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again, who is not baptized. Else why are both mentioned? Had they been deemed inseparable, or synonymous, this would have hardly been done. -The twenty-seventh Article requires a more particular consideration. But let the general explanation of the meaning of the word SACRAMENTS be first noticed. “ Sacraments, ordained of Christ, be not only badges and tokens of Christian 'men's profession ; but rather they be certain 'sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and * God's good will towards us; by the which he * doth invisibly work in us, and doth not only

quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our • faith in him.'' Nostramque fidem in se non solum excitat, verum etiam confirmat. If then there be no faith in him, who receives either of the sacraments, the invisible operation of God in them can neither quicken nor confirm faith: and the words, convey grace and faith, would more aptly have expressed the meaning insisted on by his Lordship. Whatever may be said as to the case of infants receiving baptism, no imaginable reason can be assigned, why the case of adults should be concluded, by the doctrine of our church, not the same as to the one sacrament as to the other; especially after this general explication, which equally applies to both.

* Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened : but it is also a sign of regeneration, or new birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive

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| Art. xxv.

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'baptism rightly are grafted into the church; the

promises of forgiveness of sins, and of our adop• tion to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost,

are visibly signed and sealed ; faith is confirmed, and grace increased by virtue of prayer unto • God.--The baptism of young children is in any (wise to be retained in the church, as most agree( able with the institution of Christ.'! It is evident that the whole of this Article, except the concluding sentence, refers to the baptism of adults. Baptism is said to be a sign of regeneration ;' but the sign and the thing signified cannot be the same; nor are they even inseparably connected. • The promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of 'our adoption, are visibly signed and sealed, not efficaciously conveyed. The expression, they that receive baptism rightly,' refers not to the right administration of baptism by the priest, but to the right reception of it by the baptized person. As ' faith is,' in this case, 'confirmed and grace

increased,' faith and grace must have been previously possessed by those who receive baptism

rightly:' for, if they had no faith or grace, the one could not be confirmed, nor the other in“creased.' And this is, not by the opus operatum, or even by the efficacious conveying of baptism, but' by virtue of prayer unto God.'

(Neither is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken away by their wickedness,' (that of the priests,) ‘nor the grace of God's gifts diminished from such, as by faith, and rightly do receive the sacraments ministered unto them.'2 The dis

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tinction is here clearly made, between the ministering, and the receiving of the sacraments ‘aright;' and the receiving aright is confined to those who do it · by faith.' To those, then, who have not faith they are null and void, as to the blessings before mentioned, or any thing beyond admission of the persons concerned into the visible church. The case of infants is distinctly spoken of in other places : but why should not faith be as necessary in adults, to a right receiving of baptism, as to a right receiving of the Lord's supper? ‘And, in such only as worthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect or operation : but they that receive them' (baptism and the Lord's supper)

unworthily, purchase to themselves dainnation.'1 Does this make baptism and regeneration one and the same, or inseparably connected ?

* The supper of the Lord is not only a sign of • the love that Christians ought to have among themselves, one to another; but rather is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ's death : insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and ' with faith receive the same, the bread which we • break is a partaking of the body of Christ; and * likewise the cup of blessing, is a partaking of the · blood of Christ.' The receiving rightly, worthily, and with faith, not the external orderly administration, is connected inseparably with the benefit: and, as far as adults are concerned, why should it not be so in baptism?

Art. xxv. of the Sacraments.

· Art. xxviii.

Doctrine of the Catechism concerning Baptism.

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• In the Catechism it is said, that the inward and spiritual grace of baptism is ' a death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness; for, being by nature born in sin, and the children of wrath, we are hereby made the children of

'grace.”'1

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This quotation is all which is advanced in the Refutation, as referring to the Church Catechism: but the doctrine taught in that formulary requires a little further consideration.

'Qu. How many sacraments hath Christor• dained in his church? Ans. Two only, as generally necessary to salvation ; that is to say, baptism, and the supper of the Lord.'—These are generally necessary to salvation, not universally: but regeneration is universally necessary, as it has been unanswerably shewn from our Lord's own words.2_' Qu. What meanest thou by this word sacrament? Ans. I mean an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace, 5 given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means whereby. we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof.'-The outward sacrament then is a sign, a means, a pledge;' and nothing more. In this both baptism and the Lord's supper are alike included.—Qu. What is · the outward visible sign or form in baptism? Ans. Water, wherein the person is baptized,

in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and

! Ref. 90.

2 John ii. 3-7.

of the Holy Ghost.” Qu. What is the inward ‘and spiritual grace? Ans. A death unto sin,

and a new birth unto righteousness; for, being ' by nature born in sin, and the children of wrath, 'we are hereby made the children of grace.'— Here observe, that this benefit is annexed to the 'inward and spiritual grace, and not to the outward and visible sign. He that had only the outward sign, without the inward grace, had only the exterior of the sacrament, and the shadow of the blessing : but he, who had the thing signified, had the substantial blessing itself, even if not partaker of the outward sign. And, however it might be assumed that in most cases the outward sign and the inward grace went together ; that is not here said, nor so much as clearly intimated.

Qu. What is required of persons to be baptized ? Ans. Repentance, whereby they forsake sin, and faith, whereby they steadfastly believe the promises of God made to them in that sacrament.' But supposing an adult should receive baptism, rightly as to the external administration, yet without repentance and faith : would he have the blessing? Let the question and answer concerning the Lord's supper resolve this inquiry.—' Qu.

What is the inward part, or thing signified ? ' Ans. The body and blood of Christ, which are

verily and indeed taken and received by the ' faithful in the Lord's supper.' But if the recipient be not a believer: then, verily, he eats and drinks his own condemnation. And what reason can be assigned, that there should be any difference, in this respect, between adult-baptism and receiving the Lord's supper? — Qu. Why

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