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which they have been for so many ages | the way of the Red Sea, as the Lord spake separated.
unto me; and we compassed Mount Seir It was natural for Moses, in the course of many days. [For the children of Israel these several speeches to his brethren in journeyed from Moseroth, and pitched in Deuteronomy, to embrace the first proper Bene-jaakan. From thence they journeyed, opportunity of impressing on their me- and pitched in Hagidgad. From thence mories a matter of such particular import- they journeyed, and pitched in Jotbathah, a ance, as the continuation of the priesthood land of rivers of water. From thence they among the Levites after Aaron's death. journeyed, and pitched in Ebronah. From And the first proper place seems to be in thence they journeyed, and pitched in Ezionthe second chapter, after the first verse. geber. From thence they journeyed, and At chap. i. 19, he speaks of their march pitched in the wilderness of Zin, which is from IIoreb to Kadesh-barnea, whence they Kadesh. From thence they journeyed, and sent the spies into Canaan. He then sets pitched in Mount Hor. And Aaron died forth their murmurings, and God's sentence there, and there he was buried; and Eleazar that they should die in the wilderness; and his son ministered as priest in his stead. he ends the first chapter with their being At that time the Lord had separated the defeated by the Amorites, their weeping tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covebefore the Lord, and abiding many days nant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord in Kadesh, which is Kudesh-barnea, near to minister unto him, and to bless in his Canaan.
name, unto this dayWherefore Levi hath Chap. ii. begins thus : “ Then we turned, no part nor inheritance with his brethren: and took our journey into the wilderness, the Lord is his inheritance, according as the by the way of the Red Sea, as the Lord Lord thy God promised him.]” And tliis spake imto me; and we compassed Mount paragraph being thus finished at the end of Seir many days." Now the many days, or the first verse, the second verse begins a long time, which they spent in compassing new paragraph, thus :—“And the Lord Mount Seir, i.e., going round on the south-spake unto me, saying, Ye have compassed west coasts of Edom, * in order to proceed this mountain long enough; turn you northnorth-east, from Edom through Moab to ward”- through the east side of Seir (or Arnon, must include several of their sta- Edom) towards Moab on the north: sce tions ; besides that eminent one at Mount verses 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Hor, where Aaron died. And as part of Pool.-6, &c. This following listory their road, during this long compass, lay comes in manifestly by way of parenthesis, through Ezion-geber (which was on the as may appear from ver. 10, where he eastern tongue of the Red Sea), and the returns to liis former discourse ; and it seems south boundary of Edom; † thence to Zin to be here inserted, either, 1. Because the (which is Karesh, i.e., Meribah-Kadesh); priests and Levites here mentioned were the and thence to Mount Hor, as they marched guardians and keepers of the ark and tables to the north-east: so, 'tis probable that the bere mentioned (so Patrick, Rosen.). Or five stations preceding that of Ezion-geber, rather, 2. As an evidence of God's gracious were on the extremity of mount Seir to the answer to Moses's prayers, and of his resouth-west. And if their first station, at conciliation to the people, notwithstanding entering the south-west borders of Edom, their late and great provocation. For, saith and beginning to compass Mount Seir, was he, after this they proceeded by God's guidMoseroth, this gives the reason wanted, ance in their journeys, some eminent stages
-why Moses begins this passage at whereof he names for all; and though Moseroth, and ends it with Aaron's death Aaron died in one of them, yet God made at Mount Ilor. And this will discover a'ip that breach, and Eleazar came in his proper connexion between the four displace, and ministered as priest, one branch located verses and the context here, Deut. of which ofiice was to intercede for the i. 16 : “So ye abode in Kadesh (barnea) people. Then, saith he, God brought them many days." Ch. ü. 1 : " Then we turned, from the barren parts of the wilderness to a and took our journey into the wilderness, by land of rirers of waters, ver. 7, a pleasant
- and fruitful soil. Then he adds, God sepa* See Gen. xxxii. 3; xuvi. 8. + 1 Kings ix. 26. rated the Levites, &c., ver. 8. Mosera, Object. This place seems directly contrary to proud wits, and give them that occasion of that, Numb. xxxiii. 31, where their journey deceiving and ruining themselves which they is quite contrary to this, even from Moseroth so greedily seek and gladly embrace ; which to Bene-jaukan. This indeed is a great dif- is the reason given by some of the ancients ficulty, and profane wits take occasion to why God hath left so many difficulties in cavil. And if a satisfactory answer be not Scripture. Answ. 3. The words may be yet given to it by interpreters, it ought not otherwise rendered, from Beeroth of the therefore to be concluded unanswerable ; children of Jaakan, and from Mosera ; because many things formerly thought un- where the order of the places is not observed, answerable have been since fully cleared, as was noted before of the order of time, and therefore the like may be presumed con- ver. 1, because it was nothing to the purpose cerning other doubts yet remaining. And here, and because that might be easily it were much more reasonable to ac- fetched from Numb. xxxii., where those knowledge here a transposition of the words journeys are more particularly and exactly through the scribe's mistake, than upon such described. For the conjunction and, that a pretence to reject the Divine authority of may be here wanting, and to be supplied, as those sacred books, which hath been cons it is Exod. vi. 23; 1 Sam. iv. 7; Psal. firmed by such irresistible arguments. But cxxxiii. 3 ; Isa. Ixiii. 11; Hab. iii. 11. And there is no need of these general pleas, the preposition from is easily supplied from seeing particular answers are and may be the foregoing words, as is most usual. Nor given to this difficulty sufficient to satisfy seems there to be any more reason to render modest and impartial inquirers. Answ. 1. it to Mosera, than from Mosera, seeing the The places here mentioned are differing Hebrew letter he in the end is made a part from those, Numb. xxxvi., it being very of the proper name, and therefore is not frequent in Scripture for diverse persons and local. There Aaron died. Quest. How is places to be called by the same names, and this true ? when Aaron died not in Mosera, yet the names are not wholly the same; for but in mount Hor, Numb. xxxiii. 38. there it is Bene-jaakan, and here Beeroth Answ'. 1. Mosera may be a different place bene-jaakan, or Breroth of the children of from Moseroth, and that may be the name Jaukar ; there Moseroth, here Mosera ; there of a town or region in which Mount Hor Ilorhagidgad, here Guigodah; there Jot-was, or to which it belonged. Or, the same vathah, bere Jotbath. If the places were mountain, in respect of diverse parts and the same, it may justly seem strange why opposite sides of it, might be called by Moses should so industriously make a change diverse names, here Mosera, and there in every one of the names. And therefore' Hor. And it is possible they might go these may be other stations, which being several journeys, and pass to divers stations, omitted in Numb. xxxiii., are supplied here, and by fetching a compass (which they oft it being usual in sacred Scripture to supply did in their wilderness travels) come to the the defects of one place out of another. other side of the same mountain. Answ'. 2. insu. 2. Admitting these two places to be The Ilebrew particle scham may here note the same with those Numb. xxxiii. 3!, yet the time, and not the place of Aaron's the jowners are diverse. They went from death, and may be rendered then, as it is Beeroth of the children of Jankan 10 Vlora, taken, Gen. xlix. 21; Psal. xiv. 5 ; Eccles. which is omitted in Numbers, and therefore ijj. 17; Zeph i. 11. And then is not to be here supplied ; and then back again from 'taken precisely, but with some latitude, as it ilosera or Moseroth to Bewe.jaakm, as is is oft used in Seripture; that is, about that there said; for which return there miylittime, after a few removes more; as the then be some suficient reason, though now words, at that time, ver. S, must necessarily unknown to 115, as the reasons of many be understood. buch like things are: or God might order it ī From thence. Lithier, 1. From that so for his own pleasure, and it is not im- place, and that cither from Yosera, last possible he mighı do it for this reason, that mentioned, or from Bene-jaakan; for rebuy this fcenning contradiction, as well as latives many times in Scripture belong to the some others, he inight in just joigment do remoterapiecedent. Or, 2. From that what he threatened to the Jesus, Jer. vi. 21, time; for this particle sometimes notes not pre luy stumbling-blocks before profane and place, but time, as 2 Kings ii. 21; Isa. Ixv. 20. So the meaning is, at, or about quam fecerat in monte quadraginta dierum that time, as it is ver. 8, which being con- et noctium moram, ut pro populo Deum sidered, may serve to clear the great dif- exoraret, Moses revertitur. Ad hæc tamen ficulty discoursed upon the last verse con- responderi potest, hæc occasione ejus, quod cerning the seeming contradiction of this vs. præced. dictum erat, inseri; dictum place and Numb. xxxii. 31, 32.
vero erat, has tabulas, quas tanti Israelitæ 8 At that time, about that time, i.e., when I faciebant, quasque tamquam divinum dewas come down from the mount, as was said positum studiosissime observari conveniebat, ver. 5; for these words manifestly look to in Arca fuisse repositas, et in illum usque that verse, the sixth and seventh verses diem ibi asservari, jam his paucis versibus, being put in by way of parenthesis, as was ut certo constare possit, eas etiam tum ibi said before. Or, if it relate to the words fuisse, docet, quibus rei tantæ commissa immediately foregoing, this may be meant esset custodia, Aaroni videlicet inprimis, of a second separation of them upon Aaron's Sacrorum velut supremo Antistiti, quo mordeath; and having mentioned the separation tuo in eam curam et custodiam, quemadof Eleazar to the office of the high priest in modum et in Pontificatum suffectus fuerat his father's stead, ver. 6, he now repeats it, Eleazarus, ejus filius, qui tum etiam superthat the Levites who were his, as they had stes erat ; quocirca obiter Aaronis mors et been his father's servants, were separated as Eleazari subrogatio refertur, et quibus in before, or were confirmed in their office. , locis, seu deserti mansionibus ea facta sint. To stand before the Lord ; a phrase used Deinde vero, quia non solus per se Pontifex concerning the prophets, 1 Kings xvii. l; huic custodire præfuit, sed per Levitas inxviii. 15; this being the posture of ministers. feriores ministros magnam partem eam exHence the angels are said to stand, 2 Chron. secutus est, qui noctes diesque excubabant, xviii. 18; Luke i. 19. Tobless in his name ; et observabant, ne quæ rebus sacris injuria either, 1. Particularly, to pronounce the fieret, et Arcam, quando proficiscendum, solemn blessing of God upon the congrega- humeris suis deferebant, idcirco post Aaronem tion, which was done in God's name, of et Eleazarum de Levitis ad sacrum hoc which see Lev. ix. 23; Numb. vi. 23, &c. ministerium adscitis subjici videtur. Sed But that work was peculiar to the priests, multo major est, quæ in ipso hoc loco renot common to all the Levites. Or, more peritur, duplex difficultas, quarum altera generally, to bless, either, 1. God, i.e., to nascitur ex ordine mansionum, quæ hic praise him, which being a considerable part memorantur, si conferantur cum Num. of the Levites' work, 1 Chron. xvi., it is not xxxvi. 31 sqq., altera ex loco, in quo Aaron probable it would be omitted here, where obiisse dicitur. Hic enim Hebræieunte puteis their office is so particularly described. Or, Bene-Jaacanis Moseram (ubi dicitur mortuus 2. The people, whom they did bless by Aarou), e Mosera in Gudgodam, e Gudgoda performance of those holy ministrations for in Jotbatham. Numerorun vero cap. xxxiii. the people, and giving those instructions to 31 sqq., eunte Moscrothis in Bene-Jaacanem, them, to which God's blessing was promised e Bene-Jaacane in Chor-gidgadum, e Chorand usually given; and this they did in gidgado in Jotbatham, e Jotbatha in HaGorl's wame, i.e., by command and com- bronam, ex Habrona in Hetsjongeberum, mission from him.
Hetsjongebero Kadesum, c Kadeso in lorem Rosa.---9 Totus hic locus difficultatum montem, ubi moritur Aaron. Quod aliqui, plenus est, et primo quidem circa ea, quæ ut hanc difficultatem tollant, lloseru diverhoc versu et deinceps referuntur, haec oc- sum a Moseroth, et Puteos Bene-Jaacan currit difficultas, quid sibi velit hic interlocum diversum ab eo, qui in Numerorum jecta narratio de nonnullis in descrio factis loco nominatur Bene-Jaacan, faciant, non mansionibus, de Aaronis morto, de Eleazari placet, siquidem Mosera non aliter a Mosein Pontificatum subrogatione, de Levitarum roth distinguitur, quam singularis a plurali, ad ministerium separatione, et quomodo et iisdem plane literis utrumque in llebræo hæc cohæreant cum iis, quæ proxime antea scribitur. Puteos vero Jancanitos quis credat relata crant de secundis in monte conscriptis, locum esse diversum a Jaacanis, quum res tabulis, de Arcir fabricationc, et tabulis in eadem plane videatur utroque indicari, licet. ca repositis, vel cun ijs, quæ sequuntur unum altero brevius pronuntietur. Quid vs. 10 et deinceps, ubi rwum ad suam enim ? an forsan alias fucrunt Putei Jaacanorum, alias Jaacani? annon ubi incolæ, ibi tamen anno illo quadragesimo, quo Aaron eorum putei? Accedit, quod hic post præ- mortuus est, recto itinere in Cananæam dictas mansiones duæ aliæ referantur, Gad- proficiscerentur, prout illis a Jova fuit imgad et Jothbatha, quæ prorsus eædem sunt' peratum, ut habetur supra ï. 3. Ex quibus cum duabus illis, quæ Num. xxxiii. 31 sqq., tricis ita se expedire student, ut Præterita post Moseroth et Bene-juacan referuntur. vs. 7 pro Plusquamperfectis accipiant, et hoc Quare alii nostrum locum cum altero illo ita modo vertant: unde (Moserothis) Gadgadam conciliant, ut sumant Israelitas bis ad eundem venerant, indeque profecti Jothbatha castra locum venisse, semel quidem ex Moscroth metati fuerant, jam ante scilicet, quum ex in Benejaacan, tum vero regrediendo ex præcedentibus mansionibus istis prima vice Benejaacan in Moseroth. Altera autem , recesserunt, ut itaque hic totius sententiæ difficultas est, quomodo nostro loco in sit sensus: Israelitas ex Bene-Jaacan MoseMosera mortuus ac sepultus dicatur Aaron, rotbam castra movisse, cum scilicet altera quum Num. xx. diserte referatur, cum in vice ad eum locum reditum fuit; quo in loco monte llor mortuum esse, quod idem re- Aaron mortuus est atque sepultus, ex quo petitur Num. xxxiii. 28 et Dent. xxxii. 50. loco jam ante venerant Gadgadam, et inde Augetur difficultas, si enim idem locus, Jothbatham, ut vel hinc colligi possit, Mosera et Moseroth, hinc confici videretur, Beroth-Bene-Jaacan et Mosera hic esse mortuum esse Aaronem jampridem prius- eadem loca cum Bene-Jaacan et Moseroth, quam ad montem Hor pervenissent; præ- Num. xxxiii. 31, quum bic et ibi ad eadem cedit enim mansio ea, quæ in Moseroth loca venisse dicantur. Cf. Lilienthal von fuit, sexque aliæ mansiones inter illam, et der guten Sache der göltl. Offenb., p. vii., cam, quæ in monte Hor fuit, intercedunt. p. 650, atque Buxtorfii Anticrit., p. 9:33 sqq., Accedit, quod si Aaron in mansione Mose- ubi et alia utrumque locum conciliandi tenroth mortuus sit, sequitur, eum mortuum tamina recensentur. V'identur tamen hæc esse priusquam peccatum illud committeret, omnia nimis artificiosa, partim etiam sine ob quod morte multatus dicitur (Num. xx. idoneis argumentis sumta. Quare jam Lu12, 13). Id enim peccatun admissum est dov. Capellus in Crit. S., l. 6, cap. 7, § 11, in Cades, ea nempe mansione, quæ proxime pag. 987, ed. Halens., totum hunc locum a antecedit illam, quæ facta fuit in monte seriore quadam manu, vel potius Librarii Hor. Cui dubitationi ita fere solent oc- alicujus hallucinatione infultum credidit, cui curere, ut montem Hor et Mosera eundem sententiæ et Dathius adstipulatur. Kendicant locum fuisse, ad quem secundo re- nicotto vero in Diss. 2 super ratione textus dierint Israelitæ, ita tamen, ut mons solus Hebr. Vet. Test., p. 30-4 vers. lat. hic locus Hor dictus fuerit, in quo Aaron obiit, ad- antequam conficeretur Versio Græca Alexjacens locus, in quo castra wetata, dictus audrina, adeoque ante Christum natum, sic sit Mosera seu Moseroth, et posterior quidem corruptus esse videtur, ut multa omitterentur, mansio a monte nomen acceperit, Aarone quorum Jacuna explenda site Cod. Samar., ibi mortuo ; prior vero Moseroth dicta sit, qui hic cum Numerorum loco convenit, sed ab eventu forsan, quod ibi Jova quosdam ex Critici, ut mihi videtur, alicujus SamaIsraelitas insigni aliqua castigatione affecerit. ritani manu emendatrice. Nam interpretes Jam vero nova difficultas oritur vs. 7, ubi veteres omnes non dissentiunt a lectione Israelitie Moserothis Gadgadam, atque inde vulgata Codicis llebræi. 7.7.7 mm (Vs. 8) Jothhatham profecti narrantur, quae due llo tempore, quo vitulus aureus in deserto mansiones Num. xxxiii. proxime sequa colebatur, et Aaron culpam morte puniendam dicutw Moseroth et Bencjaacan in itu ante sibi contrahebat. Aaronis mortem et peccatum in Cades commissum : qui igitur fieri potest, ut hæ man
Ver. 11, 12. siones sequuta sint eam, quæ habita est ad Au. l'er:-11 And the Lord said unto montem Hor, quo tempore Aaron obiit, me, Arise, take thy jowney (lieb., go in maxime quum Num. xxxiii. sequentes man- journey) before the people, that they may siones alia riomina habeant, Salmona, Phu- go in and possess the land, which I sware non? Regressos vero ad cadem loca, in into their fathers to give into them. quibus prius castra fixerant post Aaronis12 And now, Israel, what doth the Lord mortem, parum est verisimile, id enim fuisset thy God require of thee, but to fear the a Cananaæ aditu longius recedere, quum Lor thy God, to walk in all his ways, and