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· Christ doth justify us, and deserve our justifica

tion unto us ; for that were to count ourselves justified by some act or virtue that is within our

selves : But the true understanding and meaning ‘is, that, although we hear God's word and believe 'it, although we have faith, hope, charity, repen

tance, dread and fear of God within us, and do never so many works thereunto ; yet we must

renounce the merit of all our said virtues ... - and good deeds, which we either have done, shall

do, or can do, as things that be far too weak, ' and insufficient, and imperfect, to deserve remis‘sion of our sins and our justification. And there'fore we must trust only in God's mercy, and that “sacrifice, which our High Priest and Saviour Christ * Jesus, the Son of God, once offered for us upon ‘the cross, to obtain thereby God's grace and re‘mission, as well of our original sin in baptism, as of all actual sin committed by us after our baptism; if we truly repent and unfeignedly 'turn to him again.'_ Our faith in Christ (as it were,) saith unto us thus : It is not I that take away your sins, but it is Christ only; and to him 'only I send you for that purpose, forsaking therein ' all your good virtues, words, thoughts, and works, and only putting your trust in Christ.'

'Here you have heard the office of God in our ‘justification, and how we receive it of him freely, by his mercy, without our deserts, through true and lively faith. Now you shall hear the office ' and duty of a Christian man unto God; what we ought on our part to render unto God again for

| Hom. of Salvation, Part 2.

his great mercy and goodness.-Our office is, ‘not to' pass the time of this present life unfruit

fully or idly, after that we are baptized or justi'fied ;not caring how few good works we do, to *the glory of God, and the profit of our neigh

bours. - That faith, which bringeth forth (without repentance,) either evil works, or no good 'works, is not a right, pure, and lively faith, but

a dead, devilish, counterfeit, and feigned faith, as · St. Paul and St. James call it.' 2

We may now proceed to make some remarks, on passages in the Refutation, which likewise are introductory to the main subject.

Osiander relates twenty discordant opinions on `justification.' (Bellarmine.) Salmeron ascribes ' to the Lutherans twenty-two different opinions 'concerning justification.'3

Cardinal Bellarmine was one of the most bitter and able enemies to the Reformation, which the church of Rome ever produced ; and not very scrupulous about the weapons with which he fought the battles of that church. Osiander at first favoured and helped Luther; but at length he adopted and avowed new sentiments about justification, which after Luther's death he falsely ascribed to him. Being opposed by the steady friends of Luther's doctrine, he no doubt attempted to expose and vilify them and their opinions. I know nothing of Salmeron, and have not access to the book whence the quotation is made.--It is,

1

See preceding quotation.

? Ibid. Part 3 * Translation of note in Ref. 97. from Bellarmine and Cent. Magd.

however, certain, that at the era of the Reformation (as indeed at other times,) various discordant sentiments were maintained, and some of them extravagant and pernicious in no small degree : yet the Lutherans, properly so called, immediately after the Reformation, opposed one uniform doctrine against all these discordant sentiments; which doctrine is stated in all the professions of faith made during that age, with no material difference, by the several protestant and reformed churches. Nor were the Lutherans considered as answerable for the notions of those who sprang up, in that age of innovation,“ speaking perverse

things to draw away disciples after them,” by any but apostates and papists, and others “ who

spake evil of those things which they undero stood not."

* The application of this word (justification) in the New Testament is not confined to Christians. · St. Paul and St. James both speak of the justifi'cation of Abraham.'1

The example of Abraham, both as justified by faith, and“ as shewing his faith by his works,” is brought forward in the New Testament, as the grand exemplar and illustration of a Christian's justification, and of the fruits and effects of that faith which justifies. In respect of him it was first said, “ He believed in the Lord, and it was “ accounted to him for righteousness.” 3 In what sense he was not a Christian, and yet had a Christain faith, has been already shewn. ?

* Ref. 98.

* Rom. iv. 1-5, 9-25. Gal. iii. 6—29. Heb. vi. 13-18. xi. 8-17. Jam. ü. 22-25. 3 Gen. xv. 6.

* The former apostle says of the Jews, “Not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified."'?

The whole passage runs thus: “As many as « have sinned without law shall also perish without “ law; and as many as have sinned in the law « shall be judged by the law; for not the hearers “ of the law are just before God, but the doers of « the law shall be justified.” 3 Did the apostle mean to state, that any Jews had been actually justified as “ doers of the law?" or merely to shew, that without obedience, yea, complete obedience in all respects, justification could not be had by the law ? Thus our Lord said to the lawyer,

“ Thou hast answered right; this do and « thou shalt live." 4

Did the apostle intend to contradict what he elsewhere says? “ By the “ deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified in his “sight?” “ As many as are of the works of the “ law are under a curse: for it is written, Cursed “ is every one that continueth not in all things, “ which are written in the book of the law, to do “ them ?:"5 His object was to

His object was to prove both Jews " and gentiles to be all under sin," as introductory to his opening the doctrine of justification by grace, in Christ, and through faith in him ; and this forms the clue to his whole argument.

B. I. c. i. $ 3. On the approved characters who lived before Christ.

? Ref. 98. * Rom. i. 12, 13, • Luke x, 28, 29.

s Rom. iï. 20. Gal. ii. 16.

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Of the heathen he says, “ The scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen

through faith, preached before the gospel unto * Abraham.” : 1

The preceding verses are these : “ Abraham be“ lieved God, and it was accounted ? to him for

righteousness. Know ye, therefore, that they “ which are of faith, the same are the children of “ Abraham.” Then, after the words quoted by his Lordship, the apostle adds," saying, In thee “ shall all nations be blessed. So then they that < are of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham : for as many as are of the works of the law are “ under the curse.”3 God, who inspired the scripture, foresaw and predetermined, that the gentiles, under the gospel dispensation, should be admitted into the church, as justified in the same way as Abraham had been justified, namely, by faith in the divine Saviour, and as “made the righteous“ness of God in him." And a pre-intimation of this was given to Abraham, when it was said, “ In “ thee shall all nations be blessed.” As the apostle says afterwards, “That the blessing of Abraham “ might come on the gentiles through Jesus “ Christ.” And again, “ Ye are all one in Christ “Jesus : and, if ye be Christ's, then ye are Abra“ham's seed, and heirs according to the pro“ mise." 4 One single method of justification, first explicitly stated to Abraham, runs through the whole; and not different methods, as might from such detached quotations be concluded.

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Ref. 98.
3 Gal. iii. 6-10.

* xoyion, imputed.
* Gal. iii. 14, 28, 29.

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