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tion as undeniable; they at present call themselves Baptists, or Baptizers, as if none else baptized,-taking the other side of the question for granted : the more impartial name however is Antipædobaptists, or persons who are against infant-baptism. But even these do not suppose that baptism, at first rightly administered, should be repeated. On the other hand, they who consider all the impenitent, unbelieving, and ungodly, among baptized persons, as needing regeneration, are decidedly of opinion, that they never were regenerated ; so that they never think of a second regeneration.-Probably, Augustine meant merely baptismal regeneration.—That, which at this day, ' in the church, is generally called a sacrifice, is * the sign of the true sacrifice.'! The Lord's supper was here meant, which was called a sacrifice, as baptism was called regeneration. But, if it was a sign or representation of the true sacrifice, it was not the true sacrifice itself. ، If the sacraments “ had not a certain similitude of those things of 'which they are sacraments, they would be no

sacraments at all : now it is for the similitude or (resemblance that they often bear the names of 'the things themselves.' These quotations from this ancient father, which were overlooked by his Lordship, give the true reason, why baptism was called regeneration ; namely, because it was an outward sign of regeneration. But as the Lord's supper, being in this, perhaps at first well meant, but incautious, way called a sacrifice, soon was considered as a real propitiatory sacrifice for the

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Ibid.

Augustine. VOL. VII.

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"sins of the living and of the dead:' so, baptism, in the same way, having been called regeneration, being the outward sign of regeneration, soon became the only regeneration which was thought requisite, and is now by some protestant divines considered as such ; nay, by one as the only' re

generation possible in this world !’1 Thus men have substituted the sacrifice of the mass for the propitiation of Christ, as crucified for us; and the outward administration of baptism, the mere opus operatum, for the regeneration of the Holy Spirit. In both, the priests were highly gratified, by the dignity thus conferred upon them. Their words could convert the wafer into a true object of religious adoration, even Christ,“ God manifest in “the flesh ;” and their actions could make atonement for the sins of the living and the dead; and change at once “the children of wrath,” and “ of “ the devil," into children of God, and heirs of heaven. The people also “ loved to have it so :' because some external forms, with a moderate expense, according to their circumstances, saved them all trouble and uneasiness about other things in religion; and left them, with quiet stupid consciences, to live according to the course of the world, and the lusts of their own hearts.

I conclude this part of the present publication with one more quotation from a work lately published, to which I have already referred.— I take my

stand in this entire argument, as pleading the cause of holiness and practical religion against an error which threatens the subversion of both.

Mant's Tracts, page 32.

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'I contend, if not against“ a faith without works,” yet against a regeneration without effects. Very seldom, I fear, is the regeneration, of which we now hear so much, seen to exert any salutary 'influence on the heart and life: but, whether it * do or not, men, it seems, are to be taught great * practical reliance on it. Yet what can be more

gross antinomianism, than to rely upon a religious distinction which is unaccompanied with 'the purification of the heart and conduct?'

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Inquiry into the Effect of Baptism, by the Rev. John Scott,

p. 217.

BOOK III.

ON JUSTIFICATION, FAITH, AND GOOD WORKS.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS.

It may be conducive to perspicuity in what I shall have occasion to remark on these subjects, to explain in few words that doctrine which I intend to maintain and vindicate, on the several particulars contained in the title of this book.

Justification is, in our view, the act of God, in dealing with men (though in themselves guilty of many crimes, and in nothing completely obedient,) as with persons righteous, and entitled to the reward of perfect righteousness; not only “not im

puting sin ” unto them, but also “ imputing

righteousness without works.” 1 It therefore denotes much more than forgiveness ; even as the title to a rich inheritance is much more than the pardon granted to a rebel or traitor.

It is commonly said to be a forensic term,2 taken from the proceedings of human judicatories : yet, in human courts of justice, a pardon and justification cannot possibly go together: for he that

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