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Patrick, Ken., Ged.—Devoted to destruc-| Rosen.--2 cinny mpy?, Internecioni tion.

derotas delebo urbes eorum. Id enim comBp. Patrick.–Utterly devoted them to de- prehendit verbum d'??, cf. ad Lev. xxvii. struction, according to their vow. For they 29. Ejusmodi devotionis exemplum habedid not now actually destroy them, they re- mus in urbe Jericho, Jos, vi. 17, sqq. — 3. maining when Joshua came to Canaan, who c on conse C177!!, Devoverunt eos urbesexecuted this cherem, or curse, upon themque eorum, i.e., everterunt Israelitæ eorum (ch. xii. 14), which, if it had been executed urbes, quas nempe eo tempore capere potenow, they must have entered into the land rant, non omnes. Nam Josta demum Aradi of Canaan at this time; from whence we regem cepit Jos. xii. 14, aliique reliquas cannot imagine they would have returned, tractus meridiani urbes expugnarunt et deto march further about before they got into leverunt, vid. Jud. i. 16, 17. Si enim omnes it; but have gone on to prosecute their meridiani tractus urbes occupare potuissent victory, by subduing the country, as they Israelitae, statim essent Cananæam ingressi. had begun.

Sed tunc temporis pauculas tantum urbes Pool.-They utterly destroyed them : easque solitudinibus vicinas invaserunt, nec when? Answ'. Either, 1. Some time after ultra penetrarunt. Nomen Tan, anathema this, under Joshua, who subdued, among significat, eversionem illatam funditus. others, the king of Arad, Josh. xii. 14. And so this is mentioned here by anticipation (so

Ver. 4. Bp. Horsley), that the vow being now made JOOP! 17.117 and mentioned, the effect or performance of eving

v it might be recorded, though out of its place; and so this verse must be supposed to be

: :77? added by some of the prophets, and inserted και απέραντες εξ *Ωρ του όρους οδών επί θάinto Moses's history, as some other passages Naooay épvOpâv Teplekúklwoav you ’Edwu. seem to be. Or, 2. At this time, and so kai ūliyoyróxyoev ó laòs év tñ óów. this is not the same Arad with that, Josh. Au. Jer. And they journeyed from xii. 14, nor this the same Hormah with that mount Hor by the way of the Red sea, to there mentioned, but another of the same compass the land of Edom: and the soul of name, which is most frequent in persons and the people was much discouraged [or, places in Scripture. And this is the more grieved; IIeb., shortened because of the probable, because that Arad and Hormali, way. Josh. xii. 14, are two distinct places, and By the way of the Red Sea. had divers kings, whereas bere the samel Bp. Worsley.--The route of the Israelites place is called both Arad and Ilormal; and from Mount Hor was certainly not towards because that Arad seems to be at some good the Erythræan Sea, but rather in the condistance from this, and more within the trary direction. The preposition in 779 country, and more northward, as may be influences the word 777, as it were repeated gathered from the other places joined with it, before it. “Iud they departed from Mount Josh. xii., whereas this Arad was near Idom, Hor, turning out of the road of the Red ver. 1, and in the south, ver. ). Quesi. 1. Sea, to go round the land of Edom." How could this be done in the land of “ Turning out of,'--this I take to be a just Canaan, when Moses neither entered him- use of the preposition . The Israelites self, nor led the people into that land had come straight from Eziongeber to CaAnsw. Neither Moses nor the whole body of desh; and had they proceeded in the same the people did this exploit, but a select direction, they would have passed through number sent out for this purpose to punish the heart of the territory of the Edomites that king and people; and these, when they to the south of Palestine. This road, leadhad done this work, returned to their breth-ing straight from the ascent of Acrabbim to ren into the wilderness. Quest. 2. Why did Eziongeber, on the Arabian Gulf, is called they not all now go into (anaal, when some the way to the Red Sea. Aud, in Deut. of them had once entered it, and pursue this ii. 8, it is called the road from Elath and victory! Ansa. Because God would not Eziongeber. The Israelites having kept this permit it, there being several works yet to road as far as Mount Llor, turned out of it be donc.

at that place, the king of Edlom not consent

.דרך prefixed to מ preposition

ing that they should cross his territory. / kai đTéOTEINE kúpios eis tòv daòv tous opers Their turning out of this road is expressed τους θανατουντας, κ.τ.λ. in the parallel passage, Deut. ii. 8, by the Au. Ver.-6. And the Lord sent fiery

serpents among the people, and they bit the The soul of the people was much dis- people : and much people of Israel died. couraged. So Prof. Lee.

Fiery serpents. Bp. Patrick.-The word we translate dis- Bp. Patrick.- So most of the Jews transcouraged, signifies two things ; to faint, and late this place; taking seraphim for an adto breathe short, through the anguish and jective (as grammarians speak), and conbitterness of one's spirit (Exod. vi. 9). And sequently rightly translated fiery. But there secondly, to be angry at, or at least im- are those who take it to signify a peculiar patient, by reason of some trouble. And so sort of serpents; being added to nechashim it may best be taken in this place (as Bux-1(serpents) by way of apposition (as they torfius observes, in Histor. Serp. Ænei, speak), and signifying such serpents as the cap. 1), not simply for their being tired, with Greeks call topnotñpes and kaúowves, which a tedious, long, and troublesome march; Pliny reckons among the sceleratissimi serbut that accompanied with no small indigna- pentes, “most pernicious serpents" (lib. tion and wrath : which did not only burn xxiv, cap. 13). Or, as others will have it, within, but broke out into words of great those called depudes, because they made impatience, as appears by what follows, great inflammations in men's bodies, and an Whence the Hebrew words ketzar-ruach unguenchable thirst, being also of a flame (short of spirit) signify angry, or hasty, Prov. colour. But the famous Bochartus hath xiv, 29, and in Job xxi. 4, we translate it alleged a great many arguments to prove troubled, and Zech. xi. 8, loathed; where it that they were a sort of serpents called had better been translated, “I was angry hydrus, because in winter they lived in fens with them." Now that which made the and marshes; which being dried up in people thus fret, or faint (if we will have it summer, they were called chersydrus, beso interpreted), was the way wherein they cause then they lived in dry places, and in were now led, which was about the land of the hot season had a most sharp, stinging Edom. For when they were come towards poison, which, as Nicander saith, made such Canaan, in the middle of the fortieth year inflammations as brought upon him that was (at the end of which they were promised to stung by them, üyea uupia, innumerable enter in and possess it), they are carried griefs. See Ilierozvicon, par, ii., lib. iii., back again towards the Red Sea, whither cap. 13, where he shows also they were God had sent their fathers after they had flying serpents, of which the prophet Isaialı brought a false report upon the land (ch. speaks, ch. xix. 29; xxx. 6 ; and that now xiv. 25). This made them think, perhaps, was a hot season, wherein they were wont to that they should never come to Canaan; or, be most venomous. For Aaron dying the at least, it was tedious to march such a great first day of this fifth month (which answers way about, after they had been kept so long to the nineteenth of our July), and they from their inheritance, and were lately in i mourning for him thirty days; after which such hopes of it, when Moses demanded a followed their encounter with the Canaanpassage into it through the country of Edom. ites, and then this murmuring, and this

Rosen.-07Tube 2 , Et abbreviata es! punishment; it must fall out in the latter anima populi, impatiens factus est animus end of August, when the dog.days were populi, a longanimitate recessit, i.e., longo going out (see Vossius De Orig. et Progressu itinere fessus cæpit destitui animo, non potuit Idolol., lib. iv., cap. 56). amplius ferre laborem tot itinerum. Solet Dr. it. Clarke.- Bochart supposes that anima brevis fieri laborantibus et iis, qui the hydrus or chersydrus is meant; a serpent spirare vix possunt. LXI, ödeyoyrux noev, that lives in marshy places. See his works, pusillanimus fuit. Cf. Jud. xvi. 16 ; Zach. vol. ii., col. 121. It is more likely to have ix. 8.

been a serpent of the prester or dipsas kind, Ver. 6.

as the wilderness through which the IsraelSPņot

ites passed did neither afford rivers por p3717? ? marshes though Bochart cudeavours to

127

geen
-

prove that there might have been marshes in

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that part; but his arguments have very little 12 Thence they removed, and encamped weight. Nor is there need of a water ser- in the valley of Zared. And Jehovah spoke pent as long as the prester or dipsas, which to Moses, Ye are this day to pass by Ar the abound in the deserts of Libya, might have border city of Moab, and to approach the abounded in the deserts of Arabia also. Ammonites : trouble not these, nor meddle But very probably the serpents themselves with them: no part of their land will I give were immediately sent by God for the you for an inheritance; for to the children chastisement of this rebellious people. The of Lot I have given it for an inheritance cure was certainly preternatural; this no [Sam., and one copy of LXX. Comp. Deut. person doubts; and why might not the agent ii. 17—19]. be so, that inflicted the disease?

12 Au. Ver.- Valley of Zared. So Rosen. Prof. Lee.-77, a species of serpent; it Others.— Brook of Zared. is called flying, probably from the great Rosen.- op plerique interpp. vertunt distance which it sprung. Possibly the ad torrentem Zared. Sed nulla mentio fit coluber cerastes of Linn., Num. xxi. 7, 9; transitus supra torrentem infra xxxiii. 41--Deut. viii. 15; Is. xiv. 29; xxx. 6.

46, ubi totum iter Israelitarum diligenter Rosen.-Verisimile est, intelligi Cerasten, enarratur. Igitur 57 h. 1. procul dubio qui ita dicitur a tentaculis (kepáoi), quibus vertendum est in ralle, cf. ad xiii. 23. caput ejus instructum est. Alio nomine dicitur basiliscus, regulus, quod et significare

Ver. 13.

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clarus, nobilis fuit. Hoc reguli nomen ille i n Onn baan in ÖT serpens adeptus videtur ob tentaculorum ejus cum diademate regio similitudinem. : TENT77) Nis 7. -$in 5929 Cf. ad Gen. xlix. 17. Tractus iste ser- kai éveibev citrápurtes Tapevésulov eis tò pentibus infestatur. Vid. Altextlmsk., Tế Quy 'Apv v v pue cỆ Xov drò Tây vol. iii.

ορίων των 'Αμορραίων. έστι γαρ 'Αρνών όρια Ver. 10.

Μωαβ αναμέσον Μωάβ και αναμέσον του Au. l'er.-10 And the children of Israel 'Auoppalov. set forward, and pitched in Oboth.

Au. l'er.--13 From thence they removed, Ged., Booth. 10 And the Israelites and pitched on the other side of Arnon, marched from Punon, and encamped in which is in the wilderness that cometh out of Oboth.

the coasts of the Amorites: for Arnon is the From Punon.] For so we learn from the border of Moab, between Moab and the more complete journal, chap. xxxiii. 13, Amorites. where we also find, that they had another Bp. Patrick.-13 Pitched on the other encampment not mentioned here, between side of Arnon.] The Hebrew word meheber Hor and Punon, namely, at Zalmona.- may be translated on this side (so Pool], or Geddes.

on the other side. And some think they Ver. 11, 12.

were now on this side of the river, and vot Au. l'er.-11 And they journeyed from vet gone over it. Nor did they immediately Oboth, and pitched at lje-abarim sor, heaps come hither from their former station; but of Abarim), in the wilderness which is first to Alion-Diblathaim (ch. xxxii. 46), before Moab, toward the sunrising.

which is also called Beth-Diblathaim in the 12 From thence they removed, and wilderness of Moab, Jer. xlvii. 22, and pitched in the valley of Zared.

Diblah, Ezek. vi. 13. And then, passing by Gell., Booth.-11. And they marched Ar, in the confines of Moab, and apfrom Oboth, and encamped at Ijeabarim, proaching to the country of the children in the wilderness which is before Moab, of Ammon, God commanded them not towards the sunrising. And Jehovah spoke' to invade the Ammonites, being descendto Moses, Trouble not the Moabites, nor ants from Lot, as well as the Moabites meddle with them : no part of their land' (Deut. ii. 18, 19, 37), but to pass over the will I give for an inheritance; for to the river Arnon (Deut. ii. 2-1), to that side of it posterity of Lot I have given Ar for an in- which belonged to the Amorites. For this heritance [Sam., and one copy of LXX. river, at that time, divided the Moabites Comp. Deut. ii. 9).

from the Amorites, as it here follows.

Ged.—13 Thence, therefore, they marched Moses, Gather the people together, and I and encamped on the wilderness-side of the will give them water. Arnon, which foweth along the border of 17 Then Israel sang this song, Spring up the Amorites : for, &c.

THeb., ascend], O well; sing (or, answer] Booth.-13 Thence, also, they removed, ye unto it : and encamped on the other side of the 18 The princes digged the well, the nobles Arnon, which floweth in the wilderness, of the people digged it, by the direction of along the border of the Amorites : for the the lawgiver, with their staves. And from Arnon, &c.

the wilderness they went to Mattanah : Ver. 14–20.

19 And from Mattanah to Nahaliel : and niny nianbo 1907 ON ja-by it from Nahaliel to Bamoth :

| 20 And from Bamoth in the valley, that :71?? ?mon ng Dp n is in the country [Heb., field] of Moab, to nais no gerig Obnon twN15 the top of Pisgah (or, the hill], which lookW9 16

eth toward Jeshimon [or, the wilderness). : ia 597?? ?? ? Gesen.-27, Numb. xxi. 14, only, a

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tioned by Kimchi , whicli _ is , among modern השירה

: of the wars of Jehovah , 7903 2.7 . The ng angang 17 :D most satisfactory explanation is one men

authors, especially recommended by Geddes, ??? 797 57 77 79 18 according to which it is connected thus : zona eniyena pripa Din Top among tin, Jehovah se dedit in turbine, bbon b99502 ng map 19 :79an Jehovah appeared in a storm. Seven MSS.

have ny joined to 3,71 (see Kennicott), and

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2.7078 in one word : but this is manifestly Au. Ver.-14 Wherefore it is said in the erroneous. See the Schol. Crit., p. 15, of De hook of the wars of the LORD, What he did Rossi, it. Rosenm. in loco. In the Kamoos in the Red sea [or, Vaheb in Suphal], and

we have nog, given as the name of a in the brooks of Arnon,

15 And at the stream of the brooks that goeth down to the dwelling of Ar, and lieth place, and Xloro, as the name of a for[Heb., leaneth) upon the border of Moab. tress in Senaa : whence it should seem that

16 And from thence they went to Beer: it was not unusual to ive such names to that is the well whereof the Lord spake umto places.

other part of the song.

This is the

answer.

This was the

chorus.

Dr. A. Clarke.-14 The book of the wars that well-known phrase, From Dan eren unto of the Lord.] There are endless conjectures Beersheba. about this book, both among ancients and 17 Spring up, O well, &c.] This is one of moderns. Dr. Lightfoot's opinion is the the most ancient war songs in the world, but most simple, and to me bears the greatest is not easily understood, which is commonly appearance of being the true one. “ This the case with all very ancient compositions, book seems to have been some book of re- i especially the poetic. membrances and directions, written by Moses' 18 The princes digged (so Pool, Patrick, for Joshua's private instruction for the Rosen., Lee the wellwith their staves.] management of the wars after him. See This is not easily understood. Who can Exod. xvii. 14–16. It may be that this suppose that the princes dug this well with was the same book which is called the book their stares ? And is there any other idea of Jasher, i. e., the book of the upright, or a conveyed by our translation? The word directory for Joshua, from Moses, what to: 1901, chapharu, which is translated they do and what to expect in his wars; and in digged, should be rendered, they searched this book it seems as if Moses directed out, which is a frequent meaning of the the setting up of archery, see 2 Sam. 'root; and cnp09), bemishanotham, which we i. 18, and warrants Joshua to command render with their stares, should be translated the sun, and expect its obedience, Josh. on their borders or confines, from the root X. 13.”

prw, shaan, to lie along. With these correcWhat he did in the Red Sea, and in the tions the whole song may be read thus : brooks of Arnon.] This clause is impene. Sim

s impene. Spring up, O well! Answer ye toit.{ther part of

. .. An o nit li... Repeat the trably obscure. All the versions, all the translators, and all the commentators, have The well, the princes searched, been puzzled with it. Scarcely any two it out.. agree. The original is 1910) 271 nx, which The nobles of the people have our translators render, what he did in the digged it Red Sea, following here the Chaldee Tar- By a decree, upon their own gum; but not satisfied with this version,' borders. they have put the most difficult words in This is the whole of the quotation from English letters in the margin, Pahel in what is called the book of the wars of the Suphah. Calmet's conjecture here is inge- Lord. But see Dr. Kennicott's remarks. nious, and is adopted by Houbigant; instead Bp. llorsley [following the arrangement of 271, vaheb, he reads thi, zared. Now a 1, of Kennicott). ---zain, may be easily mistaken for a ', rau, and 1.1 Jehovah went with him to Suph, vice versa; and a 7, he, for a 1, resh, if the And he came to the rivers of Arnon. Jeft limb happened to be a little obliterated, Even to the branch of the rivers which which frequently occurs, not only in MSS.,

bendeth towards the seat of Ar, but in printed books; the 2, leth, also might And leaneth upon the border of Moab. be mistaken for a 7, daleth, if the ruled line -“ Rivers of Arnon.Rivers, in the pluon which it stood happened in that place to ral, because the river was composed of be a little thicker or blacker than usual. several branches: one of which, taken by Thus then 271, vaheb, might be easily formed itself, is called 70'x. out of 777, zared, mentioned ver. 12, the! -" which bendeth," &c. Near Ar, the whole might then be read, They encamped main stream of the river Arnon makes an at the brook Zared, and they came to Suphah, angle with its first direction, which is from and thence to the brook Arnon. Take the north to south, and ris almost due west to passage as we may, it is evidently defective. the Jordan, or the Dead Sea. If Ar was As I judge the whole clause to have been a' situate on this lower reach of the river, common proverb in those days, and l'aheb to somewhat below the angle, the stream might be a proper name, I therefore propose the properly be said to bend towards that place : following translation, which I believe to be and it was, I suppose, from this angle westthe best: From l'aheb unto Suph, and unto ward, that it formed the boundary between the streams of Arnon. If we allow it to have the Moabites and the Amorites. l;ean a proverbial expression, used to point 18 -“by the direction of the lawgiver, out extensive distance, then it was similar to with their staves." Carte poa. The

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