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agendorum normam habent. Cui Hebræ- Syr., Arab., and one MS. Alesh being in orum sententiæ favent loca, in quibus Deus the blood, it is my will that by it an atoneminatur, se ipsum ejusmodi penas de reis ment shall be made, at the altar, for your sumturum, ut Lev. xviii. 10; xx. 5; vi. I lives. Since, therefore, it is by blood that 23, 30. Et Act. iii. 23, FodoOpevonoetal an atonement is made for the life of man; ék Toù laoû usurpatur loco hujus phraseos I say to the children of Israel, let no one, iorno ung, requiram ex eo, Deut. xviii. 19, | &c. ubi videtur Deus sibi pænam illam exigendam Booth.-11 For the life of all flesh being servare. Christiani vero interpretes pars in the blood, I have therefore appointed it mortem a judicibus decretam, pars excom- to you to make an atonement on the altar municationem, seu certe juris civitatis He- for your own lives: for it is the blood braicæ privationem, et in exsilium ejectionem which maketh an atonement for the life. excisionis pænâ significari existimant. Quam 12 Therefore I say to the Israelites, no one, sententiam confirmari putant versibus qui- &c. busdam inter Petronii fragmenta, quibus de

Ver. 14. Judæo, qui non ferro succiderit inguinis ng 1532 127 izeba viss oram, dicitur, exemtus populo Grajam migrabit ad urbem.

'727 ? Ver. 8, 10, 13.

ή γάρ ψυχή πάσης σαρκός αίμα αυτού έστι. kai eina, K.T..

Au. Ver.-14 For it is the life of all év úuiv.

flesh; the blood of it is for the life thereof : Au. Ver.-8. And thou shalt say unto therefore I said unto the children of Israel, them. Whatsoever man there be of the Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of house of Israel, or of the strangers which desh: for the life of a sojourn among you, that offereth a burnt thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off. offering or sacrifice.

Ged.--14 For the life of all flesh is its Among you. So the versions.

blood; and, therefore, I say, &c. Ged., Booth.-Among them. So the Heb.

Booth.-14 For the life of all flesh is its Ver. 9, 10.

blood; it is its life; therefore I say, &c. Shall be cut off. See notes on ver. 4. Cut off. See notes on xvii. 1. Ver. 11, 12.

Chap. XVIII, 1. NÁ97 072 Simono rimau Au. Ver.-And. -hy792} nomp-by ops rano Ged., Booth.--Again.

Ver. 1.

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η γάρ ψυχή πάσης σαρκός αίμα αυτού έστι. και εγώ δέδωκα αυτό υμίν επί του θυσιαστηρίου

: εξιλάσκεσθαι περί των ψυχών υμών, το γαρ

| τα κρίματά μου ποιήσετε, και τα προσαίμα αυτού αντί ψυχης εξιλάσεται. 12 διά τάγματά μου φυλάξεσθε, και πορεύεσθε έν τούτο είρηκα τοις υιούς Ισραήλ. πάσα ψυχή αύτοις, εγώ κύριος ο Θεός υμών. és úuwy oủ Qayerai aiua, k.7.d.

| Au. Ver.-4 Ye shall do my judgments, Au. Ver.-11 For the life of the flesh is and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein : in the blood: and I have given it to you I am the Lord your God. upon the altar to make an atonement for Bp. Patrick.-4 The Gemara Babylonica, your souls : for it is the blood that maketh mentioning these words, saith, it is a tradian atonement for the soul.

tion of their doctors, that by mishpatim 12 Therefore I said unto the children of|(which we translate judgments), are to be Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, understood such natural laws as all mankind neither shall any stranger that sojourneth are bound to observe, though there were no among you eat blood.

written commands for them : such as those Ged.-11, 12 For the life of all (LXX, I against idolatry, and those about uncovering

the nakedness of such near relations as are

Ver. 11. here mentioned, and murder, &e. And by in nobis ex nwana niny chukkim (ordinances, or statutes), such laws are meant as depended only on the pleasure : mp?y nan n an yonima of God; and obliged none but those to άσχημοσύνην θυγατρός γυναικός πατρός σου whom they were given : such as those about oỦk åtokalúveis, duotarpia ảdendo oovéotiv, meats, and garments, and leprosy, &c. oỦk åtokalúveis tnv koynuogúvny aúrns. Against which, lest any one should object, | Au. Ver.-11 The nakedness of thy it is here added, “I am the Lord your father's wife's daughter, begotten of thy God.”

father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not I am the Lord your God.] I, who am luncover her nakedness. your sovereign Lord; and, by redeeming Ged., Booth.-Thou shalt not cohabit with you from the Egyptian bondage, am become thy father's wife's daughter, begotten by thy in a special manner your God, having father: she is thy sister: with her thou ordained these things. Therefore let no shalt not cohabit [Lxx. Syr.]. man dispute them, or make a question of] Bp. llorslev.-Thy father's wife's daughthem, as the forenamed Gemara expounds

18 ter, begotten of thy father.] The marriage these words. See Selden, lib. i. De Jure l'of'.

1. De Jure of a sister in half blood, whether of the N. et G., cap. 10, p. 122, where he observes, I same father by another wife, or of the same that the laws called statutes, are in their ne

· statutes, are in their mother by another husband, is prohibited, language, such as depend only on the royal v. 9. I am inclined to think, therefore, that authority.

the word nib9, in this place signifies

“ brought up,” or “fostered,” rather than Ver. 5.

begotten. The law prohibits the marriage of

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sessiv husband, if she was brought up in the

- father's family, as a child of his own. : 710

Ver. 17. και φυλάξεσθε πάντα τα προστάγματά μου, και πάντα τα κρίματά μου, και ποιήσετε αυτά.

:8177 ? & ποιήσας αυτά άνθρωπος ζήσεται εν αυτοίς.

ασέβημά έστι. εγώ κύριος ο Θεός υμών.

Au. Ver.-It is wickedness. Au Ver _5 ye shall therefore been more Bp. Patrick.The Hebrew word er imstatutes, and my induments: which if a ports more than wickeulness. The LXX man do, he shall live in them: I am the translate it doesnua, “impiety;" the Vulgar LORD.

Latin, incest; others, wefarious wickedness, My statuies, &c.

which is the word in the civil law for those Ged.-- all (LXX, and one MS.7 my marriages

| marriages that are contrary to nature. Such statutes and all [LXX, and one MS.] my

were these in some measure, though not in decrees; by observing which a man shall the highest degree. live. 1. the Lord, am vour God LXX. Gesen.- pl, f. (from cpi). 1. A plan,

Booth.-Ye shall keep all LXX and one design. 2. Tice, leed of infamy, crime. MS.) my statutes, and all LXX and one' Ps. xxvi. 10; cxix. 150; Prov. X. 23. EsMS.) my judgments; which if a man do, pecially of the vice of unchastity', debauchery. by them he shall live : 1, Jehovah, am your Lev. xviii. 17 : ??T77?, it is a crime, xix. 29; God.

xx. 14, &c. Judg. xx. 6 : 7a 7a po tem, Bp. Patrick.-5 keep my statutes.] Ob- they have committed a crime and an infamous serve the laws before mentioned. For the leell in Israel. word we here translate statutes, is the same

Ver. 18. with that translated ordinances in the fore- giong nen NB Anna-bg ? going verse.

Tie shall live in them.] Not be cut off : but :170 mm??y 7152? live long and happily, in the enjoyment of yuvaika ési adendû aùtiis où lýyn avriall the blessings which Goll promisel in his ζηλον αποκαλύψαι την άσχημοσύνης αυτής επ' Corenant with them.

avtî, Góons aútils.

Au. Ver.-18 Neither shalt thou take a llaw, Deut. xxi. 15, 16, may seem to intimate wife to her sister (or, one wife to another], that God did then, in consideration of the to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside hard-heartedness of the Jewish nation, disthe other in her life-time.

pense with that first and primitive law, Pool - The word sister is here understood, especially if we consider the practice of either, 1. Properly, so some; whence others divers holy men amongst the Jews, not only infer that it is lawful to marry one's wife's before the law, as Abraham and Jacob, but sister after the wife's death. Or, 2. Im- also after it, as Elkanah and David, who properly for any other woman, as not only would never have lived in the violation of a persons, but things, of the same kind are known law, or, if they had, would have oft called sisters and brethren, of which see been blamed for it; whereas on the conplain examples, Exod. xxvi. 3 ; xxxii. 27, trary God mentions it as one of his favours 29; Ezek. i. 9; iii. 13; xvi. 45, 48, 49. So vouchsafed to David, that he gave him his the sense is, thou shalt not take one woman master's wives into his bosom, 2 Sam. xii. 8; to another. And this sense may seem more and affirms that David turned not aside from probable, 1. Because else here were a tauto- anything that he commanded him all the days logy, the marriage of a man with his wife's of his life, save only in the matter of Uriah, sister being sufficiently forbidden, ver. 16, 1 Kings xv. 5. Peradventure therefore it where marriage with his brother's wife is may deserve some consideration, which a forbidden; as also ver. 9, 11, where he learned man in part suggests, that this text forbids the marriage of one's own sister, doth not simply forbid the taking of one and consequently the marriage of one's wife to another, but the doing of it in such wife's sister, it being manifest and confessed / a manner, or for such an end, that he may that affinity and consanguinity are of the vex, or punish, or revenge himself of the same consideration and obligation in these former ; which probably was a common matters. Nor can this be added for expli- motive amongst that hard-hearted people to cation, for then the comment would be do so, and therefore the forbidding hereof darker than the text, nay, it would destroy might give a great check to the practice of the text; for then what was simply, and polygamy amongst them. In her lifetime: absolutely, and universally forbidden before, this clause is added to signify God's allowis here forbidden doubtfully and restrainedly, ance to marry one wife after another, when and might at least seem to be allowed after she is dead, and thereby to intimate how the the wife's death ; which is rejected by those word sister is to be understood. who own the former interpretation. 2. Be- Bp. Patrick.-18. Neither shalt thou take cause the reason of this prohibition, which a wife to her sister. ] There are a great many is lest he should vex her thereby, is much eminent writers, who, following our marmore proper and effectual against marrying ginal translation [one wife to another), any other woman, than against marrying imagine that here plurality of wives is the wife's sister, so near and dear a relation expressly forbidden by God. And they being most commonly and probably a means think there is an example to justify this to induce them rather to love and please translation in Exod. xxvi. 3, where Moses and serve, than to vex one another in such is commanded to take care the five curtains a relation. And therefore to take her of the tabernacle were coupled together, natural sister to vex her, would seem a one to its sister (as the Hebrew phrase is), course unsuitable to his end or design. i.e., one to another. And so the Karaites 3. Some add another reason, that polygamy, interpret this place; that a man, having a which Christ condemns, Matt. xix. 5, is wife, should not take another while she either forbidden here or nowhere in the law.lived. Which, if it were true, would solve But this may admit of great dispute. And several difficulties: but there are such it is observable, that Christ confutes poly-strong reasons against it, that I cannot think gamy and divorces, not by any of Moses's it to be the meaning. For, as more wives laws (which probably he would not have than one were indulged before the law, so omitted, if they had been to his purpose), they were after. Aud Moses himself supbut by the first institution of marriage, Gen. poses as much, when he provides a man ii. 23; whence also Malachi seems to fetch should not prefer a child he had by a his argument, chap. ii. 14, 15. And that beloved wife, before one by her whom he hated, if he was the eldest son. Which Moses forbade them to make one sister their plainly intimates an allowance in his law, of wife, and the other their concubine ; which more wives than one. And so we find could not but beget the greatest discords expressly their kings might have, though between them. not a multitude (Deut. xvii. 17). And their In her life time.] From hence some infer, best king, who read God's law day and that a man was permitted to marry the night, and could not but understand it, took sister of his former wife, when she was many wives, without any reproof: nay, God dead. So the Talmudists; but the Karaites gave him more than he had before, by thought it absolutely unlawful, as Mr. Selden delivering his master's wives to him (2 Sam. observes (lib. i., De Uxore Heb., cap. 4). xii. 8). And, besides all this, Moses, For it is directly against the scope of all speaking all along in this chapter of con- these laws, which prohibit men to marry at sanguinity, it is reasonable (as Schindlerus all with such persons as are here mentioned, observes) to conclude he doth so here: not either in their wives' life time, or after. of one woman to another; but of one sister And there being a prohibition (ver. 16) to to another. There being also the like reason marry a brother's wife, it is unreasonable to to understand the word sister properly in think Moses gave them leave to marry their this place, as the words daughter and mother wife's sister. These words, therefore, in in others (ver. 17, and xx. 14), where he her life time, are to be referred, not to the forbids a man to take a “woman and her first words, “ neither shalt thou take her," daughter,” or a “woman and her mother,'' but to the next, “to vex her,” as long as as Theodoric Hackspan judiciously notes, she lives. Chaskuni refers it to both the Disput. i., De Locutionibus Sacris, n. 29 sisters, according to the Targum, and makes (see Selden, lib. v., De Jure Nat. et Gent., this the sense; “lest they should both be cap. vi., and Buxtorf. De Sponsal., pp. 28, afflicted widows as long as they live :" for 29). offspring [Booth., suffer any of thy offspring | prohibited under a severe penalty, of being to be devoted] to Molech, and so profane put to death for that crime: whereas there the name of thy God: I, the Lord (Heb., is no penalty annexed here to their making Booth., Jehovah], forbid it.

nobody would marry either of them, being The meaning therefore is, that though two defiled by such an incestuous conjunction, wives at a time, or more, were permitted in for which God cut off their husband. those days, no man should take two sisters In this the ancient Christians were so (as Jacob had formerly done) begotten of strict, that if a man, after his wife died, the same father, or born of the same mother, married her sister, he was, by the tenth whether legitimately or illegitimately, as the canon of the council of Eliberis, to be kept forenamed R. Levi expresses it (Præcept. from the communion five years. ccvi.). Which, though it may seem to be Rosen.-Urorem ad sororem ejus ne ducas, prohibited before, by consequence and ana. duas sorores ne ducas in natrimonium, scil. logy (because the marriage of a brother's :7972, in vita ejus, i.e., uxore tua vivente. wife is forbidden, ver. 16), yet it is bere Non igitur prohibet Moses matrimonium directly prohibited, as other marriages are ; cum sorore uxoris mortuæ. 7, Ad inwhich were implicitly forbidden before. For, festandum, s. infestudo, quod Onkelos bene ver. 7, the marriage of a son with his sic reddidit: ad dolorem ei creandum, ita ut mother is forbidden: and ver. 10 the mar- oriatur æmulatio sive lis inter eas, ut in riage of a father with his daughter.

matrimonio Jacobi. Cf. 1973, amula ejus, To vex her. There were wont to be great 1 Sam. i. 6. emulations, and jealousies, and contentions, between wives (some of them being more

Ver. 21.

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them pass through the fire. Which I take Dr. A. Clarke. -Pass through the fire to therefore to have been a less crime than the Molech.] As the word 75s, molech or other ; though an idolatrous rite, practised melech signifies king or governor, it is very by those who abhorred the cruelty of offering likely that this idol represented the sun ; the very life of their dear children to Moloch. and more particularly as the fire appears to Instead of which, this rite was devised, of have been so much employed in his worship. making them pass through the fire (for There are several opinions concerning the though the word fire be not here in the meaning of passing through the fire to Hebrew text, yet it is understood by all, Molech. 1. Some think that the semen and expressed Deut. xviii. 10) by way of humanum was offered on the fire to this purification, and lustration, as they called idol. 2. Others think that the children it; and by this means to dedicate them to were actually made a burnt-offering to him. the worship and service of Moloch. And 3. But others suppose the children were not therefore, being a rite of initiation, whereby burnt, but only passed through the fire, or parents consecrated their sons and daughbetween two fires, by way of consecration to ters to their deities; we never find it menhim. That some were actually burnt alive tioned in Scripture, but only concerning to this idol, several scriptures, according to children (not concerning men and women), the opinion of commentators, seem strongly whom the Israelites are forbidden to dedito intimate; see among others, Ps. cvi. 38 ; cate in this manner; which was, in truth, to Jer. vii. 31; and Ezek. xxiii. 37–39. That alienate them from the Lord God of Israel. others were only consecrated to his service Now, that this was practised among the by passing between two fires the rabbins ancient pagans as a rite of initiation, appears strongly assert; and if Ahaz had but one particularly in the mysteries of Mithra (see son, Hezekiah (though it is probable he had Suidas upon that word); and continued others, see 2 Chron. xxviii. 3), he is said to long among the Persians, if we may believe have passed through the fire lo Molech, Benjamin Tudelensis, in his Itinerarium, p. 2 Kings xvi. 3, yet he succeeded his father 214 (see G. Schickardi Tarich, p. 126, &c.). in the kingdom, chap. xviii. 1, therefore this And this very phrase, make to pass unto (for could only be a consecration, his idolatrous the word fire is not here mentioned), sigfather intending thereby to initiate him nifies as much as ad partes ejus transire, early into the service of this demon. "to be addicted to anyone;" like that

Bp. Patrick.Pass through the fire to phrase topogépxeodai dew, “to come unto Molech.] It is certain that Moloch was par- God” (Heb. xi. 6). And so this llebrew ticularly worshipped by the children of phrase is used, Exod. xiii. 12, and may Ammon (at least in future ages, 1 Kings very well be thus understood here, for dexi. 7), but seems to have been the name of voting, or making over their children unto many of the heathen gods, and the same Moloch. For the heathen thought their with Baal: both of them signifying do- children unclean, and obnoxious to the minion. This appears by comparing Jer. anger of their gods, and consequently in xix. 5 with xxxii. 35. But more especially danger to be taken away from them, if they it signifies the sun, the prince of the hea- were not thus expiated, as Maimonides tells venly bodies (see Vossius De Orig, et Progr. us (More Nevoch., par. iii., cap. 37). And, Idolol., lib. ii., cap. 5), as the queen of on the contrary, they fancied (as R. Levi heaven was the moon (Jer. vii. 18). Now Barzelonita observes, Prüfcept. ccviii.), that it is evident, by several passages in Scrip- if only one of their children were thus conture, that the ancient pagans (whom the secrated to Moloch, all the rest were blessed, Israelites were prone to imitate) not only and should be prosperous. For he very made their children pass through the fire, nicely takes notice that the Israelites are but also offered them in sacrifice unto forbidden to make any of their sved to pass Moloch. The former I take to be for- through the fire: it not being the manner, bidden in this law; the latter in xx. 3, he saith, to make them all pass. But the where giving their children to Moloch is idolatrous priests (to make the people more

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