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authorship of the music of this psalm just where he are drawled out and bawled with that unmusical found it. There is no difficulty in supposing that a and unmeaning vehemence which the satirist has simple tune may suit the accents of four lines of verse, described : though not composed for them; and Luther may bave

So swells each windpipe -not only composed, but harmonised this tune, though

Such as from Jab'ring lungs enthusiastic flows,other harmony may have been afterwards put to it by

High sound, attemper'd to the vocal nose. Dowland.

Dunciad. In Scotland, as in England, metrical psalmody was

It cannot be for the sake of the sentiments or instrucintroduced at the time of the Reformation; and the

tions which those words contain; these are better psalm-tunes, sung by the congregation without the

understood when read by the clergyman and clerk ; accompaniment of an organ or any other instrument,

and why, after being read, they should be sung, unless form the only music admitted either into the service

music is supposed to add to their energy or embellishof the established church of that country, or into the

ment, it is not easy to discover.” places of worship of the dissenters who have seceded

This passage sets out with an insinuation that the from it. The psalms are generally sung in unison, or, introduction of metrical psalmody into the English to speak more accurately, in unisons and octaves; but

churches was the work of the Puritans—the same in congregations, among whom there is some musical

parties “who, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, knowledge, an imperfect harmony is produced by the

had devoted our cathedral service to destruction." bass and other parts being sung by such individuals

But it has been already seen that psalmody was adas are capable of doing so. In Edinburgh, and the

mitted into our Church by the Act of Uniformity for other principal towns, the clergymen pay considerable

the use of common prayer, in the reign of Edward the attention to the improvement of psalmody, by forming little choirs of trained singers to lead the congrega

Sixth, when the ritual was established in conformity

with the doctrines of the reformed religion, and there tion, and by promoting among their parishioners ihe cultivation of singing in parts,

was no indication of any attempt to destroy the essen

tials of our cathedral service. Psalmody, of course, Since the old collections already mentioned, many

was put a stop to by Queen Mary, when the Romish books of psalmody have been, and still continue to be,

ritual was restored; but when Elizabeth re-established published. They are, indeed, by far too numerous ; the service of the Protestant Church, the use of and a great portion of them being produced by very incompetent persons, are filled with mean and vulgar

psalmody was restored, and immediately became gene

ral all over England. For this fact we have Burney's tunes, and crude and incorrect harmonies. The cir

own authority, though he states it in the tone which culation of so many books of this description has

pervades all that he says on this subject.

" In the tended very much to injure parochial singing; though

reign of Queen Mary, all the Protestants, except those the evil could easily be remedied by the clergymen

who courted martyrdom, sang these psalms sotto voce ; and other persons in authority taking care that no but after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, like orgies, books of psalmody were used in places of worship but they were roared aloud in almost every street, as well such as are of known and established character. Dr. Burney entertained very erroneous opinions as

as church, throughout the kingdom." Psalmody,

therefore, first introduced in the reign of Edward the to metrical psalmody, and almost every thing he says

Sixth, was restored on the accession of Elizabeth; and regarding it is tinged with prejudice. The following

this "wise princess," as Burney justly calls her, is remarkable passage may be cited as containing a sum

warmly praised by him for having "steered, according mary of his sentiments on the subject :-"The Puri

to the true spirit of the Church of England, between tans, who, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, had

the two extremes of superstitious bigotry and irreverdevoted our cathedral service to destruction, and who

ent fanaticism." How then can he ascribe the introseemed to wish not only hear the psalms, but the

duction of psalmody to the influence of an irreverent whole Scriptures, syllabically sung in metre, assigned,

fanaticism, to which Queen Elizabeth refused to yield? as a reason for such an abuse of words,* as well as

Sternhold and Hopkins' metrical version of the Psalms annihilation of poetry and music, the absolute neces

was subjoined to the Book of Common Prayer, because sity of such a simple kind of music as would suit the

this wise queen and her counsellors believed that it whole congregation. But why is the whole congrega- could be used, with advantage to religion, along with tion to sing, any more than preach or read prayers ? the ritual contained in that book; and not, certainly, Indeed, it seems to have been the wish of illiterate

from any compliance with the wishes of those who and furious reformers, that all religious offices should

desired its destruction. be performed by field-preachers and street-singers ;

Dr. Burney then asks," why is the whole congregabut it is well known by all who read the Scriptures, or

tion to sing, any more than to preach or read prayers ?" hear them read, that both singing-men and singing

The idea of the whole congregation preaching involves women were appointed to perform distinct parts of

an utter absurdity, which the idea of the whole conreligious rites among the ancient Hebrews, as well as Christians; and it does not appear by any passages in

gregation singing does not: but the congregation does

actually join in reading the prayers; and why may it not the Bible, by any thing which the most ancient and

also join in singing the psalms, which are prayers ? learned commentators have urged concerning the per- If the congregation does the one, it is proper and conformance of the psalms, or by Rabbinical traditions,

sistent that it should do the other. that they were all originally intended to be sung by

It is asserted by Dr. Burney, that " both singingthe multitude, or whole congregation, indiscriminately. men and singing-women were appointed to perforin Singing implies not only a tuncable voice, but skill in

distinct parts of religious rites among the ancient music; for music either is or is not an art, or come- Hebrews as well as Christians;" and he adds, that“ it thing which nature and instinct do not supply; if it be allowed that title, then study, practice, and expe

does not appear by any passage in the Bible, by any

thing which the most ancient and learned commentarience may at least be as necessary to its attainment as to that of a mechanical trade or calling. Every psalms, or by Rabbinical traditions, that they were all

tors bave urged concerning the performance of the member of a conventicle, however it may abound with

originally intended to be sung by the multitude, or cordwainers and tailors, would not pretend to make a

whole congregation, indiscriminately," We may leave shoe or'a suit of clothes; and yet in our churches all are to sing. Such singing as is customary in our

out of view the question as to the practice of the parochial service gives neither ornament nor dig- abolished by the introduction of Christianity; but the

ancient Hebrews, for the Jewish ritual was entirely nity to the psalms, or portions of Scripture, that

assertion, in so far as it relates to the primitive Chris• The Italics in this passage are Dr. Burney's own. tians, is entirely incorrect. When the divine Founder of our religion himself instituted the sacrament of the country where attention is paid to parochial psalmody, supper, and gave to his disciples the example of the especially in Scotland, the psalm-tunes are familiar manner in which it has ever since been observed in to every one ; and wlien devoutly sung by the whole all Christian churches, the solemnity was concluded body of a congregation, nothing can be more fallacious by their singing a hymn or psalm. When Paul and than the ludicrous light in which Dr. Burney has atSilas were in prison, "at midnight they prayed and tempted to place them. They are, on the contrary, sang praises unto God." St. Paul enjoins to the solemn, impressive, and, in a large congregation, freChurch of the Colossians the use of “psalms, and quently sublime. When Haydn heard a psalm

sung hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your in unison by four thousand children, in St. Paul's bearts to the Lord.” A similar injunction is given by Cathedral, he was moved to tears, and declared that him to the Ephesians: and James says, " Is any among that simple and natural air had given him the greatest you afficted, let him pray; is any merry, let him pleasure he had ever received from music. In every sing psalms." That the primitive Christians must large congregation there must be many coarse and necessarily have followed both the precepts and the untuneable voices; but the greatest part of the asexample of Christ himself, and of his apostles, cannot sembly will be qualified in voice and ear to sing such be doubted; and accordingly we have the evidence plain and simple music with propriety; and, in the of profane writers to this effect. Pliny accused the present state of musical knowledge, there are few Christians, not only of neglecting the sacrifices, but of congregations without many persons who can sing at holding meetings before day-break, to sing in honour least a correct bass to the melody, especially if the of Christ as a God; and Lucian notices the rage for harmony is simply and steadily played upon an organ, psalm-singing among the Christians. In those times, and sung by a small choir ; or (as in Scotland) sung when Christianity was not established, or even toler- by a small choir without an organ. ated, and when the converts to this religion had no Dr. Burney's arguments against the use of psalmody churches or regular places of worship, it is absurd to are derived entirely from the abuses of it; and whatsuppose that their psalms and hymns were sung by ever may have been the case in his time, his descriporganised bands of singing-men and singing-women, tion of these abuses is much exaggerated as applicable apart from the congregation : and Burncy, in another to the psalmody of the present day. Still it may, and part of his work,* makes admissions uiterly incon- ought to be, much improved. The parochial clergy sistent with such a supposition. He says, that "it ought every where to pay great attention to its cultiis in vain to seek for any regular ritual before this vation. It ought to form a regular branch of tuition period," that is, the time of Constantine, the first in schools, by which not only an end would be put to Christian emperor; and that he “cannot find better the " drawling and bawling" (for Burney's complaint authority for the establishment of music in the Church, of which there is still some foundation), but the people during the reign of Constantine, than that of Eusebius, would be enabled to sing the different parts of the who was his contemporary, and a principal agent in harmony. Care ought to be taken to introduce into the ecclesiastical transactions of the times." And he

every congregation some collection of the psalms of adds, “ It was in the year 312 from the coming of established character, in order that the harmony may our Saviour, that Christianity, after the defeat of not only be good, but uniform ; for a bass taken from Maxentius, became the established religion of the one collection, a tenor from another, and a counterRoman empire. The primitive Christians, previous tenor from a third, though good in themselves, may to this important cra, being subject to persecution, produce nothing but discord when joined together. proscription, and martyrdoin, must frequently have Strict attention ought also to be paid to the time of been reduced to silent prayer in dens and caves." these tunes. They are too often sung as if they conPrevious to this era, however, and even down from sisted entirely of equal notes, which are drawn out to the time of our Saviour himself and his apostles, the an immoderate length. But they have long and short first Christians are proved to have sung psalms and notes, accent, and rhythmical movement; a disregard hymns in their exercises of devotion; but, without to which affords the chief ground for Dr. Burney's churches, without a ritual, subject to persecution, pro- charge against them. scription, and martyrdom, meeting in secrecy and ap- The importance of a part of our musical service, in prehension of discovery, are we to imagine that they which the whole congregation have it in their power sat and listened to disciplined choirs of singing-men to raise their voices in songs of prayer and praise, is and singing-women?

more and more acknowledged. “And the prevailing The argument that, because music is an art, and impression on this subject will naturally be followed requires study, practice, and experience, as well as a by the adoption of the means necessary to invest this mechanical trade or calling, every member of a con- portion of our public worship with all the dignity and gregation ought no more to pretend to sing than to solemnity of which it is capable. make a pair of shoes, is a very shallow fallacy. Music is an art, undoubtedly; but its different branches require very different degrees of study, practice, and experience. A shepherd tending his flock, and a THOUGHTS ON HISTORICAL PASSAGES OF village- maiden at her rural labour, will sing "the old THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT. and antique songs" of their native valley, in a manner that will charm the most cultivated taste, and even

No. XIV. - The Leper cleansed. move the feelings

More than light airs, and recollected terins
Of these most brisk and giddy-paced times;-

Rector of Mawnan, Cornwall. such songs as that which is described by the enamoured

II. Duke Orsino

HAVING considered somewhat in detail, in a former Mark it, Cesario; it is old and plain :

paper, the circumstances connected with the healing The spinsters and the knitters in the suu,

of the leper, it may not be unprofitable to apply them And the free maids that weave their thread with bones, Do use to chant it.

to ourselves, to our own individual case-to search But if it requires little art and study to sing these

and see whether in any respect we resemble the poor ancient and simple airs, to sing the melodies of the

leper—that we may apply to the same Lord with the

same beneficial effect. It has been remarked on the psalms requires still less. In those parts of the

miracle under consideration, that " it is fitly re• Vol. ii. p. 5, 6.

corded with the first of Christ's miracles, because

the leprosy was looked upon among the Jews as a leprosy--I am willing to give to all that grace which particular mark of God's displeasure. And when we alone can purify the soul, cleanse its affections, and consider how hateful to him the disease is which sin draw it beavenward. Ask it, and it shall be given has spread over our whole nature, we shall readily you ; seek it, and you shall find it. I have no wish acknowledge the justness of the similitude which likens that a single soul should perish, but had rather that it the one to the other. Every child of man born into should turn from the wickedness wbich it hath comthe world inherits this disease, which in its conse- mitted, and live. I will; be thou clean; cease to do evil, quences is as destructive to the soul as the leprosy is learn to do well; get wisdom, and with all thy getting to the body. Every man is by nature born in sin, and get understanding ; buy the truth--eternal truth-and consequently the child of wrath. As of the bodily, so sell it not; that wisdom which alone endureth unto also of the spiritual leprosy,—the law was unable in eternal life-that truth whose author is God, and whose either case to eradicate it from the system. “ But what end is happiness and joy and peace in believing. the law could not do, in that it was weak through the It has been observed, that ihe action of Jesus putflesh," Christ by his own inherent power completely ting out his hand " is a representation of that invisieffected. By the law was the knowledge of sin; and ble hand which makes itself felt by the most insensible it pronounced sinners unclean, as the priest did the heart; of that internal word which makes itself heard leper: here its authority and power ended. But by the most deaf; and of that supreme will which Christ takes away sin, and himseli cleanses us from it, works every thing according to its own counsel.” (Dr. and thus for ever perfects them that are sanctified. A. Clarke.) And that hand will now be extended to

The leper, we find, when Christ came down from the support, strengthen, and animate the miserable victim mount, went and worshipped Jesus; and herein he of spiritual disease, upon the first approach towards teaches cvery one of us what to do, that we may be him, as promptly as then. A bruised reed will he not cleansed, as he was; that the leprosy with which our break, and smoking flax will he not quench. The souls are infected may be subdued. To him we must feeblest aspirations, when issuing even from the most apply, as the only Physician that can prescribe for our unwortly, he will not quench, but gently fan the spark malady; on his power must we implicitly rely, as an of life into a bright and heavenly flame, until it leads anchor of the soul both sure and stedfast, feeling that to the fulness of the blessings of peace. no other balm but his could ever produce the cure; Again, the recovery of the spiritual leprosy should and as the leper fell down before him in supplication, prompt us to follow the example of the leper in the so also must the sinner worship before him with Gospel. He was commanded to go and shew himself humility unfeigned, in sincerity and truth ; or else we to the priest, in obedience to the law of Moses, and 10 sball seek in vain, and still continue the children of offer a gift according to its injunction. The returning defilement and wrath. Our approach, to insure suc- penitent is no less required by the law of the Gospel cess, must be in faith, believing that Jesus is of a truth to acknowledge the spiritual authority of its ministers, the Son of God, who took our nature upon him, that he to lasten to the sanctuary, and there to offer the sacrimight bear our sins in his own body upon the tree,

fice of prayer and praise; with thankful adoration to pay that he might obtain eternal redemption for us. his vows in the presence of all his people, in the courts

Again, the leprosy is a fit emblem of the nature and of the Lord's house, even in the midst of thee, O Jerusaeffect of sin; so also is its cure a true symbol of the lem. “Go thy way,” said our Lord to the leper. He, redemption of the soul by Christ. The truly penitent too, is commanded to go on his way ; to pursue the sinner falls low on his knees before the throne of mercy path of his pilgrimage with a meek and quiet spirit; in the spirit of humble adoration and full assurance of using this world as not abusing it; acknowledging that faith, acknowledging his unworthiness, and confessing in God he lives and moves and has his being, and that his sin. His petition, like the poor leper's, will be he is about his path and about his bed, and spieth simple, short, and energetic, full of confiding trust in out all his ways. Heartily and perseveringly is he to that God to whom all things in heaven and earth do pursue liis course, unmoved by all the temptations of box and obey. The case of the sinner, however, ditlers the world ; working out his salvation with fear and in one material respect from that of the leper. He trembling; ever looking unto the great Author of salconfessed indeed his dependence upon the power of vation for support and strength-for grace to help in the holy Being before whom he stood ; but of his every time of need; continuing, under all the chances willingness to grant what he sought, he neither was and changes of this mortal life, ever in the way of nor could be assured. The sinner, however, knows Christ's doctrine, in the belief of those high and that he, though debased by transgression, is neverthe- mysterious truths which it was his great purpose to less the peculiar object of his regard ; that though teach us, and in the practice of every Christian grace utterly unworthy and undeserving of the solicitude of and virtue; never for one day or an hour forgetting bis heavenly Father in his behalf, he is assured of a that here we are only strangers and pilgrims, as all gracious reception, if he will turn from the evil of our fathers were, having no abiding city, but looking his way. He opens the page of the everlasting Gos- steadily upon that bright, though distant star, which pel, and reads therein, to his soul's consolation, that points to that whose maker and builder is God, whose Jesus came to seek and to save those that were lost. walls are righteousness and her foundations peace. He perceives that, on his part, it is only to feel the Anxious for his own successful progress in the way, he burden, to be sensible of its weight, in order that he is no less, solicitous for the spiritual growth and admay be relieved of it. “Come unto me,” says our vancement of every one who is called by the name of Lord to every one so situated, “come unto me, ye Christ, baptised into his faith, and received into his that are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you holy Church. By every means within his reach does rest." Let us then, my brethren, never meditate on he endeavour to take them from the broad road of the power of our Saviour to forgive us our sins, with- vice into the narrow path of virtue ; from the grasp of out at the same time thinking on his willingness, ay, Satan to release them, and to lead them into the fold his earnest desire that we may come to him, in order of Christ. And so the real disciple of his Master goes that we may be absolved and become reconciled child- on his way rejoicing in hope, fervent in spirit, serving sen-no longer aliens, but children-children of God, the Lord. The ways of religion are pleasantness, and and inheritors of his kingdom.

all her paths peace. There will be, however, many a And as to the leper he addressed words full of com- cross and many a trial, often grievous to be borne ; yet fort, and said," I will ; be thou clean ;" even so now, from his Master's words he derives consolation. His by his lawful ministers, does the same merciful Lord grace is sufficient for him amidst every affliction and speak to the humble and repentant sinner : “I will,” in every sorrow. He knows in whom he has believed, does he say to him, " that thou mayst be clean of thy and upon whose guidance he depends; and he feels


he sat.

assured of this, that he will never forsake bim, until he the cork, followed by the sparkling liquor, shoot to. is conducted to that happy place, where sin is a stran- wards the ceiling. ger and death is unknown.

He altogether disregarded the Mahomedan prejudice Let us then, every one of us, eagerly seek this way, against making a likeness; he was fond of having his and, when found, continually walk therein. Sensible of picture drawn, and was careful in asking the artist to the leprosy which clings to our nature, let us seek the whom he was sitting, what particular feature he was great Physician, that we may be healed. And may we copying, in order that he might compose it as be at last appear before our great High-priest, to hear thought most becoming. When he liked a portrait, he from him the declaration of our purification, and re- made it a present to a European ambassador; and was ceive the reward of our faithful walk in that way gratified when one of them complimented him, by which himself hath set before us; and hear him pro- telling him that the ladies of his court in Europe nounce those joyful words, “Come, ye blessed of my would fall in love with the original. In his family he Father, receive the kingdom prepared for you from was not an austere or cruel man; on the contrary, in the beginning of the world.”

the very tempest of his passion, during the Greek and Janissary insurrections, he retired from the excitement of politics to his domestic circle, and was seen play

ing with his children, like llenry IV. of France. The THE LATE SULTAN MAHMOUD.

eldest of them died, and his enemies reported that his

father caused his death, lest the Janissaries should In his person the late sultan exhibited at different

place him on the throne; but it is now known he died times very different aspects. He was not well made; his body exceeded the proportion of his legs, and when

of the small-pox; and his father, anxious to preserve he stood, he appeared rather a deformed man. He

the rest, had the present sultan and his brothers and

sisters vaccinated by a Frank physician. His good was seldom, however, seen in that position. When he

sense at once shewed him the superiority of European appeared in public he was always on horseback; and at an audience where he received foreign ambassadors

practice; and in any ailment he sent for a Frank doctor He then looked a man of fine person and

in preference to a Turkish hakim. The physician to athletic make, without any want of symmetry in his

the English embassy being thus called in to the seralimbs. His countenance was handsome, with a high

glio, be found his young patient labouring under a

severe jaundice, in a chamber hung round with yellow forehead and dark piercing eyes, which, when he was

satin. His father was so affected with the change of excited, exhibited a fearful expression. He then seldom

colour in the child, that he could not bear to look at looked full in the face of the person whom he addressed,

him; so the attendant took this precaution to reduce but rolled his eyes in such a way that the white alone was visible, and cast a portentous glare, to which his

every other object in the room to the same colour, that

he might not so much remark it. For his marriageknown severity and relentless cruelty during the Greek

able daughters, the Princesses Merimeh and Sahileh, revolution gave a terrible meaning. When the excitement was passed, his countenance assumed a mild

who had been most carefully educated, he selected two and pleasing expression. In his old costume, his

of the most distinguished and estimable men of his

court; and however cruel and vindictive to strangers, oriental dress set off his person to great advantage,

shewed in all that concerned his own family the greatwhile his full black beard gave his face a character

est fondness and discrimination. altogether in keeping with the rest; but when he partially adopted the Frank dress, there was something

Though he had conquered many of his oriental very anomalous in his appearance. Over the turban

prejudices and superstitions, and was daily overcoming there is always fixed a red cap, called a fez, just

more, there were some to which he clung to the hour

of his death. He was strongly addicted to astrology, covering the top of the skull: he laid aside the turban, but retained the fez. It, however, was no larger than

and consulted the mowegin bashi, or chief astrologer,

on all events of his life, whether frivolous or important; a saucer, and was therefore too small to remain in its

the lucky day for commencing any undertaking the place, so, to keep it there, he enlarged the border till it came down over his ears, when it appeared singularly carefully registered; and among the gifts

which he

lucky hour for entering or leaving the seraglio-kere undignified, resembling a red nightcap. His Howing benische was exchanged for a close frock-coat, but

sent to the Emperor of Russia by his son-in-law, toned tight, over which his black beard floated. He

Halil Pacha, were two hundred and forty talismans of

miraculous virtue. His views in other respects were changed the short shovel-shaped stirrup of the East for the long-strapped one of Europe ; but his former

so liberal, as to create a suspicion of an intention habit of riding still adhered to him, so that the change

to abjure Islamism, and embrace Christianity. He

ordered all the Christian churches which had been of the stirrup made him totter in his saddle, like a man who wanted some support for his feet, while his stoop

destroyed by the Turks, at the commencement of the ing attitude and tight coat gave him the appearance of

Greek revolution, to be repaired; and rebuilt thirty

six Armenian and twenty-nine Greek places of worship being humpbacked. Disliking his new mode of riding, and unwilling to return to the old, he adopted a

in the capital. He permitted new ones to be erected European carriage as a mode of conveyance; and in

an indulgence rarely or never allowed by his predeorder to display it, he drove four in hand every day

cessors, from the time Mahomet 11. divided the places over the bridge which be built, connecting Pera and

of worship then existing between the Moslem and the

Christian. He allotted large sums of money to the Constantinople, and exhibited great dexterity in the

erection of schools ; and sometimes had processions of management of his horses. His domestic habits were marked by similar changes; he sat on a chair at table,

all the children, of every religion, walking through the and used a knife and fork; but he dined by himself,

city, headed by their masters, like the children of St.

Paul's in London. These, and similar indulgences, and all the dishes were brought to him one by one,

were all adduced as proofs of his inclination; and so under a locked cover; when opened and tasted by the

sanguine were the Greeks, that every incident was cook, to prove that they were not poisoned, he tasted them himself, and selecting that which he liked best, religion. Crosses were seen in the air over Santa

conceived as a proof of his intention to change his dined moderately on it. He violated the law of Sophia, and intimated that be, like another ConstanMahomet in drinking wine: his favourite beverage tine, was about to be converted, and restore the mosque was champagne, and he has 'even been accused of

to its original worship. Christian eniblems were indulging in it to excess. He ainused himself with

discerned in the flags flying over his head; and he the puerile pleasure of making it explode, and watching built his new palace at Istavros, the City of the

Cross. • From the "Dublin University Magazine."

These “trifles light as air" are hardly worth a notice ;

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but it is not improbable that, had lie lived, the light of | of no effect to them that are justified by the .. the Gospel would have shone on his inquiring, mind, law, i. e. who seek to be so justified (for none where it had probably dawned, and he would hare finally adopted the religion, as he had adopted the

are really so justified)-surely no other apomilitary and civil institutions, of Europe.

logy can be deemed necessary for the attempt to state to you the trne doctrine of Scripture

in relation to it. “ Christ," says the apostle, CHRIST THE END OF THE LAW FOR

“is the end of the law for righteousness to RIGHTEOUSNESS:

every one that believeth."

The law delivered by Moses to the IsraelA Sermon

ites, which is here particularly meant, conBy The Rev. M. M. Prestox, M.A. sisted of two parts: the moral law, which Vicar of Cheshunt, and late Felloc of Trinity Col- is briefly summed up in the ten commandlege, Cambridge.

ments; and the ceremonial law, which enROMANS, X. 4.

joined the observance of the outward ordi“ Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to nances by which the people of Israel were every one that believeth."

distinguished from other nations. In the part of the epistle from which these The former of these—the moral law-being words are taken, the apostle Paul is shewing in its nature of universal and perpetual oblihow greatly those Jews had erred, who, mis- gation, is not less binaling upon us than it was conceiving the end for which their law was

upon those to whom it was first delivered. given, had sought from an observance of The latter—the ceremonial law-being instiit that righteousness, or justification in the tuted for a time only, and for particular pursight of God, which was to be obtained only poses, was abrogated when those purposes by faith, “Being ignorant," says he, "of were accomplished. God's righteousness, and going about to The design of both was to lead men for establish their own righteousness, they have righteousness to Christ, that they might be not submitted themselves to the righteonsness justified by faith. of God;" i.e. not knowing the sort of righte- I. First, then,--This was the design of the ousness required by God, and thinking to moral lan. approve themselves to him on the ground of Men, without the light of revelation, have their own righteousness, they have not hum- either no conception at all, or very low views, bled themselves to seek the only righteousness of what God requires of them. Indeed, which God will accept, viz. the righteous independence of God is what every man in ness which is imputed to those who believe his natural state, whether born in a heathen the promises of God made through Jesus or a Christian country, feels and affects; Christ. "For," he adds, “ Christ is the end and if he be tanght that something is due of the law for righteousness to every one that from him as a creature to his Creator and believeth :" i. e. the very end and object for Preserver, he is well content to render the which the law was given, with respect to least possible measure of duty and service. righteousness, or the justification of men be- | Being generally indisposed to the observance fore God-was to lead them for the obtaining of the divine law, which puts a restraint of it to faith in Christ. This is what I shall upon his freedom, he gives little heed to its endeavour, in dependence on the help of particular requirements; and taking for God's Holy Spirit, to explain to you in this granted, because he would have it so, that discourse.

these are few and easily performed, he But why should I bring this subject before has no adequate notion of his actual transyou? Is it so very important for you to be gressions, or of the difficulty of doing that reminded of the mistakes into which the which he never attempts to do.

He feels no Jews fell, and how they are corrected in them need of any righteousness to recommend him by St. Paul ?

to the favour of God better than that which If this mistake of the generality of the he has attained, or thinks that he could easily Jewish nation had been confined to them attain to, by his own performances. Having selves, we should have had comparatively never regarded himself as a sinner, except in little concern in the matter ; but, unhappily, what he accounts trifling offences, he is init was not confined to them the same is very different about forgiveness and justification, common amongst Christians of the present and he has no strong desire after more conday. There has been a strong tendency formity than he conceives himself to possess towards it in every age of the Church of to the mind and will of God. Christ, both in individuals and in collective Now let us snppose such a man to be bodies of men: and since it is unequivocally brought to compare luimself impartially with treated by the apostle as a fatal error-for what he would be, if he really kept the law he distinctly declares, that Christ is become of God. The law of God says-" Thou

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