« הקודםהמשך »
keep the people in order, with a staff and al. A grove. See notes on Exod. xxxiv. 13. whip, and to execute the decrees and orders! Rosen.--2-ha TVN 7 Pen-x5, Ne plantes, of the judges; whom they appointed noterigas statuam idoli, omne lignum, i. e., ligonly in the court, but in the streets, looking neum, appositio, quam Grammatici vocant, after weights and measures in the market, qua materia ex qua quid factum, indicatur, and correcting offenders. Maimonides also 1 Reg. vii. 42; cf. Gesenii Lehrgeb., p. 667. makes them the same with our apparitors, De 7xx, statua idoli, præsertim Astartes, or those who, in the Roman law, are called | vid. Jes. xvii. 8. officiales, as Constantine L'Empereur ob
CAP. XVII. 3. serves, p. 362, upon Cornelius Bertram (who mistook them for a sort of judges), and in
Au. Ver.- Which I have not commanded. the digests executores: and in the New
Ged., Booth. Which I have forbidden. Testament Topártopas, “exactors,” Lukel Rosen.--' N ON, Quæ non præcepi, xii. 58. Josephus makes them to have been immo diserte vetui, jeiwois, ut Jer. vii. 31. public criers; and so we find them employed,
Ver. 1. XX. 8; Josh. i. 11. But then some of them,
sort, like our heralds (Josh. xxiii. 2), and nowy? 370 1129 ron 77977? all of them were men of authority, though but young men (as Maimonides describes them), who had not attained the years and
και αναγγελή σου και εκζητήσης σφόδρα, knowledge of the doctors of the law, and kai idov danows yéyove tò prua, yeyévntal TÒ therefore unfit to be judges. But the Jews | Boelvypia TOUTO év 'lo para. place them next under their wise men, orl Au. Ver.-4. And it be told thee, and doctors, and above their scribes and clerks, I thou hast heard of it, and enquired dilias Mr. Thorndike observes. in bis Review gently, and, behold, it be true, and the of the Rites of the Church, 1. 94. But thing certain, that such abomination is that they were certainly only under officers, / wrought in Israel. and not judges, there is another argument: Ged., Booth.--4 And it be told thee, then which is, that Solomon upon this account thou shalt hearken, and inquire diligently, commends the ants, that they carefully do
&c. their business, though they have no schoter
Behold. set over them (Prov. vi. 7), on passouyos. Rosen., Booth.-If. 1797, si, ut i.? Lev. or épyode WKtns, to force or affright them xxv. 20.-Rosen. into it.
Ver. 9. In all thy gates.] That is, in every city, - ? S ko Sn05 as Mr. Selden observes out of the Jewish writers, lib. vii. De Jure Nat. et Gent., ????,7? ????
2547 cap. 5, sect. 1, where he shows they in L : 29°7 727 78 ? 17977! terpret it, " in all the cities of Israel, both kai életon tpos tous lepeis Tous Aevitas within the land and without, where Israel και προς τον κριτην ος αν γένηται εν ταις had any jurisdiction."
ημέραις εκείναις, και εκζητήσαντες αναγγελουσί Rosen.--"W, Iudices dirimebant caus- COL Tny kpioiv. sas; scribis vero (era Ex. 1. 6) commissa Au. l'er.-9 And thou shalt come unto erat cura tabularum genealogicarum. Ju- the priests the Levites, and unto the judge dices et scribæ postea sumebantur ex Levitis, that shall be in those days, and enquire ; quod hi nullis aliis negotiis distracti, legibus and they shall shew thee the sentence of omne studium impendere potuerunt. Cf.ljudgment. 1 Chr. xxiii. 1; xxvi. 29–32; 2 Chr. xix. ! And (thou shall) enquire; and they shall 8—11; xxxiv. 13.
shew thee, &c. Ver. 21.
Ged., Booth.— And they shall enquire Au. l'er.--21 Thou shalt not plant thee
[Sam., LXX), and shew thee, &c. a grove of any trees near into the altar of
Ver. 10. the LORD thy God, which thou shalt nake du. l'er.---The Lord.
Ged.-The Lord your God (Sam., LXX).
spiciunt, patet, legem hanc datam esse, cum Au. Ver.--14 When thou art come unto adhuc dum in castris detineretur legislator. the land which the LORD thy God giveth Ex verbis autem : si dixeris (cogitaveris), thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell constituam super me regem, sicut habent therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over omnes per circuitum nationes, patet, illum me, like as all the nations that are about me; qui hanc dedit legem, rem supposuisse,
15 Thou shalt in any wise set him king quam numquam fieri exoptabat, et ut cum over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall Clerico loquar, præmonuisse, quid fieri choose : one from among thy brethren shalt oporteret, si id contingeret, quod, ne conthou set king over thee: thou mayest not tingeret, metuebat. Non comprobatur a set a stranger over thee, which is not thy legislatore regia potestas, sed cavetur, ne id, brother.
quod prohiberi non amplius poterat, damno Rosen.-14, 15, Legem, quæ sequitur, de esset. Quem autem magis hæc lex saluelectione regis, non a Mose datam videri, briter præmonens decuit, quam Mosen, qui sed a sacerdotibus, legum ac traditionum in omnibus, quæ præceperat, clarissima Mosaicarum statoribus, post Salomonis summæ mentis suæ providæ edidit speciætatem additam, persuasum sibi habet Car. mina ? qui ipse in aula regia in virum adultus Dav. Ilgen. in Commentat. de Notione tituli noverat despotismum, et quæ in res subFilii Dei, Jenæ, 1795 (repetita in den Me- ditorum inde redundare solent mala. Moses, morabilien ab H. E. G. Paulo editt., p. vii.). qui gentis suæ mentem mobilem, et inArgumenta sententiæ suis ipsius verbis sub-domitum sane pruritum, exterarum gentium jungam : “Primum lex de electione regis re- mores consuetudinesque æmulandi noverat, pugnat formæ constitutionis Mosaicæ, qua suspicari et prævidere poterat, Israelitas Jova rex erat colendus; nec, ut videtur, un-rege invisibili, per sacerdotes tantum et quam in mentem Mosi venerat, aut regem eli-Levitas adeundo, non contentos, sed regem gere, aut de electione ejus quidquam præcipere. petituros fore, quem oculis suis cernere, Deinde, si Moses jam præscripsisset modum quem precibus suis adire, quem exercitibus eligendi, et, quod inde sequeretur, tacite præficere, quem regio splendore induere regis electionem comprobasset; non appa- possent. Sane, qui minus providens est reret, cur Samuel, quum populus eum animus, hæc prævidere potuit. Jam quum rogaret, ut sibi regem præfigeret, tam gra- | hanc rem prohibere non posset, concessit viter has preces ferret. Quomodo dicere vir eam, legislatoris prudentis instar, qui cum sanctissimus potuisset, populum Deum suum, legem quandam non observatum iri, scit, Jovam rejicere, si Moses in omnem eventum satius ducit, eam tollere, quam ceteraruin non modo probasset talem reipublicæ muta- auctoritatem infringere, certisque eam cotionem, sed etiam modum inutandi præ- ercuit limitibus, ne, si contigerit, exitio foret scripsisset? Denique, si ante Salomonem genti Hebraicæ. Samuel ergo precibus lex nota fuisset, sive a Mose lata, sive a Hebræorum regem petentium non ideo reSacerdotum aliquo codici addita, non video, stitit, quod hæc lex non nota, vel theocratiæ quomodo Salomoni concessum esse potuisset, Mosaicæ contraria erat potestes regia, sed contra legem Jovæ, equorum tantam mul- quia sciebat, Mogen tantummodo concessisse, titudinem alere, et mulieres principes ut majora inlıibeantur mala. Tandem preliabere septingentas et trecentas pellices cibus annuit, quod lege jam Moses abusum (1 Reg. x. 28, et xi. 5). Ex his causis sequi præcidisset.” 15 12 77 7 773? 08. arbitror, hanc legein post Salomonem, ubi Quem eliget Deus, h. e., approbabit per sacerdotum ordo animadverterat, quæ regis prophetam, vel per sortem, quod utrumque esset potestas, et quæ libido, ad cam coer- factum est in Saulis electione, 1 Sam. ix. cendam esse insertam.” Igenio adstipu- 15, 16; x. 1, 20. latus est De Wette (Diss. in Deut., p. 15).
Ver. 16. Digna tamen sunt, quæ in legem hanc regiam monuit Ilerbst in Obserratt. ile Pencia tat. quatuor libror. posterior. auctore et 0.12 nie?7 ye? na eng editore, p. 20. sq. “Ex formula," inquit, S L con ob ibnuus Susis “cum ingressus fueris – dabit tibi, - habitaveris, illis legibus communi, quæ res He
: 719 1777 7772 bræorum post occupatam Palæstinam re- duóti où Tilnovrei éavto iTitov, oưdè ten
om samen oderning y
årootpéyn tòv Naòy eis Asyurtov, Őws us all the tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor Tolnuvy aúto Ottov. ó oe Kúplos eitev, où inheritance with Israel : they shall eat the poo Onoegde útootpéyai tỉ ódó taúry čtl. offerings of the Lord made by fire, and his
Au. l'er.—16 But he shall not multiply inheritance. horses to himself, nor cause the people to And his inheritance. So the Heb. return to Egypt, to the end that he should Ged., Booth.—Which are his inheritance. multiply horses: forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth
Ver. 3. return no more that way.
Ged., Booth.-16 But he shall not mul- ! tiply horses to himself, lest he cause the green nog mat Na Dyn? people to return to Egypt, for the sake of Syn? Von dos ing? 16 multiplying horses: for Jehovah hath said
:7777 to you, Ye shall return no more that way.
Rosen.-13, Tantummodo rex aliquando. Kai aŭtn ń kpious twv iepéwy tà tapà toù eligendus non multiplicabit, multos alat sibi laov tapà Tôv Ovóvtwy tà Otuata, cúv TE equos, 010_NS?, neque reducat populum in pro xov, eáv Te topó Batov. kai døgels TÙv BpaÆgyptum ad multiplicandum sibi equos. xiova to iepei kai tà orazóvia kai tò évvotpov. Nam ex Ægypto solebant eo tempore equi Au. l'er.—3 And this shall be the priest's educi, ut Salomonis exemplum mandato due from the people, from them that offer a huic contrarium probat, 1 Reg. x. 28, 29. sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep; and Itaque timendum erat, ne rex, equis com- they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, parandis plus nimio addictus, populum in and the two cheeks, and the maw. Ægyptum reduceret, “ ut ibi haberet e servis Pool.-- 1 sacrifice, to wit, a sacrifice of suis et populo suo, qui, ut emtioni præ- thanksgiving, or a peace-offering, as appears essent, habitarent in urbibus equestribus,' ' from Lev. vii. 31, 33, which is ofttimes ut dicit R. Moses Nachmanis til. ad h. 1. called simply a sacrifice, as Exod. xviii. 12 ; Quin et alii potuissent, hoc exemplo pro- Ler. xvii. 5, 8; Numb. xv. 3; Deut. xii. 27. vocati, redire in Egyptun, et in Ervitios The shoulder, and the two checks, and the mores relabi.
mau. Quest. How doth this agree with Ver. 1S.
other texts, in which the shoulder and the breast, and those parts only, are the priest's
due, not the cheeks and maw? Insu. 1. byssing 777mig buip is on? Who shall tie God's hands? what if he now
: 075770271217 ? makes an addition, and enlargeth the priest's και όταν καθίση επί της αρχής αυτού, και
commons? Nothing more usual than for
ο γράψει αιτω το δευτερονόμιον του το είς:
one scripture to supply what is larking in
another, and for a latter law of God to add βιβλίον παρα των ιερέων των Λευιτών. Au. Ver.--18. And it shall be, when he
to a former. 2. The breast may be here
Comitted, because it is comprehended under sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that'.
Mat the shoulder, to which it is commonly he shall write him a copy of this law in a : book out of that which is before the priests':
" joined, and with which it was waved before
ests the Lord. 3. The Ilebrew word here renthe Levites. And it shall be when he sittith, &c.
dered me or stomach (so Lee, Gesen.,
Rosen.), which was reckoned among dainBp. Horsley.--Rather thus, “ And it shall
"ties by the ancients, is not to my remembe, that so soon as he is seated upon the
" brance used elsewhere, and therefore it may throne of his kingdom (i.e., upon liis first
* have another signification, and some render accession), then he shall write him a copy
°P. it the breast, others take it for the upperof this law, accorviing to the book which is
most part of the stomach, which lies under in the custody of the priests the Levites."
the bivast. Clip. ITTII. 1.
(ed.--Dogado observes, “that Scripture :77 7 77 77777? - explains in one place what is omitted in
- Kaprojecta kepiou ó kiípos airəv, dá- another: so that the two chcehis and the gortalatú.
mal", mentioned bere, may be added in Lil'er:-) The priests the Lerites, and Lev. vii. 31, and the breast mentioned there
may be understood here." But this is surely of his patrimony (Heb., his sales by the an odd manner of adding and understanding. fathers). I rather think that this is a distinct precept. Bp. Horsley.—“Beside that which cometh
Rosen.---722 , Ventriculum. Quum autem of the sale of his patrimony." Unintelligible. animalia ruminantia quadruplicem habeant The English must be wrong. For what ventriculum, sive quatuor meatus, per quos patrimony could a Levite have? alimenta transeunt, antequam ad intestina Pool.— Like portions, to wit, with their perveniant ; dubium est, utrum hæc lex brethren who were in actual ministration ; omnes hos ventriculos sacerdoti vindicet as they share with them in the work, so nec ne. Equidem cum Clerico intelligere shall they also in the encouragements. mallem infimam ventriculi partem, quippe Beside that which cometh of the sale of his pinguissimam, quæ a Latinis vocatur omu- patrimony; though he have an estate wheresum, a Græcis čvotpov, s. ñvuotpov, qua ipsa by he may subsist raised by the sale of his voce LXX h. I. usi sunt. Confirmatur hæc house in his city, and his cattle, and other interpretatio Josephi et Philonis auctoritate. moveables, yet you shall not upon this lile enim Ant. iv. 4, hæc habet: li vero, ground either deny or diminish their part qui domi mactant, convivii privati caussa, of your maintenance. The reason of this non religionis, debent adferre ad sacerdotes 'law was, partly because he that waited on omasum, pectus et dextrum armum mactati the altar ought to live by the altar; and pecudis. Philo autem de præmiis sacerdotum, partly because it was fit he should keep his t. ii., p. 235, edit. Mangey. : Ex iis, qua money, wherewith he might redeem what extra altare, convivii caussa, tria jubentur he sold, if afterwards he saw occasion for it. dari sacerdoti, armus, maxilla et quod vocatur Heb., besides his sales by the fathers, i.e., of
that which came to him by his fathers, or, Ver. 5.
according to his fathers, or, his father's house; and these words may be joined, not with the word immediately foregoing, but
:D2775 992word coming in by a kind of parenthesis, in ότι αυτόν εξελέξατο κύριος εκ πασών των
this manner and order, Besides that which φυλών σου, παρεστάναι έναντι κυρίου του
ton cometh by the sale of their goods, they shall θεου λειτουργείν και ευλογείν επί τω ονόματι "
huvelike portions to eat to what their αυτου, αυτός και οι υιοί αυτού εν τοις υιοίς
* brethren have, each of them eating accord'Iopana.
ing to his father's house, i.e., a Gershonite Au. Ver.-5. For the Lord thy God hath,
shall eat with his brethren the Gershonites
who are then ministering, and a Merarite chosen him out of all thy tribes, to stand to
with the Merarites, &c., and so there shall minister in the name of the Lorn, him and his sons for ever.
be no disturbance nor change in the apGed.-5 For the LORD your God, hath P
. pointed courses by their accession to the chosen him and his sons after him, to wait d his sons for ..
. number. before the Lorn, your Gop[Sam., LEX), to
Bp. Patrick.–8. They shall have like porminister to him (Sam., 1773)], and to bless
tions to eat.] This shows that he is speak
ing of the priests; for the Levites did not in his name (Sam., LIX). Booth.- For Jehovah hath chosen hin
eat of the holy things offered at the altar : out of all thy trib's, to stand before Jehovah
and the meaning is, that the rest of the thy God; to minister and bless in his name?
priests who waited there, should allow him
the same portion which they themselves had [Sam., LXX], him and his sons for ever.
in the sacrifices. Ver. 8.
1 Beside that which cometh of the sale of
to himself, and not be divided with other :hipsy vriests rat'' Jerus
· Mitt priests at Jerusalem (suppose) where he pepiða Menepio uévny máyetat, Tedino trīs ministered. The Hebrew words are someπράσεως της κατά πατριάν.
thing obscure, being “besides his sales by, Au. l'er.—8 They shall have like portions or unto, the fathers," that is, such possesto eat, beside that which cometh of the sale sions as their fathers purchased, and left to them : for though the priests had no sharel Rosen.—8 59 972 plyny, Porlionem sicut in the land of Canaan given them at the portionem, sc. ceterorum comedent, i. e., division of it, yet they might purchase æqualiter de portionibus comedent. Hiehouses, and goods, and cattle; and some- ronymus: partem ciborum eandem accipiet times they purchased fields, as we read quam et ceteri. Saadias: et dividant inter se Abiathar had fields of his own at Anathoth, portiones æquales. Idem videntur LXX 1 Kings ii. 26, and the prophet Jeremiah, voluisse, qui pepiða ueneplouévny páyetau who was a priest also, purchased a field of reddiderunt. Diox7.5 99777?, præter his uncle's son, in his own town, Jer. xxxii., venditiones suas super patres, sive per patres. 7, 8, &c.
In quibus interpretandis et vett. et recentt. But the Jews make a quite different con- dissentiunt. LXX, any tiis apuoews tñs struction of these three verses, which they katà tijv trasplav, præter venditionem quæ est understand in this manner, that if any secundum fumiliam. Quod est obscurum. Levite (i. e., priest, for they only ministered Hieronymus : excepto eo quod in urbe sua before God) came up out of the city where er paterna ei successione debetur. Per he commonly resided, out of pure devotion d'or, venditiones intellexit possessiones to attend at the three solemn feasts, which venales, quæ parentum fuerunt, ob idque et were held at the place where the sanctuary ab iis vendi poterant. Etsi enim fundos ad was (where they were bound to wait only agriculturam, vineas, oliveta Levitæ non when their course came, but at these feasts possiderent, habebant tamen urbes suas, in might all come and minister in the sanc- quibus domus possidere poterant, greges et tuary), his brethren, whose week it was then armenta aliaque mobilia, itemque juxta to attend, should both admit him to minister urbem agros compascuos ad jumentorum before God with them, and also give him an' pabula ; quæ omnia successione ad posteros equal portion with themselves in the extra- : transibant. llinc Abiathar Pontifex 1 Reg. ordinary sacrifices which were then offered ii. 26 agrum habuit proprium in urbe sacerat those festivals, except only those which dotali Anathoth, et in eadem urbe Jeremias were peculiarly assigned to them whose itidem sacerdos patruelis sui agrum emit, week of waiting at the altar it then was; Jer. xxxii. 7 syg. Videtur Hieronymus who, by the ordinance of God, delivered to illam suam interpretationem a magistro suo Moses and Aaron (who, they suppose', are llebræo accepisse. Nam et R. Bechai, qui here called the fathers), were to have the sub finem Seculi 13, Commentarium in right shoulder of the peace-offerings. See Pentat., scripsit, sensum hujus vs. ait esse Lev. vii. 33, where it is said. “Ile among hunc: quidquid sacerdotibus datum fuerit, the sons of Aaron that offereth the peace- divident inter se æqualibus portionibus, seu offerings and the fat, shall have the right pelles victimarum sint, seu carnes, seu hirci shoulder for his part;" in which none other piaculares, aut alia dona quaevis, excepto was to participate. But why this should be tamen eo, quod quis pro vendita avitæ called the sales, I do not understand, unless hæreditatis domo acceperit, secundum illam, we interpret it as Forsterus dotlı, venditiones, 'qua Lev. xxxv. 33, exstat, legem. Sane i.e., res venditas à patribus, “things solel hic videtur esse simplicissimus sensus, quem by the fathers," that is, appropriated by et l'agius expressit his verbis : “ lloc dicit, them (to the particular priest that offered the omnes Levitas, qui Hierosolymam veniant, sacrifice), as things sold are to those that et ibi ministrent Domino, ex æquo partibuy them.
cipare posse omnibus portionibus, quæ ex Ged.—8 “ Portion for portion he [Sam., oblationibus illis obreniebant; non autem LXX, Vulg.) shall cat with them; beside teneri, ut alius cum alio dividat, et partiat what cometh from the sale of his patrimony." ea bona, que a majoribus suis tanquam Beside what cometh, &c. Ilis having a patri- propria habebat.” mony of his own shall not prevent his receiving an equal share in the sacrifice. Some Rabbins, however, after Onkelos,
Ver. 10, 11, 12 understand it in a different manner; and 1729-17 722 12 SE? JO render, lle shall have an equal portion with s o m the other priests, exclusive of what muy fall to', himevery Sabbath, as the fathers have ordained. Sis 790? 10 ? 1 :