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renders it, “the Word of the Lord his God they do not take notice of so as to punishi is his help.” And so the Jerusalem Targum. them. And this sense best agrees with the

The shout of a king is among them.] God context; God hath decreed and promised to being their king, he prophesies that they bless this people; and he hath blessed them, should always triumph over their enemies: and I cannot reverse it, ver. 20, and he will for he alludes to the shouts which are made not reverse it, though provoked to do so by when a king or great captain returns vic- their sins, which he will take no notice of. torious with the spoils of those he hath Others thus, He hath not beheld, as hitherto vanquished. So the meaning of the whole he hath not, so for the future he will not verse is this, in brief: Since they do not behold, i. e., so as to approve it, as that word worship idols, but cleave to the Lord their is oft used, as Gen. vii. 1 ; Isa. lxvi. 2 ; Hab. God, and serve him alone, he is present i. 13, or so as to suffer it, injury against with them, not only to preserve them from Jacob (so Rosen.), &c. For aven, here their enemies, but to give them glorious rendered iniquity, is oft used in that sense, victories over them.

as Job v. 6, 7; Prov. xii. 21; xxii. 8. And Pool.-He, i.e., God, understood ver. 20, the other word, amal, rendered perverseness, and expressed ver. 19, hath not or doth not oft notes vexalion and trouble, as Job v.6, 7; behold or see iniquity or perverseness, i. e., Psal. xxv. 17; xxxvi. 4; and the particle any sin, in Jacob or Israel; which cannot beth, rendered in, is oft used for against, as be meant of a simple seeing or knowing of Exod. xiv. 25 ; xx. 16; Numb. xii. 1. So him, for so God did see and observe, yea, the sense is, God will not see them wronged and chastise their sins, as is manifest, Exod. or ruined by any of their adversaries, xxxii. 9; Deut. ix. 13 ; but of such a sight whereof the following words may be a good of their sins as should provoke God utterly reason, for God is with him, &c. The Lord to forsake and curse and destroy them, his God is with him, i.e., he hath a favour which was Balak's desire, and Balaam's hope for this people, and will defend and save and design. For as Balaam knew that none them. So the phrase of God's being with a but Israel's God could curse or destroy person or people signifies, as Jud. vi. 13 ; Israel, so he knew that nothing but their Psal. xlvi. 7; Isa. viii. 10. The shout of a sin could move him so to do ; and therefore king is among them, i.e., such joyful and he took a right, though wicked, course after-triumphant shouts as those wherewith a wards to tempt them to sin, and thereby to people congratulate the approach and preexpose them to ruin, Numb. xxv. And sence of their king when he appears among Balaam had now hoped that God was in-them upon some solemn occasion, or when censed against Israel for their sins, and he returns from battle with victory and therefore would be prevailed with to give spoils. The expression implies God's being them up to the curse and spoil. But, saith their King and Ruler, and their abundant he, I was mistaken, I see God hath a sin- security and just confidence in him as such. gular favour to this people, and though he And here is an allusion to the silver trumpets sees and punisheth sin in other persons and which were made by God's command, and people with utter destruction, as he hath used upon great solemnities, in which God now done in Sihon and (y and the Amor- their King was present in a special manner, ites, yet he will not do so with Israel; he Numb. x. 9; Josh. vi. 16, 20; 1 Sam. iv. 5 ; winks at their sins, forgets and forgives 2 Chron. xii. 12. them, and will not punish them as their Dr. A. Clarke-21 Le hath not beheld iniquities deserve. In this sense God is iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen persaid not to see sins, as elsewhere he is said verseness in Israel.] This is a difficult pasto forget them, Isa. xliii. 25; Jer. xxxi. 31, sage; for if we take the words as spoken of and to cover them, Psal. xxxi. 1, which the people Israel, as their iniquity and their keeps them out of sight, and so out of mind; perverseness were almost unparalleled, such and to blot them out, Psal. li. 1, 9, and to words cannot be spoken of them with strict cast them behind his back, Isa. xxxviii. 17, truth. If we consider them as spoken of or into the depth of the sen, Micah vii. 19, the patriarch Jacob and Israel, or of Jacob in which cases they cannot be seen nor read. after he became Israel, they are most strictly And men are oft said not to know or see true, as after that time a more unblemished those sins in their children or others, whichi and noble character (Abraham excepted) is

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not to be found in the page of history, Sed omnibus hisce interpretationibus præwhether sacred or profane; and for his sake, ferenda videtur illa, quam Gatackerus dedit and for the sake of his father Isaac, and his in Adversarr. Miscellann., l. ii., cap. 4, grandfather Abraham, God is ever repre- Opp. Crit., p. 289, quæ talis est: Non sented as favouring, blessing, and sparing a intuetur Jova, i.e., non sustinet intueri, inirebellious and undeserving people; see the quitatem in Jacobum, i. e., injuriam Jacobo concluding note, Gen. xlix. In this way, I illatam, nec ridet, videre sustinet molestiam, think, this difficult text may be safely afflictionem, vexationem, adversus Israelem. understood.

There is another way in which the words adversus, contra, ut Ex, xiv. 25, Deus pugnat may be interpreted, which will give a good ?, contra Ægyptios, xx. 16. 777!, sense. V aren not only signifies iniquity, i contra socium tuum, Num. xii. 1. Ten, but most frequently trouble, labour, distress, contra Mosen. Huic sententiæ : non perand affliction ; and these indeed are its ideal mittit Jova Israelem suum injuste gravari, meanings, and iniquity is only an accommo- vel affligi, egregie quadrat quod sequitur: dated or metaphorical one, because of the image 1978 1977, Jova Deus suus cum eo est, ei pain, distress, &c., produced by sin, or adest, averruncator omnium malorum quæ amal, translated here perverseness, occurs' Israelitis imminent, cf. Gen. xxxix. 2. often in scripture, but is never translated in any on?, Et clamor regis in eo. Viperverseness except in this place. It sig- dentur intelligi lætæ vociferationes, que nifies simply labour, especially that which is circa tentorium sacrum quod Deus, rex of an afflictire or oppressive kind. The Israelitarum habitare credebatur, a gratias words may therefore be considered as im- agentibus et post salutaria sacra convivantiplying that God will not suffer the people bus mittebantur. Recte igitur Coccejus : either to be exterminated by the sword, or Israelitæ acclamant Jover ut regi sno, et in to be brought under a yoke of slavery, eo gloriantur. Either of these methods of interpretation gives a good sense, but our common version Char. XXIII. 22, XXIV. 8. gives none.

Dr. Kennicott contends for the reading of the Samaritan, which, instead of 2:27 NS lo

:iş hibit, he hath not seen, has 2 x 10 alii, θεός ο εξαγαγών αυτών εξ Αιγύπτου, ως δόξα I do not see, I do not discover any thing povoképwros airò. among them on which I could ground my 10. Ver.-22 God brought them out of curse. But the sense above given is to be Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of preferred.

an unicornl. Rosen.--21 yen? - 27 NS, LXX red- God., Booth.-didcrunt: O'k čo tili wój dos év ’Iaxw3, ovôć 22 God, who brought them out of Egypt, óbonoetal Jóvos év 'loparja. Videlicet Is to them as the strength of a rhino

y subinde est dolor, ut Gen. XXXV. 18; ceros. Deut. xxvi. 11, eta, labor item molestiam, Bp. Patrick.-Ile hath as it were the (rummam denotat, Ps. Ixxiii. 5; Joh. vii. 3 ; strength of an unicorn.) Some would have si. 16. Verba activa 22 et 797 vero this referred to God, who brought them out Græcis interpres impersonaliter cepit et proof Egypt by a mighty power, because he Futuris. Quum autem nomina in et som et speahs in the plural munber of those to vanilatem, iniquitatem significent, alii sic whom the former sentence belongs. But vertunt: uullum peccatum in Jucobo animad- this is no good reason; for the Scripture mu? til, sc. Deus, i. e., Deus condonat ei frequently varies the number, when the precata; vide similem loquutionem Jer. same person is spoken of. And in chap. L. 20. Sed huic interpretationi non faveut, xxiv. 8, it is expressly said, “ God brought yur sequuntur. Alii ; » et pour intelligunt him (i.c., Israc) out of Egypt; and he de cultu idolorum, ut 1 Sam. XV. 23. Ita hath the strength," &c., which every one Onkelos: l'ideo non esse colonies idola in allows is spoken of the Israelites, who are dlomo Jucobi, npr sorros molestiae vanitatis in said to have the strength of this creature, Israele ; et Vulgatus: Von est idolum in with whom they are compared; or rather Jacob, nec videtur simulachrum in Israel. the height, as the llebrew word certainly signifies, Ps. xcv. 4, “The strength of the neither to God nor to the Israelites, but to hills (or rather, the heights of the hills, as Egypt before mentioned; as if the sense it is in the margin) is his also :” and Job was, Though the Egyptians were as strong xxii. 25, “ The Almighty shall be thy defence, as an unicorn, they were not able to detain and thou shalt have plenty of silver." So the Israelites any longer in bondage to the sense led our interpreters to translate the them; but God brought them thence with a Hebrew word nown, which may be literally mighty hand and outstretched arm: so here rendered great heaps of silver. These Joseph. Hispanus (lib. iii., Ikaurim, cap. 8). are the only places where this word is found. Gesen,-ningin, plur. fem. (from ). The only difficulty is, what creature it is 1. Swift course, swiftness, Numb. xxiii. 22; which is here called reem ; which we trans- xxiv. 8 : 95 ONT nigging, he has the suifiness late (as many others have done) an unicorn : of the buffalo. (The ancient translators which, though most now take to be a express it by greatness, lustre.) 2. Weariness, fabulous creature that is not in being, yet tiresome labour, see om, No. 2. Whence, Tho. Bartholinus, in his Anatomical His probably, possession, property, treasure, actories (Centur. ii., Histor. 61), tells us, that quired by labour. Comp. may, No. 3. Ps. an ambassador from the king of Guinea to xcv. 4: 0'77 nigrin, the treasures of the the duke of Courland, assured him, at mountains. Job xxii. 25 : niprin noo, silver Copenhagen, that there is a beast in Africa of treasures, i.e., treasures of silver. Other of the bigness of an ordinary horse, very interpreters, as Bochart, Rosenmüller, render swift and fierce, which hath a horn in its lit in all these passages height, altitude, by a forehead about three spans in length; the transposition of the letters, from the root dead carcase of which he had seen, though! never one alive. But if this be supposed to 1"*

py, Arab. Qey, ascendit, altus fuit ; hence be true, it is not the creature here meant; in Numbers as cited, upright course. Ps. for it is plain by the Scripture that the reem xcv. 4: heights of mountains. Job xxii. 25; hath two horns, Deut. xxxiii. 17, where we silrer of heaps, i. e., heaps of silver: but the read of the horns of the unicorn (as we signification given above is very applicable, translate it), to which the two tribes of and is better supported by the Hebrew Ephraim and Manasseh are compared (see usage. also. Ps. xxii. 27). Therefore the famous: Ny, m. Numb. xxiii. 22; Deut. xxxiii. 17; Bochartus, after a long discussion of other cit?, Ps. xxix. 11; c'?, Job xxxix. 9, 10. opinions, thinks it most probable that the Plur. C'IN?, Ps. xxix. 6; also 099), a wild reem is a kind of goat, which the Arabians bull, buffalo. Arab. ,, a kind of antecalled algazel, and is now called guzellis ;' which is a tall creature (some of them as lope, which signification some apply to the high as a stag) with long and sharp horns. Hebrew; but the Arah. signification is here So that Balaam foretells the Israelites should only cognate, and not identical. The Greek be as eminent among other people as the Bouados, Boufalis, is also used of the reem was among other kinds of goats. antelope and wild buffalo, and the Arabs Unless we will think it refers to what the call stags and antelopes wild bulls. From Arabians observe, that it is proper to this the following passages, Ps. xxii. 13--22; animal to carry his head very high, and to Ps. xxix, 6 ; Deut. xxxvi. 7 ; Isa. xxxiv. 7 ; erect his ears, which is an excellent emblem and from Job's description, xxxix. 9-12, of the people of Israel; who being lately 5'3? appears to correspond with the bull. oppressed in Egypt, were asserted by God See Schultens zu Jobain angef. Orte, De into a state of liberty, and raised to a great Wette's Commentar zu Ps. xxii. 22, and comheight of glory, in order to be advanced pare Bochurti Hicriz., t. i., p. 918, &c. unto a higher (Ilierozoicon, par. i., lib. ii., LIS, Vulg., monoi eros, unicornis, rhinocap. 27). At this Onkelos seemed to have cerus, against whichi, see Bochurt, as quoted. aimed. when lie tran-lates these words thus,. Prof. L'1.- Erin, pl. f. constr. ingin. " fortitude and exaltatio: are his;" taking Two etymologies are given. (a) Taking , rcem not for a proper name but for an ap

and the Arab. Lie, celeriter, cucurrit; pellative, as if it were derived from runam,which signifies to exalt. I shall only add, [1] Swiftness, Num. xxiii. 22; xxiv. 8. that there is one who refers these words [2] Wealthi, treasures; as being acquired by

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activity and fatigue, Job xxii. 25; Ps. /

Ver. 23. xcv. 4.

?, 'N?, and c'?, masc.--plur. Ding?, ?? ? ? ?. ? Conn. Arab. ,, oryr. And this, Bochart.

: 5 sana Hieroz., i., p. 948, seq., argues, is the animal in question here. Gesenius, with

| ου γάρ έστιν οιωνισμός εν Ιακώβ, ουδε A. Schultens, on Job xxxix. 9, 10, will have

μαντεία εν Ισραήλ. κατά καιρών ρηθήσεται it to be a sort of wild ox, viz., the Buffalo.

l'Iako 3, kaì tô ’lopaya ti ételtedeoel ó Deòs; The LXX makes it the unicorn, povoképwra, Au. l'er.--23 Surely there is no enchantwhich, although found to exist (see Quarterly ment against cor, in] Jacob, neither is there Review, No. 47), is not at all likely to be any divination against Israel: according to the animal. Gesenius prefers considering it this time it shall be said of Jacob and of the buffalo, from Ps. xxix. 6, where Dida, Israel, What hath God wrought! is found in the parallel with 53, a calf. The Bp. Patrick.--Surely there is no enchantword occurs, Nub. xxiii. 22 ; Deut. xxxiii. ment against Jacob, neither is there any 17; Job xxxix. 9, 10; Ps. xxii. 22 ; xxix. 6; divination against Israel.] Neither I, nor xcii. 11; Isa. xxxiv. 7. From these passages any body else, have power to hurt them, by of Job and Isaiah, too, this animal is mani- all the secret arts of sorcery and soothsaying festly mentioned as one of the ox tribe. which are practised in the world. The Schultens and Gesenius are, therefore, pro-Vulgar Latin takes these words as if they bably right.

were spoken in praise of the Israelites, that Rosen.-i5 n? nerimo, Quasi celsitudines there were no enchantments or divinations orygis illi sunt. CT idem est caprenrum used among them, nor any other diabolical genus, quod Arabes D' vocant. Cf. ad arts, which were forbidden by their law in P's. xxii. 22, et d. a. u. n. M., p. ii., p. 269, several places. From these they being as sqq., ubi et de monocerote, quod animal hic free as from idolatry (mentioned ver. 21), pro OX? LXX posuerunt, egimus. nein they were secure of God's favour to them. varice vertunt. LXX, dotav, Vulgatus, Onke-! And so we acknowledge, in the margin of los, Syrus, Arabs Erp., fortitudinem. Sed neu- our Bibles, the words may be transtram harum significationum nomen illud in lated, “ There is no enchantment in Jacob dialectis cognatis obtinet. Michaelis in (so Geddes], or among them:" from which Suppll., p. 1129, huic loco celeritatis notic- God intended in all ages to preserve them nem aptissimam arbitratur, et vertit: Deus by the prophets he raised up to them. And eiluxit cum er Ægypto, celeritas est illi ut'thus R. Solomon expounds this verse, either gazellarum. Quæ imago minus apta videtur. 'to signify that they could not be cursed, Existimaverim, cx? nein idem esse quod because they were not given to enchantArab. Oni 780'X, elatio caprearum, quaments and divinations; or that they needed plurasi Arabes indicant, capreas capite sur-, not to make use of diviners and magicians sum elato arrectisque auibus adstare, id having all that was needful for them to quod hæc animalia præ alacritate solent know revealed to them by God's prophets, facere. Sic pulchra imagine sistetur populus and by urim and thummim, &c. Israeliticus antea sub Egyptiorum servitute decording to this time it shall be saidoppressus, nunc vero in libertatem assertus What hath God wrought!] The LXX transet in feliciorem statum evectus. Unde hunc late the first words Kata kalpov, “when time V's. ita vertere mallem (sensum magis quam shall be ;" or, upon all occasions ; not only propriam verborum vim exprimens): Deus now, but in future ages, men shall relate hunc populum ciuit ex Egypto, alucritas with admiration what God hath wrought for ei est ut guzellis (dus Egyptens Sklarerey this people; not only in bringing them out führte Gott dies lulk; fröhlich schaut es of Egypt, but in conducting them into min, gleich Gozellin, umher!) Ceterun Canaan; in drying up Jordan, as he did the monendum est, ex hac interpretatione vocem Red Swa; and subduing the Canaanites, as

in nou esse referendam ad her, sed, ad-, he overthrew Pharaohi and his host, &c. If missa metathesi litterarum, ad Arab. "D", there be any difference between Jacob and (ascendit, procerus, ultus fuit. Ct. ad Job. Israel, the former signifies this people when xxii. 25.

they were in their low estate, and the

latter, when they were eminently exalted ; | Au. Ver.-4. He hath said, which heard in both which God did wonderful things for the words of God, which saw the vision of them, which astonished all that observed. the Almighty, falling into a trance, but

having his eyes open [Heb., who had his Ver. 24.

eyes shut, but now opened). nego ?? DAZ, N??? spui? Falling into a trance. D55007 noi Sapny 320 M3 Bp. Patrick. There being in the Hebrew

only the word nophel, which signifies falling,

inno! we supply the sense by adding into a trance ; 252 op

lest any one should think he fell to the idoù Naòs ás okúpivos dvaothoetat, kai as ground' so Rosen.], or fell asleep [so déwv yavpadnoetal. oủ korunonoetai ëws Gesen.); which seems not to be the meanpáyonpav, kai aiua Tpavpati@V Tietat. ing; but that he was in a rapture, perceive

Au. Ver.-24 Behold, the people shall ing nothing by his outward senses. Yet the rise up as a great lion, and lift lip himself forementioned Targum takes it as if he had as a young lion : he shall not lie down until fallen flat on his face; and the LXX transhe eat of the prey, and drink the blood of late it, “he saw the vision of God in sleep;"' the slain.

according to that, Gen. xv. 12, “a deep A great lion.

sleep fell upon Abraham;" where the word Bochart, Rosen., Lee.-A fierce she lion. naphela is thought by some to give a good See notes on Gen. xlix. 9 (page 149). explication of nophed in this place. A young lion.

Gesen.---De propheta, qui in somno visiPatrick, Rosen., Lee. mp, and 77, a ones videt divinitus sibi oblatas, intelligenda lion generally.

sunt verba Num. xxiv. 4 : qui visiones Dei He shall not, &c.

ridet cyber ses in somno iacens et reclusis Ged., Buoth.-Who shall not, &c. oculis (sc. mentis): neque enim audiendus

vir doctus, qui nuper (Ephemerid. lit. Jen. Chlap. XXIV. 1.

1830, iv., p. 381) h. I. de morbo caduco

interpretari volebat.

127 Engine Rosen.- 3, Procidens in terram. In- OỦk étropeúdn Katà tò ciwlòs aito eis a

si dicat, se, it prophetam, in terram pronum συνάντησιν τοις οιωνοίς, κ.τ.λ.

se prostravisse ut perciperet, quæ Numen

sibi patefacere vellet; vid. ad xvi. 4. Bene Au. Ver.-1 And when Balaam saw that i it pleased the Lord to bless Israel, he went"

Syrus: qui quum prostornit uperiuntur oculi not, as at other times, to seek for enchant- s"

Ver. 6. ments [Heb., to the meeting of euchant

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