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et Jer. xxxi. 5, est vertendum ; oppositum encourage their soldiers. But it is not likely ei quod fructus vineæ aut oliveti recens they had their captains to make or choose plantati primis quatuor annis tanquam sacri when they were just going to battle. habebantur. Tribus enim primis annis eos Bp. Horsley.-9 Very strange! that they non decerpere licebat, et quarto anno epulis should have to appoint the leaders at the sacrificalibus ad locum sacrum illi consumi very eve of the battle, and that these indebebant, quiuto igitur demum anno ad ferior officers (CDW) should have the usus profanos, i.e., communes, vulgares, appointment of the highest. The Vulgate adhiberi poterant. Cf. Lev. xix. 23. Pro- gives a very different and consistent sense, movebat autem simul hæc lex cum reliquis, which cannot, however, be brought out of legibus annexis agriculturam et matrimonia. the Hebrew text as it now stands. "CumCf. Mich. J. M., p. iii., $ 177.

que siluerint duces exercitus et finem Ver. 8.

loquendi fecerint, unus quisque suos ad bel

landum cuneos pra parabit.I guess this : 133 1932?ns op! ?? - translator's reading was thus, NY 1017)

iva mii decliávn TÌv kapồiav tou ade spoù COT ON DTON. « Then let the leaders of aútoù, botep ń autoŮ.

the armies marshal the people by their Au. L'er.--8 And the officers shall speak companies." "per cohortes instruant,” further unto the people, and they shall say, or perhaps “manipulatim instruant." What man is there that is fearful and faint- Bp. Patrick.-9 This shows that what I hearted? let him go and return into his noted, ver. 5, is true; that the foregoing house, lest his brethren's heart faint [lieb., proclamation was made before they marched melt) as well as his heart.

forth to the war : for how should they march Lest his brethren's heart faint as well as till there were captains chosen, to lead the his heart. So Rosenmüller and most com- several armies (as those companies into mentators.

which they were divided, are called), which Bp. llorsley.Read, with Samaritan, I was not done till he had spoken all the foreLXX, and Vulgate, Ong; “lest he make named things. And if we translate the his brethren's heart to faint like his own words as they may be out of the llebrew heart.”

Isthey shall place or set captains of the hosts Rosen.--le liquescat cor fratrum ejus, in the head, or the front, of the people, still h. l., ne aliorum quoque animos timidos it must be supposed, that this was done efficiat suo exemplo. by est Niphal verbi: before they stirred a foot; for no order oop, cf. i. 28; Jos. ii. 11. 8 hic nomina- could be observed without leaders. tivo præfigitur, ut Num. xxvi. 55, cf. ad

Ver. 15.
Ex. X. 8.
Ver. 9.

15 ούτω ποιήσεις πάσας τας πόλεις τας

| μακράν ούσας σου σφόδρα, οι χί εκ των πόλεων

*: ττ: των εθνών τούτων, 16 ως κύριος ο Θεός σου :27 287 mi

) siswoi oor kanpovoueiv tijve any aitwv, και έσται ότιν παύσωνται οι γραμματεις ζωγρήσετε παν εμπνέον. Naloûtes tipos TÙv daùr, kai kataOTÍCovow du. 16.-1.5 Thus shalt thou do unto all άρχοντας της στρατιας προηγουμένους του λαού. | tli» cities ultich are very far off from tlico,

Au, Ver.-9. And it shall be, when the which are not of the cities of these nations. officers have made an end of speaking utol of these nations. the people, that they shall make captains of God., Booth.-"--of these nations whose the armies to lead (Heb., to be in the head land Jehovah thy God giveth thee for an of the people] the people.

inheritance, thou shalt sare alive nothing They shall make captains of the armies. that breatheth." Although the addition in So Houbigant, Rosenmüller. .

this verse, “whose land,"' &c., be only in lipd., Booth.-Captains shall be appointed. Sept. and Vulg., I have no doubt of its

Pool.-Or rather, as the Ilebrew hath it, having originally stood in the text. The they shall set or place the captains of the comma has been dropt out in transcribing, armies in the heaul or front of the people from its contiquity to the repetition in the under their charge, that they may conduet beginning of the next verse. The same has and manage them, and by their example happened to the copies of Sept., with re

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spect to the repetition; which is wanting in thereof by forcing an axe against them : the Vatican, and some other MSS., as the for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt preceding comma is wanting in Ald. Comp. not cut them down (for the tree of the field and Alex.- Ged.

lis man's life) [or, for, O man, the tree of the Ver. 17.

field is to be employed in the siege] to Au. Ver.-17 But thou shalt utterly de- employ them (Heb., to go from before thee] stroy them ; namely, the Hittites, and the in the siege : Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, 20 Only the trees which thou knowest the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the Lord that they be not trees for meat, thou shalt thy God hath commanded thee.

destroy and cut them down; and thou shalt Kennicott follows the Sam. and LXX, build bulwarks against the city that maketh which supply, and the Girgashites.

war with thee, until it be subdued [Heb., it Bp. Patrick.-In chapter vii. 1, he men- come down). tions seven nations, though here are only! Thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree six, the Girgashites being omitted. The of the field is man's life) to employ them in reason of which Maimonides (in Ililcoth the siege. So equivalently Frommann, Melachim) thinks to be, that they upon the Dathe, Rosenmüller, Ged., Booth. “ Thou first summons of Joshua fled the country'shalt not cut them down to employ them in into Africa; and therefore are not named the siege ; for the fruit-trees of the field in Josh. ix. 1, 2, among those that "ga- were designed for the food of man.”—Geddes. thered themselves together to fight against Dathe.-Eas ne succidite, ut illis ad obIsrael." But I take the true reason of this sidionem vitamini: hominum enim usui a to be, that the Girgashites were a people Deo destinatæ sunt. mixed among the rest, and did not live in a Noldius.Them ye shall not cut down. separate part of the country by themselves: But man's (i. e., every man's) are the trees but that they opposed Joshua, as well as of the field; which may therefore be emothers, and were delivered into luis hand, ployed by you in the siege. appears from Josh. xxiv. 11.

Bp. Horsley.-“ For why? Is the tree

of the field a man, that it go from thee into Ver. 19, 20.

the besieged town?" or, “into the ramDS? Do Yopos 777?? 19 parts?" See LXX, and Vulgate. nquin ? by on ? Pool.The trees thereof, to wit, the fruit 09 ? ? 7

?!??

Yoby nito? Sayang trees, as appears from the following words; " -'?? "

which is to be understood of a general de

T

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such as are elsewhere called the trees of the among the Jews expounds these words; and wood, 1 Chron. xvi. 33; Isa. vii. 2, or the the famous Abarbinel, who thus glosses trees of the forest, Cant. ii. 3; Isa. X. 19, upon them: “ It is not decent to make war which are opposed to the trees of the gardens, against trees, who have no hands to fight Gen. iii. 2, 8; Eccl. ii. 5; Ezek. xxxi. 9; with thee, but against men only.” And this as the flower of the field, Psal. ciii. 15; Isa. sense Grotius follows, lib. iii. De Jure Belli xl. 6, and the lilies of the field, Matt. vi. 28, et Pacis, cap. 12, sect. 2, where he produces are opposed to those that grow in gardens, Philo for this opinion, and Josephus, who and are preserved and cultivated by the says, “If trees could speak, they would cry gardener's art and care. And so it is a very out that it was unjust, that they who were proper argument to dissuade from the de- no cause of the war should suffer the misstroying of fruit trees, because the wild and chiefs of it.” And thus Onkelos translates unfruitful trees were sufficient for the use of these words, and those that follow, “ For the siege. And this sense fitly agrees with the tree of the field is not as a man, that it the following words, where the concession or should come against thee in the siege ;' that grant, which here is delivered in more is, they had no cause to fear trees, and ambiguous terms, of the tree of the field, is therefore should not hurt them. But this is repeated and explained concerning the trees a reason against cutting down any trees which thou knowest that they be not trees for whatsoever ; whereas Moses speaks only of meut.

fruit-trees. From whence Grotius thinks Bp. Patrick.- For the tree of the field is that saying of the Pythagoreans took its man's life.] The word life is not in the original, õuepov Qutóv kai čykaprov, &c., Hebrew text; but we add it to make out the “trees that do not grow wild, and bear sense. In which we follow many good fruit, ought not to be hurt, much less cut authors among the Jews, particularly Aben down." And yet it seems to be more agreeEzra, who observes many such elliptical, able to the Hebrew words, than our mari.c., concise forms of speech in Scripture. ginal translation, which makes this sense, As in 1 Sam. xvi. 20, where an “ass of “ That there are trees of the field sufficient bread" is an ass loaded with bread. So to employ in the siege;" so that they need here the tree is a man, i.e., the life or not cut down fruit-trees to carry it on. support of man. Just as (xxiv. 6) it is said, Rosen.-19 Cum oppidum multis diebus a man should not take the upper or nether obsidebis, ut id oppugnes et capias, non cormillstone to pledge, ki nephesh hu, “because rumpes agri ejus arbores, immissa in cas it is his life," i.e., that whereby he gets his 'securi; arbores intelligendæ sunt frugifera, livelihood. But there are a great many additur enim hann va??, nam ex iis veswho translate the words by way of interro- ceris, i. e., earum fructibus. Hæc ratio est, gation (and the Hebrew will bear it), and, ob quam arboribus frugiferis parcendum joining them with those that follow, make fuit; quod, nimirum, plus sibi obsidentes this the sense, “Is the tree of the field a'nocuissent Israelitæ, quam obsessis hostibus, man, that it should come against thee in the dum se fructibus arborum privarent. Solesiege?" So the Vulgar, the Greek, and the bant vero interdum arbores frugiferæ etiam Arabic translation, and the Chaldee para- ab obsessoribus succidi, ut machinæ muris phrast, and Joseplus, as Mr. Selden ob- admoveri possint. 7229 nis 7707 797 ? serves (lib. vi. De Jure Nat. et Gent., cap. nupa. In his verbis explicandis et vett. et 12), as much as to say, They need not fear recentt. haud parum laborarunt. Plures any danger from the trees, as if they were ante 0787 subaudiunt interrogationem, ut soldiers that could fight against them. And, hoc modo interpretanda sint verba : num if this sense do not scem dilute (as some enim homo est arbor agri, ut veniat a conhave censured it), there is no need of ren-spectu tuo in obsidione ? quasi Moses dicere dering the words by way of interrogation, voluerit, arbores non esse homines, neque but only of repeating the word not out of militum vim habere, ut intra urbem sé rethe foregoing words, in this manner, “ Thou cipientes pugnare contra Israclitas valerent, shalt not cut them down, for the tree of the, nec adco esse. quod in cas, tanquam in field is not in man," &c. Of this there are hostes, irruant, eosque succidendo disperdere many examples, as Glassius and our Gat- i conentur. In lunc sensum LXX, men ävaker have shown. And thus R. Bechai ApwTOS Etnov év dypô, cioeceiv

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årò pooótovoov eis Tòv zápaka; Nec verba hujus vs. tria postrema izna 7999 was aliter Hieronymus, nisi quod interrogationem conjungit cum superioribus nion is ink, ut negatione declaravit : Lignum est, et non sensus sit : eas ne succidite, ut illis ad obhomo, nec potest bellantium contra te nume- sidionem utamini : arbores enim hebraice rum augere. Eodem modo Onkelos: quo- ante nos in obsidionem venire dicuntur, cum niam non est sicut homo arbor agri, ut veniat ad eam instruendam a nobis adhibentur. ante te in obsidionem. Sensus, quem Chal. Verba media vero: 77enny y C7N7 ? uncinis dæus spectavit, est hic: arbores se non includenda, atque a reliquo contextu sepacoram obsessoribus, seu spectantibus iis, in randa censet, ita vertenda: nam hominis, urbem obsessam conjicere posse, contra eos | i.e., hominis usui destinata est arbor agri, pugnaturas. Ita Syrus : ut fugiat a con- subaudito ante DNT signo dativi, s, quod spectu tuo in urbem obsessam. Clarius id ex-haud raro omittitur. Eadem loquendi forma pressit Saadias : existimans apud te, quod Coh. xii. 13 : DINTRE 7!, hoc omni homini arbores campi sint velut homo, qui se jam convenit ; et Ez. xii. 10: 717 NEON pies, absconderit a conspectu tuo in obsidione, i. e., Principis s. principi est hoc oraculum. Quam in urbe obsessa. Quæ interpretatio, quam- interpretationem et Dathius sequutus est, et vis sit antiquissima, et quamplurimos ap- in qua nos quoque acquiescimus. probatores invenerit, tamen merito repudia- | 20 Build bulwarks. tur, quod frigida nimis et jejuna, cur arbores Ged.-Make sieging-engines. fructiferæ non excidendæ sint, hæc sit ratio, Rosen.-10p, Obsidio, i.e., machinæ ad quia arbores illae non sint homines, adeoque obsidionem. AP?? 18, Donec descendet ca, Israelitis urbem obsessuris resistere non sc. urbs, intelligendum hoc de muris cadenvaleant. Nonne idem etiam de arboribus tibus, donec eam urbem expugnaveritis. infructuosis dicendum? Alii nomini cix præmissum vocativum indicare existimant

Cap. XXI. 2. (ut Ps. ix. 7), sensumque loci hunc in Au. Ver.-2. Then thy elders and thy modum declarant: Nam, o homo, arbores judges shall come forth, and they shall meaagri, i. e., sylvestres, adsunt, quibus ad ob- sure unto the cities which are round about sidionem uti possis, machinas ex iis con-him that is slain. struendo, hinc non est, quod fructuosas ad Judges. So the Heb. usum huncce adhibeas. Ad verba : 770 el lloubigant.--7'-0", et Juices tui. Non nispa 7? Nas quæ proprie sic vertenda temnenda scriptio Samaritanorum Tiere"), et volunt: arbor agri adjumento est tibi, ut presides tui, quoniam eo in negotio nihil veniat urbs coram te in obsidionem, comparanterat, quod dijudicaretur. Unum munus erat phrasin 2 Reg. xxiv. 10; XXV. 2; Jer. semum ac Præsidum, aut vero Judicum, lii. 5 obviam. vispa 77 xinh, venit urbs in metiri solum a cædis loco ad urbes proximas, obsidionem. In istam tamen interpretationem vel testes esse factæ mensuræ. Erh. Andr. Frommann in Opuscc. Philology., p. 169, vere monuit hæc : “ Atque 17 quidem

Ver. 1. interdum exclamandi vim habere certum est, -69 1970 gyn 39 771777 sed, ut quisque per se intelligit, non nisi in oratione concitata et atteetů plena, cujus * PS 70 boobs frustra sumitur, 77977 , arbores sylvestres

:30pm denotare, et a fructuosis paullo ante commemoratis distinguendas esse; vide in con-1. Kai katafsi scovoll..!! yepovoia tns TocS trariam partem ista loca : Lev. xxvi. 4, ngekeivus dáual eis Pápanya tpaxetuv, ntis inom 7707, et Ez. xxxiii. 27, 7707 OỦk eipyaotai ovoe oneipetat, kai vevpokornind. Denique cuivis contextum inspicienti covoi tnv dupanc év 7? Papayyı. patet, quod his verbis Mosen dicere voluisse Au. l'er:-And the elders of that city illi interpretes arbitrantur, id demum vs. 20 shall bring down the heifer unto a rough plane et perspicue ab co præcipi; ut hinc valley, which is neither cared nor sown, and otiosa unius ejusdemque repetitio assumenda shall strike off the heifer's neck there in the esset.” Alias hujus loci interpretationes valley. minus probandas attulit solidisque argu-l luto a rough valley. mentis refutavit Frommann 1. 1. Ipse vero Palley. See notes on Numb. xxiv. 26.

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Gesen., Rosen., Ged., Booth. To an sown. And, besides this variety, there are everflowing torrent, which cannot be ploughed those who take ethan not to signify either that mor sown.

which is hard or rapid, but the most fertile yox 573. The Vulg. renders, vallem asperam ground: so R. Bechai, and lately R. Jac. atque saxosam. I have no doubt of ynx 5072 Abendana, in his marginal notes upon being here a brook that never dries, torrens Michlal Jophi, where he gives this reason perennis, and consequently cannot be la- for it; that the inhabitants of each city boured. See the Arab. 701, and its deriva- might be the more careful to prevent such tives : or Michaëlis's Suppl. ad Lex. Ileb.-murders, being in danger otherwise to lose Ged.

the best ground belonging to their inheritProf. Lee.-ng boy, an irresistible stream ance. For the land where the body was or torrent, not perpetual, for these were oc- found (if we may believe the Mischna) was casionally dried up, Deut. xxi. 4; Ps. Ixxiv. never to be sown any more (see Sota, cap. 9, 15; Amos v. 24.

sect. 5). Gesen.- 'x et pony (pro o cum Aleph Rosen.- Vocibus img 507 indicatur rivus prosthetico, a rad. in perennis fuit) Adj. 1) seu torrens perennis, per totum annum fluens perennis, maxime de aqua. in mg, rivus (collato Arab. ini, perpetuus fuit, perennis perennis, perpetuo fluens. Dent. xxi. 1 ; fuit et indesinens aqua, et yndy, perenniter Am. v. 24, et omisso ? 1 Reg. viii. 2 : 71fluens rivus), oppositus illis, qui per æstatem, CO787, mensis ricorum perennium (alibi maxime vero post eam, Octobri mense deTisri), qui anni Hebræi septimus est, a ficiunt. p is ons Qui nec novilunio Octobris usque ad novilunium colitur nec seritur, qui numquam ita exNovembris.

siccatur, ut aliquo anni tempore coli possit. Bp. Patrick.- Unto a rough valley.] The Impurum sanguinem hostiæ pro cæde ignoti llebrew word nachal signifies both a valley oblatæ asportare debebat rivus, ne quidquam and a torrent. The LXX, Josephus, and ejus in terra hæreret aut frugibus, quos ea the Vulgar, understand it as we do; and effert. To gang ?, Decollabunt the following words favour this interpreta- ibi vitulam in torrente, ministerio, ut videtur, tion. But the Talmudists, and the rabbins sacerdotum, qui aderant; erat enim hæc who generally follow them, take it to signify vitula instar victime piacularis. Ceterum a torrent, which is the sense of Maimonides cf. Vich. J. 11., p. vi., $ 278. himself; and the next word, ethan (which we translate rough), they interpret a rapid

Ver. 5. torrent. Chaskuni thinks there is some Au. l'er.--5 And the priests the sons of reason for this in the sixth verse, where they Levi shall come near; for them the Lord are required to " wash their hands over the thy God hath chosen to minister unto him, heifer ” in the water that is of the brook. and to bless in the name of the Lord; and I see nothing to hinder the puiting both by their word [Heb., mouth) shall every senses together, torrents being wont to rum controversy and every stroke be tried. down violently from the mountains, through Pool.-Every controversy: not absolutely the valleys which lie beneath them, which all manner of controversies that could posis the cause that the same word signifies sibly arise, but every such controversy as both.

might arise about the matter here spoken Which is neither cured.] Or rather, of; noviing being more usual than to underploughed.

stand universal expressions in a limited Vor soun. Being a stony, craggy ground, sense; and indeed this is lunited and errepresenting the horridness of the murder, plained by the following words, and every and the cruelty and hardness of the man's stroke, the particle and being put exposiheart who committed it. They that follow tively, of which instances have been forthe other interpretation of unchal, under- merly given, i.e., every controversy which stood the foregoing words, asher lo jeabed shall arise about any stroke, whether such a bo, which we translate si neither cared,” as mortalstroke as is here spoken o?, a murder, it they signified the torrent did not serve to which may well be called a stroke, as to water the neighbouring ground : and these'smile is oft lied for to kill, as Gen. iv. 15; words to be meant of the soil which lay Lev. xxiv. 17, &c., or any other stroke or next to the torrent, in which nothing was wound given by one man to another.

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