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' law to the Jews, and Christ not to have died for 'the sins of mankind; the legal sacrifices would have had no atoning power with respect to moral
guilt. The efficacy of all propitiation for sin is “ derived from the merits and sufferings of Christ.'!
The concluding sentence is precisely what I would abide by, on this subject. But the law of Moses was given with direct reference to Christ and his propitiation. “For Christ is the end of the “ law for righteousness to every one that be“ lieveth."? When, in the eye of faith,' the legal sacrifices were connected with that more precious
blood-shedding,' the ancient worshippers, through these' means of grace,' received the blessing of Abraham ; they were “justified by faith.” But, after Christ had come, and offered his all-sufficient atonement, they who rejected him, and cleaved to the legal sacrifices, were, without exception, excluded from the benefit : “ The wrath of God “abode apon them.” It is in this view that St. Paul speaks respecting them in his epistles. The ceremonial law was now become as a cancelled deed or bond : its institutions were no longer sacramental prefigurations of good things to
come;' and they were no longer to any of the worshippers' means of grace,' or accepted acts of worship. 3
6“ The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of all :" “ Who his own self bare our sins in his
Note, Ref. 109.
3 Gal. iv. 9, 10. v. 1-3. Eph. ii. 15. Col. ii. 16, 17. Heb. viii. 13. x. 26.
own body;" “ He was made sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righte
ousness of God in him ;" “ Of him are ye in • Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wis
dom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.” There is, as it were, a mutual transfer of the sins of men to Christ, and of * Christ's righteousness to men; so that God no * longer imputeth their trespasses unto them,” and 'he is “ the Justifier of him which believeth in * Jesus.” Christ, being himself “ without sin,” vo• luntarily underwent the punishment due to sin : ' and we enjoy the benefits of his righteousness ' and passion, in being “reconciled to God," and (made “ heirs of salvation.”'l
‘God gives us all these benefits of the new cove' nant as certainly for the sake of Christ and his
righteousness, as if we had satisfied him, and 'merited them ourselves; and thus far Christ's
righteousness is ours in its effects, and imputed * to us in that we are thus used for it, and shall • be judged accordingly.'?
These two quotations form, separately, and in connexion, an excellent statement of the doctrine, concerning the imputation of our sins to Christ, and of his righteousness to all true believers.
'It' has been observed, that justification is a forensic term. We are to suppose a moral agent • called before a competent tribunal, to answer • whether he has obeyed the laws which were pre
- Ref. 110, 111.
'scribed to him as the rule of his conduct: if upon • examination it shall appear that he has obeyed
the laws, he has a right to the sentence of justi'fication ; but if it shall appear that he has not
obeyed them, he is subject to the sentence of 'condemnation. Strictly speaking, reward is not included in the idea of justification.”
It has been remarked, that in human affairs justification and pardon never go together, nor can they possibly be conjoined in the same person : yet in the Lord's method of “ justifying the un
godly," " justifying the believer in Jesus," they are inseparable ; all who are forgiven are justified; and all who are justified are forgiven.2- Strictly
speaking, reward is not included in the idea of justification.'-All the credit, protection, and advantage, attached to a good citizen and loyal subject are the reward of justification, in human affairs; and all the honour and happiness, which God confers on those who enjoy his full and everlasting favour, are the reward connected with justification in the concerns of religion.
• This is what St. Paul means when he says, “ To him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt.” Uniform obedience being ‘ the duty of every man, a single transgression 'would destroy the right to justification ; and ““ in many things we offend all.” Since then justification is due to no one on the ground of works, or uniform obedience, to whomsoever justification is granted it must be an act of grace.
'Ref. 111, 112, Note 2. ? Acts xiii. 46, 47. Rom. iv. 4.-6. v. 16.
It rested with God to declare upon what condi‘tion he would grant this act of grace, and we * have seen that it pleased him to appoint faith in
Christ as this condition ; and, therefore, as ‘St. Paul says in the next verse, “ To him that 'worketh not,” (that is, who has not by his works
obeyed the law under which he formerly lived,) <“but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness ;” and soon
“ Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace.”').
This passage concedes a great deal in the argument concerning justification.
* after he says,
• Faith then stands in the place of righteousness, * or uniform obedience : and through the mercy
of God obtains for the transgressor that justifica' tion as an act of grace, which his own uniform
obedience, had it taken place, would have ob‘tained for him as a debt of justice, but which he 'could not claim, because he had not been uni'formly obedient.'2
According to this statement, faith itself may seem to constitute our righteousness, and is instead of uniform obedience. This is not, however, his Lordship's deliberate sentiment. The spring of
it, mercy; the meritorious cause, the merits and ‘atonement of Christ; the condition of it, faith ‘on our part.'3 Christ's righteousness transferred 'to us, and made ours in its effects,' (according to quotations made in the preceding pages,) 'stands
! Ref. 112.
? Ref. 112, 113.
3 Ref. 147, 148.
' in the place of our righteousness, or uniform 'obedience ;' and faith merely forms that relation to Christ, by which “we are made the righteous“ness of God in him."
A claim from works, and grace through faith, are incompatible. A man cannot obtain justifica* tion upon both grounds, works and grace.
“We find the same doctrine, as far at least as the condition of justification is concerned, clearly asserted in the epistle to the Galatians; “A man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ ; even we” (that is, even we Jews, who were born under another covenant " with God) “have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law; for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified."L"That no ‘man is justified by the law in the sight of God,
it is evident : for, The just shall live by faith : ' and the law is not of faith ; but, The nian that * doeth them shall live in them :"? meaning that 'the promises of the law are not made upon the condition of believing, but upon condition of doing. This doing must be undeviating obedience, for “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law ' to do them :"3 and, all having violated the law, ' no one can be justified by it. “ But the scrip* ture hath concluded all under sin, that the pro*mise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to * them that believe.” 4 The scripture hath pro
Gal. ii. 16.
· Gal. ii. 11, 12.
3 Gal. iii. 10.
Gal. ii. 22.