also prophecied of as the last thing of that nature, as is implied in those expressions of his making an end of sin, finishing the transgression, and making the sacrifice and oblation to cease. And these two things put together, imply that this is the only truly expiatory sacrifice. See also Zech. iii. 8, 9. And then, that this is the only sacrifice by which the sins of God's people are atoned, and that never any one is forgiven and accepted on account of any other atonement, is implied in Isai. liii. 6. All we like sheep have gone astray: we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.”

Another thing that is very manifest, is, that the legal sacrifices had a manifold resemblance and representation of that great, true, and proper sacrifice that the prophecies foretold that the Messiah should offer. Thus those beasts that were offered were without blemish, as the prophecies represent the Messiah to be, Isai. liii., and other places. These sacrifices were not of unclean but clean beasts, therein representing that spiritual purity that the prophecies speak of in the Messiah. A very great part of those sacrifices were of lambs, as the paschal lamh, Exod. xxix. 39; and very many other of their sacrifices, which had a resemblance of what the prophecies represent of the feebleness, innocence, meekness, and gentleness of the Messiah. Most of the sacrifices were males, as the Messiah is represented as of the male sex. They were offered by a priest in white robes, representing the purity and holiness of the Messiah; who, when spoken of, Dan. ix., as the great priest that should offer that atonement that should make an end of sin, is called “the Most Holy.” “ Seventy weeks are determined to make reconciliation for iniquity-and to anoint the Most Holy.” The priests were anointed : herein there was a resemblance between them and the great Messiah, or anointed. The sacrifices suffered as the Messiah, the great sacrifice, is represented to suffer. The sacrifices suffered death, and a violent death, as the Messiah suffered death-the sacrifices were burnt by fire from beaven; as the prophecies represent the Messiah as suffering from the inmediate band of God. In most of the sacrifices, their inward parts were to be burnt on the altar, that are abundantly made use of in the Old Testament to represent the soul; which is agreeable to what the prophecies represent of the Messiah's making his soul an offering for sin. The fat of the juwards of the sacrifices was melted, and consumed, and burnt up in the fire ; which is agreeable to Ps. xxii, 14, 15. “I am poured out like water-my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels; my strength is dried up like a potsherd;" and Ps. cii. 4. " My heart is smitten and withered like grass ;” and Isai. liii. 12. “ He hath poured out my soul unto death." There was the resemblance of the substitution of the sacrificed beast in suffering for the sinner, as the prophecies represent concerning the Messiah. There was an appearance of laying the iniquities of those for whom the sacrifices was offered, on the animal sacrificed, especially on some of the sacrifices on the head of which the hands of those for whom they were offered were laid, that they might lay their sins upon thein. This is agreeable to Isai. liii. 6. “ 'The Lord bath laid on him the iniquity of us all.” The scapegoat is represented as bearing the sins of those for whom he was offered into the wilderness; which is agreeable to Isai. liii. 4.

Surely he hath borne our griefs, he hath carried our sorrows." The Messiah is expressly spoken of as being like a lamb, in his being slain, and offered as a sacrifice for sin, Isai. liii. The high priest made intercession for the people with the blood of the sacrifices, agreeably to Isai. liii. 12.

Beside all that has been already observed, this further is manifest, viz., that they are by God called an atonement, and are said to be an atonement, times without uumber. (See the Concordance under the word Atonement.) Seeing therefore, that the legal sacrifices are declared expressly and abundantly to be no real atonement, but have evidently a great resemblance of the true atonement, and are plainly representations of it, and are abundantly spoken of by him that instituted them, as being an atonement, and as instituted by him that they migbt be an atonement; it is very apparent, that they were appointed figures and representations of the true atonement. For there are but these two ways of any thing's being consistently with truth said to be such a thing, by the name of which it is called, viz., either its being that thing truly and properly, or figuratively and by representation.

Either it must be that thing that it is said to be in reality, or by representation of the reality, or not at all. We have often in the law of Moses this expression used with regard to the sacrifices, The priest shall make an atonement for him. Now one of these two meanings must be put upon the words, either that he shall make a real proper atonement, or that he shall make an atonement figuratively or significantly. It is either a true atonement or a seeming atonement: otherwise it could not be ap atonement in any sense, nor would it be so called by God. 10 there be such a thing as a real atonement for sin, and the legal sacrifices be not a real atonement for sin, yet are appointed and accepted as an atonement, then they are appointed and accepted instead of an atonement, for that is the same thing. So that it is evident, that God appointed the legal sacrifices to stand in stead of, or to represent the real atonement. If a man be appointed to stand for another that is absent, and be accepted for an absent friend, then he is his representative. When the prophet called the arrow that the king of Israel shot out of his window, the arrow of the Lord's deliverance, nothing else could be meant, but that it was a sign of the arrow of the Lord's deliverance. So when the man that interpreted his fellow's dream, said of the barley cake, “this is the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash;" he could mean nothing else, but that this signified the sword of Gideon. So when Joseph said “The seven lean kine are seven years of famine.” And so in innumerable other instances that might be mentioned. It is evident from what has been already observed, that here are certain resemblances avd shadows of sacrifices, and substitutions in suffering for sinners, and atonements for sin : and it is manifest that it was out of regard to this resemblance there was in the shadow of the atonement, that the shadow was appointed. God himself has decided it by calling the shadow by the name of the substance, and by declaring that he appointed the shadow, that it might be for the substance, which he has done io declaring that he appointed it, that it might be for an alonement, i. e. instead of the real atonement, which is the substance.

These shadows of atonement are not merely called by the name of an atonement, but they are spoken of from time to time as being an atonement, and are said to be appointed, that they might be an atonement. Now what other way there is of being an atoneinent, but either being so really, or being so in figure, and significance, I know not.

The incense appointed in the law had a sweet smell, and was acceptable to the senses, and so bad a shadow of that which was acceptable to God and a sweet savour to him. And seeing that it is expressly declared by God in the law, that he appoints this incense for a sweet savour to him, this demonstrates that God

in the appoiutment has respect to that resemblance, that it is appointed to be a standing representation of a true sweet savour to him. Sweet smell is appointed, because it resembles what is truly acceptable to God. When external whiteness and purity, that is a shadow of true purity in the sight of God, is called by the name of true purity; and is declared to be appointed that it might be for purity in the sight of God; this demonstrates that it is appointed to be a standing representation of true purity. So, likewise when the shadows of sufferings for sinners, and atonements for sin are called by the name of real sufferings for sinners, and atonements for sin, and are said from time to time, to be atonements for sin, and to be appointed that they might be for atonements for sin : it demonstrates clearly, that these shadows of atonement are appointed out of respect to the resemblance they have to the real atonement, and that they might be instead of it, and standing representations of it; or which is the same thiog that they might be types of it. God appointed the suffering of the creature, rather than the feeding or fatting of it, for the making atonement, because the suffering of the creature has a greater resemblance of that suffering that makes a real atonement for sin. God in thus calling these shadows from time to time by the name of the things resembled, and speaking of them from time to time as being the things resembled, does thereio plainly put them in their stead, and does make use of them as representations of them; as if any should on design call one by another's name, that was not his own name, and ordinarily speak of him and treat him as being that other, this would be the same thing as to substitute him for the other, and to make use of him as the other's representative.

It is an argument that the sacrifices were types of the Messiah, that when Manoah offered sacrifice by God's appointment, he that is called the “angel of the Lord,” and who was the Lord, ascended in the flame of the sacrifice, Judg. xiji. 20. And so did, as it were, offer up himself in the fame of the sacrifice, intimating that he was the great sacrifice, that was the antitype of those sacrifices of beasts. The beasts that were sacrificed to God, ascended up in the flame before God for a sweet

So the matter is represented in the Old Testament. But here we see, that when the sacrifice was ascending in the flame, the angel of the Lord ascends in the same, to show that that was the end of the sacrificing fire, viz., to cause him to ascend as a sweet savour unto God.

Again there is clear proof, that the legal sacrifices were types of the great sacrifice of the Messiah in Dan. ix. 24. “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the

savour.

Most Holy;' taken together with ver. 27. “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week, and in the midst of the week shall he cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease." What is translated in ver. 24, “And to make an end of sins," might have been translated, “ He shall seal up the sin offerings." The word translated sins in the original is Chattaoth, the very same word that is made use of in the law of Moses, to signify sin-offerings. So that the word might as well be translated sin-offerings here as there. And it is the more likely, that sin-offerings should be meant here, because the word is in the plural number; whereas if what was intended was the same with iniquity in the clause preceding, and transgression in the clause following, thus varying the expression for eloquence sake, it would be more likely this word would have been in the singular number as those are. And besides, it is the more likely that the word signifies sin-offerings, because it is evident that this text is a prophecy of the sacrifice that the Messiah should offer for sin. In the next words it is said, “He shall make reconciliation for iniquity.” The word rendered reconciliation (as has been already observed) signifies expiation by sacrifice; it being the same that is so often rendered atonement in the law of Moses, when speaking of sacrifices for sin. But what argues yet more strongly that this should have been translated, he shall make an end, or seal up, sin-offerings, is, that in the 24th verse there seems to be a reference to what had been said before in this verse, when it is said, In the midst of the week, or in the half of the week, he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease. In the 24th verse it had been said, that the sacrifices or sin-offerings should be made an end of or sealed up in seventy weeks; and the 25th 26th and 27th verses are evidently exegetical of that 24th, to explain how the anointed Holy One or Messiah should make atonement for iniquity, and seal up the sin-offering and sacrifices in seventy weeks, viz., from the commandment to build Jerusalem there should be seven weeks and threescore and two weeks, that is 69 weeks, and then in the remaining week he should establish the covenant with many, and in the half of the week he should make the sacrifice and oblation to cease, or make an end of the sin-offerings, as was said before. Now let us mind the expression; the word translated make an end, in the original is he shall seal up. “He shall seal up the sin-offerings.” It is the very same word that is used in the following clause concerning vision and prophecy. “He shall seal up the vision and prophecy.” The same word being thus used twice in like manner, in different clauses of the same sentence, once concerning the vision and prophecy, and the other time concerning the sin-offering, there is all reason to understand it in both places in the same sense. But the plain meaning of that clause, to seal up the vision

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