תמונות בעמוד

fuerit, pænas peccati ferre debet : sube hic qui ei, qui excellentissimo sensu Dijon significat magistratus, ut Exod. xxviii, nam dicitur, convitiati essent. Quodsi vero de de Deo est vers. seq. Nexus cogitationum magistratibus hoc loco sit cogitandum, quod in hoc et sequenti vers. est hic : Si jam is, quidem negare nolimus, eatenus tantum qui magistratibus suis maledixerit, pænas nomine Dione comprehendentur, quatenus in luere debet; tanto magis plectendus est is loco sacro, coram Deo, jus dicere solebant qui tale crimen erga Deum commiserit." (vid. ad Ex. xxi. 6), ut igitur qui proprie But I believe no one who has read the whole dicitur Dirix b. 1. nequaquam sit excludendus. context with attention, will be ready to Is igitur, qui Deo, ut judici, maledixerit, adopt this opinion. What gives rise to the nec tamen expresso proprio ejus nomine, injunction, is not the reviling a magistrate, Jova, ivan nie?, portet delictum suum, i.e., but reviling the name of some god or other; I peccati pænas feret, quas videbitur magisthe injunction, therefore, must be relative to tratibus, Dei vicem obeuntibus, luere eum this alone. But, still, what is meant here oportere. ante vis, árodóget, indicandze by his God? Any one's own god (say inservit, ut Gen. iii. 5 ; xl. 9; xliv. 9; Ex. some interpreters), whether a false god or a xii. 15, et alias sæpe. – 16. nin 717 du 277! true God. (Philo was of this opinion.) Sono?, Sed qui protulerit nomen Jovæ (scil. Schulz: “Quicunque Deo suo sive verus Spo, maledicens), morte adficietur. At sive fulsus is sit, maledixerit pænam luat.” Judæorum magistri hæc interpretantur de This interpretation I consider as more inad- sola pronunciatione nominis Jovæ, et colmissible than even the former; for is it in ligunt ex hoc vs., nomen zit ne enuntiare the smallest degree credible that the Lord quidem licitum esse. Cf. ad Ex. iii. 15. Jehovah, or Moses in his name, would announce to the Israelites (for to them the

Ver. 22, 23, law is addressed) that reviling even a false 22 Au. Ver.-For I am the Lord your god was a crime worthy of punishment ? Gop. lle who takes every occasion to place all Ged.-For so I the Lord your Gon ordain. gods, except the God of Israel, in the most Booth.--For I Jehovah your God, SO contemptible point of view ! But how, command. then, account for the contrast between verses 23 Au. Ver.-Him that had cursed. See 15 and 16? There is no contrast, but a notes on verses 11 and 15. most proper climax. In ver. 15 is a general precept, forbidding every Israelite to revile

Char. XXV. 1. his God under any name whatsoever; but 7. juna

b 7175 72797 the reviling him under the appellation of his great name Jehovah is to be punished with

: nin? immediate death, and by the same sort of και ελάλησε κύριος προς Μωυσήν εν τω όρει death as had been just inflicted upon the Siva, neywv. Ægyptian proselyte, who had reviled that All. l'er.--1 And the Lord spake unto NAME, 107.

Moses in mount Sinai, saying, Booth.-15 And thou shalt speak to the Ged., Booth.-Again the Lord (Heb., Israelites, saying, Whosoever curseth his Booth., Jehovali] spoke to Moses, by mount own rulers shall bear his sin ; 16 But he Sinai, saying. who blasphemeth the name of Jehovah Bp. Patrick.-In Mount Sinai.] That is, shall surely be put to death; the whole con-' in the wilderness of Sinai (Numb. i. 1). gregation shall certainly stone him : as well For they stayed almost a whole year not far the stranger as the native, when he blas- from this mountain, from whence they did phemeth the name of Jehovah, shall be put not remove till the tuentieth day of the to death.

second month of the second year after their Rosen.-15 SP- IN 28, Quicunque coming out of Egypt (see Numb. X. 11, 12). Duo suo imprecatus fuerit. y recentiores. And thus the Hebrew particle beth is often fere vertunt magistratibus suis, coll. Ex. used for by or near, as in Gen. xxxvii. 13; xxi. 6; xxii. 28. Eos vero hic jungi Deo Josh. v. 13; and we find this expression volunt, ut ostendat legislator, si ob male-' again in the end of the next chapter, and in dicentiam erga magistratus pænas luere the conclusion of this book. Which shows oporteret homines; potiore jure plectendos, that all here related was delivered to Moses

in the first month of the second year after | bigant, was adopted by Michaelis, and again their coming out of Egypt, immediately rejected by Rosenmüller, who gives his after the tabernacle was set up (Exod. xl. 17). own interpretation in the following words : Ver. 2.

“Equidem tria in eodem sensu, quo Clericus, Au. Ver.—2 Speak unto the children of

sumo; sed id exponere mallem vineam a qua

separasti te, dum eam non coluisti ; vineam non Israel, and say unto them, When ye come

cultam sive putatam : igitur t'ia ray erunt into the land which I give you, then shall

uvæ quæ nascuntur in vinis tuis; septimo the land keep (Heb., rest] a sabbath unto

anno non putatis." That this is the general the LORD.

meaning of the clause, I have little doubt; Bp. Patrick.Some have understood the

but I differ from both Le Clerc and Rosenforegoing words, When ye shall come into the

müller as to the precise signification of the land which I give you, as if they were to

word 72 here. I think it has nothing to do begin the sabbatical year as soon as they

| with the common acceptations of 773, not entered into Canaan : which is very absurd ;

"; even with 773, a Nazarite ; but I would for so, not the seventh, but the first, would

refer it either with Houbigant to ya, a have been the year of rest. The meaning

my branch, surculus, or rather to the Arab. 172, is, that the seventh year after their entrance

viruit, fronduit-comam produxit arbor. See into Canaan, or rather, after they were

Castell. The Syr, translator seems then very settled, and had rest in it, they should let the land rest.

properly to have rendered, and his version

was with reason adopted by Houbigant : Ver. 5.

nec racemos palmitum tuorum decerpes. -ng? nismo u 17*? psd ng Gesen.-732 (from 12. 1. Separated 7 aw ng ej van 35 7792 Dy from others. 2. The consecrated person,

&c. 3. Metaphorically applied to the un

:Y?? ??pruned vine of the sabbatical and jubilee kai aŭtópara ávaßaivovta Toù aypoû gov year, because, in this case, as well as in ουκ έκθερίσεις, και την σταφυλήν του αγιά- that of the Nazarites, the cutting off the opatós oov oỦk ékTpvyngels. év avtos ava- branches was omitted in consequence of a παύσεως έσται τη γη.

religious precept. Lev. xxv. 5 : 772 239 ng Au. Ver.-5. That which groweth of its van is, thou shalt not gather the grapes of own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not thy unpruned vine. Ver. 11, ng nana? reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine ???, and ye shall not gather the fruit of the undressed (Heb., of thy separation]: for unpruned vine. Comp. in Latin, herbu it is a year of rest unto the land.

virgo; in Talmud (Neddah viii. 2), niina Pool.-Of its own accord; from the grains 797, virginitas sycamori, the state of the that fell out of the ears the last reaping time. Sycamore when it is not yet dressed. Thou shalt not reap, i.e., as thy own pecu- Prof. Lee. -79, r. 7. Cogn. Heb. and liarly, but only so as others may reap it with | thee, for present food. The grapes of thw Syr. 173. Arab. ,, devovit Deo. Set vine undressed, Heb., the grapes of thy sepa-apart. (a) &c. . . . . (c) Applied to ration, i.e., the grapes which thou hast vines, Lev. xxv. 5, 11 : but in what sense is separated or set apart to the honour of God, not certain. LXX, Thv otapulnv toð aylaoand to the ends and uses appointed by God; luatós covếtà dylaouéva. Vulg., uvas prior the grapes of that year, which are in this mitiarum tuarum; primitius. Le Clere; like the Nazarites' hair, not cut off by thee, vineam non putatum. but suffered to grow to the use of the poor. | Rosen.- 7 . 7 n8, Spante nascens

Geddes.---The grapes that grow without messis tuæ, quæ sponte nascuntur e granis, pruning, ye shall not gather.] Le Clerc messis anni præcedentis, ex granis, quæ deimagined that 7'12 was here to be taken in /ciderunt inter metendum. 777? ?, Et the same sense as 799, a Nazarite: “Vocat uras vinec tuce non putate. 77'!? LXX 7°33, vineam non putatam, translatione a Na- vertunt toù úyıúcuatós cov; Vulgatus, priziræo ductâ; cujus per Nazireatus tempus ut mitiarum, male. Onkelos : relictionis tual, cesaries non tondebatur, sic palmites, qui sunt i.c., a te relictas. Syrus: palmitun tescomæ vitis, septimo anno non putabantur;” trorum, Saadias : separatum, scil. ab wis This explanation, although scouted by 1101-tuis. Recentiorum nonnulli 77?? ? exponunt uvas, quas hactenus tibi separasti, et! To sound.] In the Hebrew the word is, aliis prohibuisti, jam omnibus communes cause it to pass, that it might be heard everyfacies. Sed rectum vidisse, haud dubitamus where throughout the land. So these words Clericum, 777 vocari vineam non putatam, may be most literally translated, thou shalt translatione a Naziræo ducta, quod, sicut cause to pass the trumpet loud of sound. ejus cæsaries non tondebatur, ita palmites,| Rosen.-.7mm piu arty, Transire facias qui sunt comæ vitis, septimo anno non putati tubam clangoris, i.e., tubæ clangore in tota essent. Sic Virgil. in Culice vs. 74, de terra indicetur annus jubilæus, uti mox exhomine sub vitis umbra quiescente: viridi plicatur. cum palmite ludens Tmolia pampineo subter

Ver. 10. coma velat amictu. Propert., 1. ii., Eleg. 15,1.

[ocr errors]

vitem doctam ponere falce comas.

Ver. 6. Au. Ver.-6. And the sabbath of the land kai áviágetE Tò cos TỎy EVTOKOOTÓ, évishall be neat for you ; for thee, and for thy αυτόν, και διαβοήσετε άφεσιν επί της γης πασι servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired τοις κατοικούσιν αυτήν. ενιαυτός αφέσεως servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth onuaoía aütnotai úuiv, K.T.. with thee.

Au. Ver.-10 And ye shall hallow the Ged. And the product of this year of the

fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughland's rest shall be food for you in common ;

out all the land unto all the inhabitants for yourselves, &c.

thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you ; and Booth. But the produce of the land during

ye shall return every man unto his possesits rest, shall be food for you; for yourselves,

sion, and ye shall return every man unto his &c.

family. Pool. The sabbath, i.e., the growth of

| Bishop Patrick.-1t shall be a jubile.] the sabbath, or that fruit which groweth in

Whence this year hath the name of jobel, the sabbatical year. See on Lev. xxiii. 38,

there are so many opinions, that Bochartus where the word sabbath is taken in the like

Shimself scarce knew which to follow. Josesense. For thee, and for thy servant ; for all

"phus saith it signifies élevdeplav, “liberty;" promiscuously, to take food from thence as

| and the LXX and Aquila translate it aperiv, they need it.

“ remission," having a regard to the thing, Ver. 9.

rather than the import of the word jobel,

[ocr errors]

175yn Din bin 75 seya D. Kimchi tells us, that R. Akiba, when he

was in Arabia, heard them call a ram by : ? 379 this name of jobel; and thence some fancy duayyeleite códiyyos povị év múor this year was so called, because it was proγη υμών εν τω μηνί τω έβδόμη τη δεκάτη του claimed with trumpets of rams' horns. But unvós. ñuépa toù ilaouoü duayyenleite what if there were no such trumpets? as σάλπιγγι εν πάση τη γη υμών.

Bochart thinks there were not, these hords Au. Ver.-9 Then shalt thou cause the being not hollow. See Hierozoicon, par, i., trumpet of the jubile [Ileb., loud of sound] lib. ii., cap. 13, p. 125, &c., where several to sound on the tenth day of the seventh other opinions are confuted. The most month, in the day of atonement shall ve probable that I meet withal, is, that it was make the trumpet sound throughout all your called jobci, from the peculiar sound which land.

was made with the trumpet when this year Bp. Patrick.-9. Trumpet of the jubile.]! was proclaimed. For the trumpet blowing The word jobel (which we translate jubilee in , for several purposes, viz., to call their asthe next verse) is not in the llebrew, but semblies together, to give notice of the ternah, which, in the margin, we translate moving of their camps, to excite soldiers to loud of sound : for the trumpet was blown tight, and to proclaim this year; there was after a different manner at this time, than a distinct somd for all these ends, that upon other occasions, that every one might people might not be confounded, but have a understand the meaning of it.

| certain notice what the trumpet sounded for. And this sound mentioned before (ver. 9) | flowing out, as waters. Gesenius here gives was peculiarly called jobel, as Hottinger | us an elaborate comparison of this word thinks, who considers a great many other with 559592: Arabic I. opinions in his Analecta, Diss. iii., wherein

c ut, Gr. he follows Joh. Forsterus, who, near a

élolúčelv, &c. Lat. ejulare, fc. Germ. hundred years before, observed that jobel, jauchzen : Sweed. iolen--jál, jobl, jodl, &c., which we commonly translate trumpet (Exod. to show that this word, and inn, shout, xix. 13, and other places), doth not signify mean the same thing. For my own part, I the instrument itself, but the sound that it can see no connexion whatever, either made. And when it is used absolutely between these two words, or this one word, alone, it signifies this year, which was called and his synonymes, or cognates; while, jobel, from that sound which was then made; drawing out, lengthening, as in the course of as the feast of unleavened bread was called a river, the processions of the Jubilee, or the pesach, from the angel passing over them sound of a horn, seem obvious and natural when he slew the Egyptians. The opinions enough.--The Jubilee, a feast of the Jews, of the Hebrew writers about it are collected announced by the sounding of horns, on the and largely represented by Josephus de seventh day of the seventh month in the Voisin (lib. i. De Jubilæo, cap. 1).

| year, immediately succeeding every period of Gesen.-521', comm. 1. A vind instru- seven times seven years ; i.e., on this day of ment, Exod. xix. 13: more fully said 77, this month, every recurring fiftieth year, Josh. vi. 5, and cibgi nipiu, Josh. vi. 6, 8: Lev. xxv. 9-11, 13, 15, 31, 40. Josephus Disain nindios, vi. 4, 13, jubilee horns, trum- | Antiq., lib. iii. 12. And, at this period, the pets. Of the blowing or sounding of this person and property of every Israelite, in any instrument is used the phrase saig 322 Top, way incumbered with servitude or debt, Josh. vi. 5; Exod. xix. 13. Comp. Toen became free. Hence, the ētos apéoews, and The proper signification is not clear. The ageois, of the LXX. Phr. Said 22 tega, Chaldee and the Hebrew interpreters explain in the lengthening out, continuing the sound, Sav by, ram, hence, rams' horns, trumpets with the horn of the Jubilee, 8c., or, more made of rams' horns; according to l'. Levi literally, of the Jubilee-er, i.e., of the person and Akiba, it signifies the same also in usually announcing the Jubilee with it, Josh. Arabic, where however it is now obsolete. vi. 5; Exod. xix. 13, saig pena. In Josh. Vid. Bocharti Hieroz., part i., lib. ii., cap. vi. 6, ai nipiva; Ib. 4, 8, 13. sypig ninpio, 43. Others Sonus tractus (from my), but not etymologically the same thing with pin which is not applicable. Equally obscure is, 71, Lev. XXV. I, as Gesenius will have it; 2. baing noe, Lev. xxv. 13, 15; xii. 40, and although exegetically there is no essential merely 521, ver. 28, 30, 33, the jubilee year, difference between them. The same may be every fiftieth (according to others, but said of oingizda 2, Joshua vi. 4, 5. A falsely, every forty-ninth) year, which ac- similar mistake has been made by the Jews cording to the Mosaic law was a year of in the phr. baign, where, from the conrelease, xxv. 10, &c. LXX, TOS tis åpe- sideration that this horn was a ram's horn, news, ägeois. Vulg., annus jubilei, anus they came to the conclusion that sai here jubileus. The etymology is also here dubious, I meant a ram! most probably it is connected with the former, The note of Gesenius here, in which he because (which however is nowhere expressly tells us that the usage of both , and capt', mentioned) this year was announced with rests on an idiom not generally understood, jubilee horns (as the new year with trum- and which is found in three different forms; pets). Comp. Carpzov. Apparat. ad In- means only, that, as a singular noun may tiquit. 8. cod., p. 417, &c.

be taken generically signifying all or many Prof. Lee.--hai', masc. pl. din. Arab. J of the class to which it belongs, so the

singular or plural may be used either in the bo, acriter persecutus fuit; imbrem effudit, first or second word in the construction, or

both: a thing well known to the Gram&c. Syr. Va., deducit, aduuril; whence marians. See Gram. artt. 112; 21.5. 5, &c. 53y, processus aquarum, rivus. See r. 42. Rosen.--Dissentiunt interpp. de propria Drawing out at length, seems to be the nominis hat significatu. Exstat in lingua primary sense: the secondary, running, Hebr. verbum 57', fuxit, in longum dimanavit, quod solum in conjug. 3, tam activa, sententiæ favet R. Salomo (Jarchi): Jobel est sain, deduxit, producit, tam passiva 5217, nomen ejus anni propter clangorem productum productus, adductus est, in Cod. Hebr. legitur, buccina. A certo autem vel ritu, vel facto, stata et nomina peperit , gar', 521, fluctus, tempora, solennitates et festa, nomina esse aquarum fluenta, tum etiam bazy, proventus sortita, exemplo nop, Exod. xii. 13, 27, terre. Ad eandem illam radicem et nomen pin oi', Num. xxix. 1; 0979 Di', aliisque Sai plerique philologi revocant, nec tamen passim constat, nec eget probatione.' una omnes ratione. Fullerus in Miscell. SS.,

Ver. 11. 1. iv., cap. 8, annum sai interpretatur to

Au. Ver.-Of thy vine undressed. See ÉTOS tñs åvaywyns, annum reductionis, “re

notes on verse 5. ducebat enim," inquit, “annus ipse omnes ad vetustas sedes agrosque suos, ad antiqua

Ver. 12, 13, &c. hæreditatum jura, et primas vivendi condi Au. Ver.-Jubile. See notes on verse 10. tiones,” unde quoque e Philone átokatá

Ver. 11. otaqi, restitutionem, dicit, quod anno 50,

Au. Ver.- Ye shall not oppress one another. res ac personæ apud Judæos universa in

Ged.-Ye must not over-reach one another. loca pristina restituerentur. Eadem Syri

Booth.Ye shall not injure one another. mens fuit. Nos quidem adstipulamur iis, qui sai sonitum et clangorem tube protrac

Ver. 17. tiorem proprie denotare ajunt, quæ sen

Au. Ver.-Oppress. tentia et linguæ nititur analogia, et locorum

Ged.-Over-reach. parallelorum concentu tantum non exigitur,

Au. Ver.-For I am the Lord your God. et simplicitate sua se commendat. Eam ad

Ged., Booth.-For I, the Lord (Heb., scivit et Jo. Gottl. Carpzov. in Diss. de anno

de anno Booth., Jehovah) your God so command. Jobelæo secundum disciplinam Hebr., Lips.

Ver. 18. 1730, 4, inserta auctoris Apparatui historico- Au. Ver.-Statutes and judgments. See crilico antiquitatum Sacri codicis, p. 117, notes on xviii. 1. sqq. “Quandoquidem enim," inquit, p. 419,

Ver. 23. proprie est in longum deduxit seul Au. Ver.-23 The land shall not be sold protraxit, ut aquarum fuenta, hinc baign

21 for ever (or, to be quite cut off; Heb., for dicimus vocabulum rei suæ attemperatum, cutti

crati: cutting off'] : for the land is mine; for ye quod sonum longe productum, et initiationi

are strangers and sojourners with me. anni libertatis fere proprium denotat, unde porro, per metonymiam signi, ipse quoque Gesen. Oogy fem. properly, erterminaannus hoc nomine venit. Planum hoc est,

est tion, destruction, from nor, hence non, ex vocis constructione et usu. Ex. xix. 13,

for ever entirely, i.q. 77. Lev. xxv. 23, 30. 1917 yiunr, cum trahetur sonus. Vel si ex



Prof. Lee.-omine, fem. Apparently, Jos. vi. 5, suppleatur ellipsis : 791) TORT ?, Perfect silence : completeness. O n , Comcum productiore sono inflabitur cornu Jo-Cola

?- |pletely, i.e., without power of redemption, belaum ; ita enim apposite 59117 dicitur

Lev. xxv. 23, 30. cornu his usibus, talique sono et cantui

| Rosen.-nome apn nk jW7, Terra non appropriatum. Sic etiam Jos. vi. 4, 6, 8, 13. |

Tobi! rendatur ad abscissionem, h. e., ita ut penitus coopis nincie, buccina clangoris Jobelæorum

a possessore abdicetur, sine spe redemtionis. appellantur. Recte itaque 317 nu annus clangore ejusmodi solenni promulgandus,

Ver. 26. eodemque sensu sai simpliciter vocatur Lev. Au. l'er.--26 And if the man have none xxv. et xxvi. Contra vero, sive buccinæ, to redeem it, and himself be able [Heh., sive reductionis aut restitutionis, sive mis- his hand hath attained and found sufficiency? sionis, dimissionis, aut remissionis amplectaris to redeem it. notionem, vel absurda prodibit, vel impro- ! Bp. Patrich.- In the Hebrew it is, “his pria, et per ambages evolvenda explicatio, si hand hath attained and found sufficiency :" Scriptura dixisse perhibeatur: cum trahetur which justifies the limitation the Jews put buccina, vel restitutio, seu missio ac dimissio, upon this (as I observed, ver. 2.1), that he item cornu buccina, aut remissionis ac resti- should not have the right of redemption, tutionis, et tuba buccinarum, remissionis aut re- 'unless he was grown able to repurchase it stitutionis, juxta loca modo allegata. Nostræ since the sale of it.

« הקודםהמשך »