« הקודםהמשך »
some other places, to be taken in a general thou hast sown, and the increase of thy meaning, and denotes any fertile tilled field ; , vineyards, become sacred. and is equivalent to 770 (see Rem. on Rosen.- Ne devota sit plenitudo sementis, Lev. ii. 14); or that the precept goes to forbid i. e., quidquid in agro aut vinea creverit; ne the sowing of seeds of any kind in a vine- talis mixtura fructuum sancta fiat, i. e., ne yard, amongst the vines; and this, indeed, sacro fisco addicatur proventus talis agri aut seems inferable from what follows: “lest ye vineæ. profane the whole crop.”
Ver. 11. Rosen.-079 hic est ager cultus. Locus eu,
quoque Syrus. Vocem om hanc significa
: tionem hic habere, apparet etiam ex eo, oỦk évdúoy kiBondov, špia kai lívov ev to quod vinea, uti vulgo 07 solent vertere, autô. Hebræis non seri (1 quod h. 1. legitur), Au, l'er.-11 Thou shalt not wear a garsed plantari (32., cf. Gen. ix. 20) dicitur. lment of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen With divers seeds, &c.
together. Pool.-Mith divers seeds; either, 1. With See notes on Lev. xix. 19. divers kinds of seed mixed and sowed together between the rows of vines in thy
in the field, Lev. xix. 19, and here in the vineyard. Or, 2. With any kind of seed differing from that of the vine, which would στρεπτά ποιήσεις σεαυτώ επί των τεσσάρων produce either herbs, or corn, or fruit-kpactéÒwV TWY Trepißolaíov pov, â éàv tepibearing trees, whose fruit might be mingled Bann év aŭtois. with the fruit of the vines. Now this and 10. l'er. - 12 Thou shalt make thee the two following precepts, though in them- fringes [Numbers xv. 38] upon the four selves small and trivial, are given according quarters (Heb., wings] of thy vesture, to that time and state of the church, for wherewith thou coverest thyself. documents or instructions in greater matters, Thou shalt make thee fringes, &c. So and particularly to commend to them sim- Pool, Patrick, Rosen., Gesen. plicity and sincerity in all their carriages Bp. Horsley.--Rather, “ Thou shalt make towards God and men, and to forbid all thee tassels, upon the four corners of thy mixture of their inventions with God's in- covering, wherewith thou coverest thyself.” stitutions, in doctrine or worship. The fruit Covering, i.e., the blanket or coverlid of the of thy seed, Ileb., the fulness of thy seed, bed. So Houbigant understands this text. i. c., that seed when it is ripe and full. See It is quite different from the precept about Exod. xxii. 29; Numb. xviii. 27. Defiled ;, fringes on the garments, Numb. xv. 38. either, 1. Naturally corrupted or marred, Hloub.—Lemniscos facies tibi ad quatuor whilst one seed draws away the fat and oras tegminis tui. Häc aliis verbis internourishment of the earth from the other, pretamur, quam iis, quibus utebamur ad and so both are starved and spoiled. Or Num. xv. 38, quia Ilebraica verba alia et rather, 2. Legally and morally, as being' alia utrobique legitur, ut facile credas, prohibited by God's law, and thereby made aliam nunc rem imperari; et postquam unclean; as, on the contrary, things are, vetitum fuit, allegorico sermone, ne viri ac sanctified by God's word allowing and ap mulieres contra nature usum commisceproving them, 1 Tim. iv. 5. Beb)., be sume-jantur, munc legem concludi præcepto eo, ut tified, or, be as a sanctified thing, by an quisque ad quatuor oras stragulæ, quà ellipsis of the particle as, i. c., unlawful for leetulus tegitur, addat lemniscos, quibus the owner's use, as things sanctified were. admoneatur de castitate nocte servandâ, Or, sanctifying is put for polluting, by a quia flagitia mox velita noctis sunt et tenefigure called euphemismus, which is frequent brarum. in Scripture, as when blessing is put for! Geil., Booth.-12 Thou shalt make strings cursing, as Job ii. I, and in other authors, for [Geddes, affix tie-strings to] the four as when they use sacred for execrable. corners of the bed-covering, with which thou
Booth.--Lest the crop of thy seed which coverest thyself.
Tie-strings.—0973, or rather doboz), as it! He hath given occasions of speech. is in fifteen MSS., by LXX very properly Prof. Lee.- pram, (a) Action. (b) An rendered otpetta, and by Vulg., funiculos. action : either,  A noble action, or (2) A These strings or ribbons were, I conceive, to wicked action.  Ezek. xx. 43; xxiv. 14; tie the coverlet to the bed-posts : which Zeph. iii. 11, &c. Dat nigosyo at av, asmight be deemed the more necessary, as a cribed actions to her which have no existence whole family often slept in one chamber, on except in his words, Deut. xxii. 14, 17. different beds, and these only covered with a Shall spread the cloth before the elders of single rug. See Harmer's Observations.- the city. Geddes.
Bp. Patrick.—Though such tokens of Gesen.—57a tantummodo in plur. Dobro?, virginity, as are commonly understood by m. fila intorta, opus tortile, v. rad., No. I. these words, might always be found in those (Chald. No, filum funis, Syr. Nom
countries (being very consonant to the opi
cin- nion of the chiefest Arabian physicians, as cinni plexi, Arab. Jads, habena e loris
Mr. Selden observes out of Avicenna, and
of the Africans and other people at this day, plesa). Usurpatur 1) de peniculamentis as many authors testify, see Joh. Geusius (ayy) ex lege in oris vestium faciendis, De Victimis Humanis, par. i., cap. 9, and Deut. xxi. 12. 2) de corollis pensilibus par. ii., cap. 2, and Wierus L. Medicarum (Festons) in capitulis columnarum, 1 Reg. Observationum, sect. De Hymene), espevii. 17.
cially in such virgins as the Jews say were Prof. Lee.-Ordo, m. pl. sing. non occ. here meant, who were under thirteen years
of age; and though all that some physicians Syr. Har flexuosus. Arab. Jous, con
and lawyers in these parts of the world have torsio. Plattings not unlike chain-work. So said to the contrary is of no consideration : 1 kings vii. 17, nimeni nung ??, in con. yet there are weighty reasons to incline us with 7920. Comp. Deut. xxii. 12. Iterum to think, that no man of common sense non occ. Gesenius makes it equivalent to would bring such an action against his wife, the French Feston : for which I can discover wherein he was sure to be cast, whether his no good grounds.
cause was right or wrong, if these were the Rosen.-09, funiculi, i.e., fimbria funi- evidences whereby it was to be tried. For culis (Franzen) constaus, 1 Reg. vii. 17; if he accused her falsely, he knew her Num. XV. 38. 72 , Facere tibi licet. friends were able to produce the sheet 7070 DSP , In quatuor alis, sive wherein they lay when they were married, extremitatibus vestimenti tui. Conf. Jes. with such tokens upon it as would disprove xi. 12. Tunica Hebræorum videtur fuisse him, and render him guilty of defamation. fissa a fronte et a tergo, unde nata quatuor And if he had a just ground to accuse her, extrema sive quatuor ala.
because he knew they could produce no such Ver. 17.
tokens; ret this was no proof she had been vitiated since she was espoused to him ; for
she might have been corrupted before; and by? Denna ina
then he could not attain his end, which was 5 to be rid of her, not by way of divorce (for
? then he must have given her a dowry, which
170 he was desirous to save), but by having her vũv oŮtos érretionou autŷ to popaciotikous put to death as an adulteress, which ver. 21 Móyous, léywv. ovx cūpnka tỳ Duyarpí pov shows to be the present case. Such evident Tapēévia. Kai Taūta tù tapdévia tils Ouyarpós reasons as these have constrained the Jews μου. και αναπτύξουσι το ιμάτιον εναντίον της to understand these words, not according to yepovolas rís Tólews.
the very letter of them, but figuratively, of Au. Ver.--17 And, lo, he hath given such witnesses produced by her parents, as occasions of speech against her, saying, I convinced the other of falsity so evifound not thy daughter a maid; and yet dently, that they made it appear as plainly these are the tokens of my daughter's vir- as a piece of cloth that is unfolded, and laid ginity. And they shall spread the cloth before men's eyes to view it. And they before the elders of the city.
think the Hebrew word simlah, which we
translate the cloth, favours this exposition ; | dent from Exod. xii. 48; Lev. xxii. 18; for it never signifies a sheet, or linen cloth Numb. ix. 14; xv. 15), it were absurd to (which is wont to be called sadin, Judges think that any of the Israelites, for such a xiv. 12; Prov. xxxi. 21), but such cloth as natural or involuntary defect, should be shut men's garments are made of, which com- out from all God's ordinances; nor so that monly is woollen, not linen. And so it is they were to be put out of the muster-roll of used in this book, Deut. x. 18, and in this God's people, or to lose the privileges very chapter, ver. 5. So that the sense is, common to all Israelites, to wit, the benefit “ They shall produce evident proofs, and of the year of release or jubilee, which it lay them before the court, like a piece of is not probable the Israelites were to forfeit cloth, which is spread for all that please to merely for this unculpable imperfection ; look upon it." Whether this be the truth or but either, l. That they should not be not, I will not dispute, but refer the reader incorporated into the body of Israel by to Mr. Selden, lib. iii. Uxor. Hebr., cap. 1, 2. marriage [so Bishop Patrick]; for so
Dr. A. Clarke.—They shall spread the this phrase may seem to have been undercloth, &c.] A usage of this kind argues a stood by the whole congregation of Israel, roughness of manners which would ill com- Neh. xiii. 1-3, 23-25 ; although at that port with the refinement of European ideas time the government was in part in the on so delicate a subject. Attempts have hands of such persons as are here menbeen made to show that the law here is to be tioned, ver. 3, or of their children, seeing it understood metaphorically ; but they so per- is apparent from Ezra x. that many priests fectly fail to establish anything like pro- and Levites and other officers and rulers of bability, that it would be wasting my own Israel were married to strange women, whose and my reader's time to detail them. A issue are by this law excluded from all share custom similar to that above is observed in the government, and for that, among among the Mohammedans to the present day. other reasons, Nehemiah separated them
from Israel by virtue of the law here folChar. XXIII. Au. Ver. 1 ; Heb. 2. lowing. Or, 2. That they should not be 79 797) 727-29 Nyus admitted to honours and offices either in the
church or commonwealth of Israel; and so
'' ! -1? the congregation of the Lord doth not here oỦk ciocheúoetal Oxaðias, oùdè åttokEKOM signify, as commonly it doth, the body of μένος εις εκκλησίαν κυρίου.
the people, but the society of the elders or Au. l'er.-1 He that is wounded in the rulers of the people, who, as they represent stones, or hath his privy member cut off, the whole congregation, and act in their shall not enter into the congregation of the name, and for their service and good, so Lorn.
they are sometimes called by the name of Founded, &c.
the congregation, as Numb. xxxv. 12, 21, Pool.--Heb., wounded by compression, or 25 ; Josh. xx. 6, 9; 1 Kings viii. 5, comattrition, or contusion, to wit, of the stones, pared with ver. 1-3; and 1 Chron, xiii. which was the course the Gentiles took with 1, 2, 4; xxix. 1, 10, 20, compared with infants to make them eunuchs.
1 Chron. xxviii. 1; xxix, 6; and of the conRosen.- 91791 7737 rug, Nutilus con- gregation of God, as it is in the Hebrew of tritione aut abscissione testiculi. Videtur Psal. lxxxii. 1. Howsoever, seeing they are duplex fuisse ratio reddendi hominem gene- oft called the congregation, they may very rationi ineptum, vel testiculorum contritione, well be called in a special manner the convel eorum exsectione. Saltem hoc fiebat |gregation of the Lord, because they were vervecibus, vid. Lev. xxi. 21.
appointed by God, and act in his name and Shall not enter into the congregation of the stead, and for his work and service, and did Loril.
also oft assemble near the tabernacle, where Pool.-- This phrase cannot be understood God was eminently present. Add to this, so that they might not come into the churchi, Ithat the Hebrew word kahal generally sigor holy assemblies, to worship God, to prav, nilies a congregation or company of men met or hear, &c., because proselytes of any together; and therefore this cannot so connation, being admitted to common church veniently be meant of all the body of the privileges, no less than the Jews (as is evi- people, which could never meet in one place, but of the chief rulers, which fre-fon the other side, though they were unfit for quently did so. Nor is it strange that marriage, yet it appears by many instances eunuchs are excluded from government, in history, that they were not unfit for partly because such persons are commonly government, nor wanted courage for the observed to want that courage which is greatest undertakings. I need only refer the necessary for a governor, Exod. xviii. 21; reader for this to Xenophon's Cyropædia, and partly because as such persons ordi- | lib. vii. narily were despicable, so the office and They that follow allegorical senses free authority in their hands was likely to be themselves from all these difficulties (see exposed to the same contempt.
Filesacus, lib. i. Selectorum, pp. 169, 185). Bp. Patrick.—Shall not enter into the But one cannot think that Moses intended congregation. The meaning of this law is, any of those things; though such pious use either to forbid the Israelites to marry with may be made of his words. such persons, or not to admit them to bear Bp. llorsley.--1 Shall not enter into the any office in the Jewish commonwealth. I congregation of the Lord. He could not be The Hebrew doctors generally take it in the permitted to partake of the passover, or to first sense; see Selden, De Jure Nat. et make any offering, or enjoy any of the Gent, lib. V., cap. 16, and so do a great privileges civil or religious of a native Jew. many among Christian writers. And there This is certainly the true force of not being is an eminent example of the use of this permitted to enter into the congregation of phrase in this sense, Neh. xiii. 1-3. But Jehovah here and in the two following some think it was superfiuous to forbid this, verses, notwithstanding that the Jewish because none would marry with such persons lawyers expounded the expression in a more as were incapable to perform the marriage confined sense. But such a person, I supduty; and therefore they follow the second pose, was admitted as a proselyte of the gate sense, it being certain that the Ilebrew to pray in the outer court. word kahal, congregation, signifies, in many! Rosen.- Non ingrediatur in coelum Jovæ, places, not the whole body of the people of i. e., non habebitur Israelita, nec nomen Israel, but the great assembly of elders, cjus in censualibus libris scribetur. Ejusinto which no such person was to be ad- modi homini non licebat ducere Israëlitidem. mitted ; because they were unfit for govern- “ Tum demum peregrinus habebatur civis Bient, eunuchs being observed generally to llebraus, ut more Romano loquamur, cum Piant courage. Thus Simeon De Muis, and Israëlitidem duxerat, aut ei ducere liccbat, others, who seem to have great reason on non prius. Quare et Jonathan vertit: Non their side. Yet it is so plain that "the con-lest idoneus, qui est casiratus, et cui abscissus gregation of the Lord,” in the following est nervus, ad duceniam uxorem ex coetu part of this chapter, signifies the people of Jora'.'--Cleric. Israel, who might not marry with the persons mentioned, ver. 2, 3, 8, that I can
leb., Ver. 3; Au. Ver. 2. not but think it ought to be so interpreted Do 7177 1777 N 3 here. For though such marriages were! : hare is
sy useless and unprofitable, as Maimonides . speaks, et le made a distinction between 2 ουκ εισελεύσεται εκ πόρνης εις εκκλησίαν those who were made cunuchs by (od (that kuplov. is, born so) and those made by men: and 111. Ver.-2. A bastard shall not enter this law, they say, is not to be understood into the congregation of the LORD; even to of the former, but only of the latter. Some his tenth generation shall he not enter into of which, it is certain, were left in such a the congregation of the LORD, condition, that they were desirous of mar- A bastard. riage, as appears by the constitution of the Prof. Lel.-7739, masc.-plur. non occ. Emperor Leo, who did not think it super-Probably compd. of top + ?, ??, fluous to forbid marriage with them. For it contr. 732. Of a foreiyn people: or, if the appears by it, that some women choose such vowels of the last member are to be attended husbands. See also Ecclus. XXX. 20, but to, 73, of a bordering, ucighbouring, especially the book ascribed to St. Basil, De people: hence, not of true llebrew descent: Vera Virginitate, tom. i., p. 719, &c. And(a) A foreigner, or (b) Bustard. (a) Zech.
ix. 6: (b) Deut. xxiii. 3. See LXX, al.: oủk cioelevoetai eis ékkinolay kupiou kai ĉws non occ. No satisfactory etymology can be eis tov aiôva. extracted from the sister dialects.
Au. Ver.-3 An Ammonite or Moabite Bp. Patrick.— A bastard.] The Hebrews shall not enter into the congregation of the do not understand by the word mamzer, one Lord; even to their tenth generation shall that was begotten in simple fornication, out they not enter into the congregation of the of the state of marriage, but one that was Lord for ever. begotten of such persons as the law forbade Enter into the congregation of the Lord. them to marry, or lie withal, umder pain of See notes on verse 1. being cut off'; viz., those mentioned in the For ever. eighteenth of Leviticus (so Bp. Horsley). / Pool.--For ever; so it seems to note the They only except this single case, if a man immutability and perpetuity of this law, that lay with a menstruous woman, and begat a it should be inviolably observed in all suicchild of her at that time, it was not a'ceeding ages, and not dispensed with for mamzer. See Seld., lib. De Succession. in any merit in the persons, or any pretence Bona Defunct., cap. 3, and lib. v. De Jure whatsoever. But why then should this Nat. et Gent., cap. 16, and Wagenscil lately, clause be added only here, seeing the forein his very learned annotation upon Mischna going laws are as inviolable as this? It Sotæ, cap. 4, sect. 1, where he observes, out seems therefore to extend the duration of of a MS, which he calls very precious (Etz- this exclusion of them from the congregation Hachajim in Hilcoth Nidda), that mamzer,' of the Lord beyond what was said at first, and whether male or female, was excluded from to be added by way of aggravation, even to the congregation of the Lord. And they their tenth generation shall they not enterwere mamzers who were born of any woman never enter, yea, even for ever, i. e., they shall whom the law prohibited them to have as it is expressed, without any mention of the knowledge of; whether it was by violence tenth generation, Neh. xii. 1, that they shall or by consent, by crror or advisedly, it made, not come into the congregation of God for ever. no difference.
Kennicotl.-If an Ammonite or Moabite Eren to his tenth generation shall he not were not to enter into the congregation of enter into the congregation. That is, nerer, the Lord, till the tenth generation; then as the llebrew doctors expound it.
they were to enter after the tenth generaRosen.—3772 vulgo interpretantur spui- tion: and if so, then they were not excluded rium, ex scorto publico seu prostibulo for ever--as the text here now affirms. On natum, vel intelligitur, uti vult Clericus, the contrary, if they were not to enter for natus ex illegitima uxore, qualis erat per-lever, the clause concerning the tenth geneegrina mulier, quam Hebræus forte com- ration cannot here be genuine. The solution pressisset, nec tamen duxisset. Ex C. B. seems to be this, that the seven words, Michaëlis sententia, relata ex ejus Annotatis expressing the tenth generation, are here MSS. a filio in Jure Nos., p. ii., p. 135 not., taken in and improperly repeated from the voce 199, . 1. generatim designatur ad do- verse preceding. And what is thus proyevi's, ut Zach. ix. 6), adeo ut Ammonita et bable from the context, is made certain Moabitar vs. 1, species vel insignior sint from a MS. of undoubted authority, which ToŮ 72, vel plane tois c' ? contra dis- was in use about 2,200 years ago. For tinguantur, utpote cognati Israelitis, posteris Nehemiah says (xiii. 1): “ On that day Abrahami, cujus nepotem ex fratre, Lotum, they read in the book of Moses; and conditorei gentis habuerant. Sic igitur therein was found written, that the Ammon79 idem furet quis. Ten7 c, Ve ite and the Moabite should not come into decima quidein ab eo atas, i.e., mumquam, the congregation of God for ever."--For the vs. 1, 7; Veh. xiii. 1.
preceding remarks on this verse, which are Ileb., Ver. 1; Au. Ver. 3. curious and decisive, the reader is indebted niya a ng i
to a very learned and very worthy prelate,
me my friend, Bishop Barrington.
:chyqyri Bebn., Ver. 12; Au. Ver. 11. 3 o`k cioedergemal'Aupavitiis kai Mwavitnis
?! ?0709? 77? 12 eis €**Anoiav kupiov, kai čos dekárns yeveas : 7207977 zin-bn Nay wanna